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040ez Publication 530 - Main Content Table of Contents What You Can and Cannot DeductHardest Hit Fund and Emergency Homeowners' Loan Programs Real Estate Taxes Sales Taxes Home Mortgage Interest Mortgage Insurance Premiums Mortgage Interest CreditFiguring the Credit BasisFiguring Your Basis Adjusted Basis Keeping Records How To Get Tax HelpLow Income Taxpayer Clinics What You Can and Cannot Deduct To deduct expenses of owning a home, you must file Form 1040, U. 040ez S. 040ez Individual Income Tax Return, and itemize your deductions on Schedule A (Form 1040). 040ez If you itemize, you cannot take the standard deduction. 040ez This section explains what expenses you can deduct as a homeowner. 040ez It also points out expenses that you cannot deduct. 040ez There are four primary discussions: real estate taxes, sales taxes, home mortgage interest, and mortgage insurance premiums. 040ez Generally, your real estate taxes, home mortgage interest, and mortgage insurance premiums are included in your house payment. 040ez Your house payment. 040ez   If you took out a mortgage (loan) to finance the purchase of your home, you probably have to make monthly house payments. 040ez Your house payment may include several costs of owning a home. 040ez The only costs you can deduct are real estate taxes actually paid to the taxing authority, interest that qualifies as home mortgage interest, and mortgage insurance premiums. 040ez These are discussed in more detail later. 040ez   Some nondeductible expenses that may be included in your house payment include: Fire or homeowner's insurance premiums, and The amount applied to reduce the principal of the mortgage. 040ez Minister's or military housing allowance. 040ez   If you are a minister or a member of the uniformed services and receive a housing allowance that is not taxable, you still can deduct your real estate taxes and your home mortgage interest. 040ez You do not have to reduce your deductions by your nontaxable allowance. 040ez For more information see Publication 517, Social Security and Other Information for Members of the Clergy and Religious Workers, and Publication 3, Armed Forces' Tax Guide. 040ez Nondeductible payments. 040ez   You cannot deduct any of the following items. 040ez Insurance (other than mortgage insurance premiums), including fire and comprehensive coverage, and title insurance. 040ez Wages you pay for domestic help. 040ez Depreciation. 040ez The cost of utilities, such as gas, electricity, or water. 040ez Most settlement costs. 040ez See Settlement or closing costs under Cost as Basis, later, for more information. 040ez Forfeited deposits, down payments, or earnest money. 040ez Hardest Hit Fund and Emergency Homeowners' Loan Programs You can use a special method to compute your deduction for mortgage interest and real estate taxes on your main home if you meet the following two conditions. 040ez You received assistance under: A State Housing Finance Agency (State HFA) Hardest Hit Fund program in which program payments could be used to pay mortgage interest, or An Emergency Homeowners' Loan Program administered by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) or a state. 040ez You meet the rules to deduct all of the mortgage interest on your loan and all of the real estate taxes on your main home. 040ez If you meet these tests, then you can deduct all of the payments you actually made during the year to your mortgage servicer, the State HFA, or HUD on the home mortgage (including the amount shown on box 3 of Form 1098-MA, Mortgage Assistance Payments), but not more than the sum of the amounts shown on Form 1098, Mortgage Interest Statement, in box 1 (mortgage interest received), box 4 (mortgage insurance premiums) and box 5 (real property taxes). 040ez However, you are not required to use this special method to compute your deduction for mortgage interest and real estate taxes on your main home. 040ez Real Estate Taxes Most state and local governments charge an annual tax on the value of real property. 040ez This is called a real estate tax. 040ez You can deduct the tax if it is assessed uniformly at a like rate on all real property throughout the community. 040ez The proceeds must be for general community or governmental purposes and not be a payment for a special privilege granted or service rendered to you. 040ez Deductible Real Estate Taxes You can deduct real estate taxes imposed on you. 040ez You must have paid them either at settlement or closing, or to a taxing authority (either directly or through an escrow account) during the year. 040ez If you own a cooperative apartment, see Special Rules for Cooperatives , later. 040ez Where to deduct real estate taxes. 040ez   Enter the amount of your deductible real estate taxes on Schedule A (Form 1040), line 6. 040ez Real estate taxes paid at settlement or closing. 040ez   Real estate taxes are generally divided so that you and the seller each pay taxes for the part of the property tax year you owned the home. 040ez Your share of these taxes is fully deductible if you itemize your deductions. 040ez Division of real estate taxes. 040ez   For federal income tax purposes, the seller is treated as paying the property taxes up to, but not including, the date of sale. 040ez You (the buyer) are treated as paying the taxes beginning with the date of sale. 040ez This applies regardless of the lien dates under local law. 040ez Generally, this information is included on the settlement statement you get at closing. 040ez   You and the seller each are considered to have paid your own share of the taxes, even if one or the other paid the entire amount. 040ez You each can deduct your own share, if you itemize deductions, for the year the property is sold. 040ez Example. 040ez You bought your home on September 1. 040ez The property tax year (the period to which the tax relates) in your area is the calendar year. 040ez The tax for the year was $730 and was due and paid by the seller on August 15. 040ez You owned your new home during the property tax year for 122 days (September 1 to December 31, including your date of purchase). 040ez You figure your deduction for real estate taxes on your home as follows. 040ez 1. 040ez Enter the total real estate taxes for the real property tax year $730 2. 040ez Enter the number of days in the property tax year that you owned the property 122 3. 040ez Divide line 2 by 365 . 040ez 3342 4. 040ez Multiply line 1 by line 3. 040ez This is your deduction. 040ez Enter it on Schedule A (Form 1040), line 6 $244   You can deduct $244 on your return for the year if you itemize your deductions. 040ez You are considered to have paid this amount and can deduct it on your return even if, under the contract, you did not have to reimburse the seller. 040ez Delinquent taxes. 040ez   Delinquent taxes are unpaid taxes that were imposed on the seller for an earlier tax year. 040ez If you agree to pay delinquent taxes when you buy your home, you cannot deduct them. 040ez You treat them as part of the cost of your home. 040ez See Real estate taxes , later, under Basis. 040ez Escrow accounts. 040ez   Many monthly house payments include an amount placed in escrow (put in the care of a third party) for real estate taxes. 040ez You may not be able to deduct the total you pay into the escrow account. 040ez You can deduct only the real estate taxes that the lender actually paid from escrow to the taxing authority. 040ez Your real estate tax bill will show this amount. 040ez Refund or rebate of real estate taxes. 040ez   If you receive a refund or rebate of real estate taxes this year for amounts you paid this year, you must reduce your real estate tax deduction by the amount refunded to you. 040ez If the refund or rebate was for real estate taxes paid for a prior year, you may have to include some or all of the refund in your income. 040ez For more information, see Recoveries in Publication 525, Taxable and Nontaxable Income. 040ez Items You Cannot Deduct as Real Estate Taxes The following items are not deductible as real estate taxes. 040ez Charges for services. 040ez   An itemized charge for services to specific property or people is not a tax, even if the charge is paid to the taxing authority. 040ez You cannot deduct the charge as a real estate tax if it is: A unit fee for the delivery of a service (such as a $5 fee charged for every 1,000 gallons of water you use), A periodic charge for a residential service (such as a $20 per month or $240 annual fee charged for trash collection), or A flat fee charged for a single service provided by your local government (such as a $30 charge for mowing your lawn because it had grown higher than permitted under a local ordinance). 040ez    You must look at your real estate tax bill to decide if any nondeductible itemized charges, such as those listed above, are included in the bill. 040ez If your taxing authority (or lender) does not furnish you a copy of your real estate tax bill, ask for it. 040ez Contact the taxing authority if you need additional information about a specific charge on your real estate tax bill. 040ez Assessments for local benefits. 040ez   You cannot deduct amounts you pay for local benefits that tend to increase the value of your property. 040ez Local benefits include the construction of streets, sidewalks, or water and sewer systems. 040ez You must add these amounts to the basis of your property. 040ez   You can, however, deduct assessments (or taxes) for local benefits if they are for maintenance, repair, or interest charges related to those benefits. 040ez An example is a charge to repair an existing sidewalk and any interest included in that charge. 040ez   If only a part of the assessment is for maintenance, repair, or interest charges, you must be able to show the amount of that part to claim the deduction. 040ez If you cannot show what part of the assessment is for maintenance, repair, or interest charges, you cannot deduct any of it. 040ez   An assessment for a local benefit may be listed as an item in your real estate tax bill. 040ez If so, use the rules in this section to find how much of it, if any, you can deduct. 040ez Transfer taxes (or stamp taxes). 040ez   You cannot deduct transfer taxes and similar taxes and charges on the sale of a personal home. 040ez If you are the buyer and you pay them, include them in the cost basis of the property. 040ez If you are the seller and you pay them, they are expenses of the sale and reduce the amount realized on the sale. 040ez Homeowners association assessments. 040ez   You cannot deduct these assessments because the homeowners association, rather than a state or local government, imposes them. 040ez Special Rules for Cooperatives If you own a cooperative apartment, some special rules apply to you, though you generally receive the same tax treatment as other homeowners. 040ez As an owner of a cooperative apartment, you own shares of stock in a corporation that owns or leases housing facilities. 040ez You can deduct your share of the corporation's deductible real estate taxes if the cooperative housing corporation meets the following conditions: The corporation has only one class of stock outstanding, Each stockholder, solely because of ownership of the stock, can live in a house, apartment, or house trailer owned or leased by the corporation, No stockholder can receive any distribution out of capital, except on a partial or complete liquidation of the corporation, and At least one of the following: At least 80% of the corporation's gross income for the tax year was paid by the tenant-stockholders. 040ez For this purpose, gross income means all income received during the entire tax year, including any received before the corporation changed to cooperative ownership. 040ez At least 80% of the total square footage of the corporation's property must be available for use by the tenant-stockholders during the entire tax year. 040ez At least 90% of the expenditures paid or incurred by the corporation were used for the acquisition, construction, management, maintenance, or care of the property for the benefit of the tenant-shareholders during the entire tax year. 040ez Tenant-stockholders. 040ez   A tenant-stockholder can be any entity (such as a corporation, trust, estate, partnership, or association) as well as an individual. 040ez The tenant-stockholder does not have to live in any of the cooperative's dwelling units. 040ez The units that the tenant-stockholder has the right to occupy can be rented to others. 040ez Deductible taxes. 040ez   You figure your share of real estate taxes in the following way. 040ez Divide the number of your shares of stock by the total number of shares outstanding, including any shares held by the corporation. 040ez Multiply the corporation's deductible real estate taxes by the number you figured in (1). 040ez This is your share of the real estate taxes. 040ez   Generally, the corporation will tell you your share of its real estate tax. 040ez This is the amount you can deduct if it reasonably reflects the cost of real estate taxes for your dwelling unit. 040ez Refund of real estate taxes. 040ez   If the corporation receives a refund of real estate taxes it paid in an earlier year, it must reduce the amount of real estate taxes paid this year when it allocates the tax expense to you. 040ez Your deduction for real estate taxes the corporation paid this year is reduced by your share of the refund the corporation received. 040ez Sales Taxes Generally, you can elect to deduct state and local general sales taxes instead of state and local income taxes as an itemized deduction on Schedule A (Form 1040). 040ez Deductible sales taxes may include sales taxes paid on your home (including mobile and prefabricated), or home building materials if the tax rate was the same as the general sales tax rate. 040ez For information on figuring your deduction, see the Instructions for Schedule A (Form 1040). 040ez If you elect to deduct the sales taxes paid on your home, or home building materials, you cannot include them as part of your cost basis in the home. 040ez Home Mortgage Interest This section of the publication gives you basic information about home mortgage interest, including information on interest paid at settlement, points, and Form 1098, Mortgage Interest Statement. 040ez Most home buyers take out a mortgage (loan) to buy their home. 040ez They then make monthly payments to either the mortgage holder or someone collecting the payments for the mortgage holder. 040ez Usually, you can deduct the entire part of your payment that is for mortgage interest, if you itemize your deductions on Schedule A (Form 1040). 040ez However, your deduction may be limited if: Your total mortgage balance is more than $1 million ($500,000 if married filing separately), or You took out a mortgage for reasons other than to buy, build, or improve your home. 040ez If either of these situations applies to you, see Publication 936 for more information. 040ez Also see Publication 936 if you later refinance your mortgage or buy a second home. 040ez Refund of home mortgage interest. 040ez   If you receive a refund of home mortgage interest that you deducted in an earlier year and that reduced your tax, you generally must include the refund in income in the year you receive it. 040ez For more information, see Recoveries in Publication 525. 040ez The amount of the refund will usually be shown on the mortgage interest statement you receive from your mortgage lender. 040ez See Mortgage Interest Statement , later. 040ez Deductible Mortgage Interest To be deductible, the interest you pay must be on a loan secured by your main home or a second home. 040ez The loan can be a first or second mortgage, a home improvement loan, or a home equity loan. 040ez Prepaid interest. 040ez   If you pay interest in advance for a period that goes beyond the end of the tax year, you must spread this interest over the tax years to which it applies. 040ez Generally, you can deduct in each year only the interest that qualifies as home mortgage interest for that year. 040ez An exception (discussed later) applies to points. 040ez Late payment charge on mortgage payment. 040ez   You can deduct as home mortgage interest a late payment charge if it was not for a specific service in connection with your mortgage loan. 040ez Mortgage prepayment penalty. 040ez   If you pay off your home mortgage early, you may have to pay a penalty. 040ez You can deduct that penalty as home mortgage interest provided the penalty is not for a specific service performed or cost incurred in connection with your mortgage loan. 040ez Ground rent. 040ez   In some states (such as Maryland), you may buy your home subject to a ground rent. 040ez A ground rent is an obligation you assume to pay a fixed amount per year on the property. 040ez Under this arrangement, you are leasing (rather than buying) the land on which your home is located. 040ez Redeemable ground rents. 040ez   If you make annual or periodic rental payments on a redeemable ground rent, you can deduct the payments as mortgage interest. 040ez The ground rent is a redeemable ground rent only if all of the following are true. 040ez Your lease, including renewal periods, is for more than 15 years. 040ez You can freely assign the lease. 040ez You have a present or future right (under state or local law) to end the lease and buy the lessor's entire interest in the land by paying a specified amount. 040ez The lessor's interest in the land is primarily a security interest to protect the rental payments to which he or she is entitled. 040ez   Payments made to end the lease and buy the lessor's entire interest in the land are not redeemable ground rents. 040ez You cannot deduct them. 040ez Nonredeemable ground rents. 040ez   Payments on a nonredeemable ground rent are not mortgage interest. 040ez You can deduct them as rent only if they are a business expense or if they are for rental property. 040ez Cooperative apartment. 040ez   You can usually treat the interest on a loan you took out to buy stock in a cooperative housing corporation as home mortgage interest if you own a cooperative apartment, and the cooperative housing corporation meets the conditions described earlier under Special Rules for Cooperatives . 040ez In addition, you can treat as home mortgage interest your share of the corporation's deductible mortgage interest. 040ez Figure your share of mortgage interest the same way that is shown for figuring your share of real estate taxes in the Example under Division of real estate taxes, earlier. 040ez For more information on cooperatives, see Special Rule for Tenant-Stockholders in Cooperative Housing Corporations in Publication 936. 040ez Refund of cooperative's mortgage interest. 040ez   You must reduce your mortgage interest deduction by your share of any cash portion of a patronage dividend that the cooperative receives. 040ez The patronage dividend is a partial refund to the cooperative housing corporation of mortgage interest it paid in a prior year. 040ez   If you receive a Form 1098 from the cooperative housing corporation, the form should show only the amount you can deduct. 040ez Mortgage Interest Paid at Settlement One item that normally appears on a settlement or closing statement is home mortgage interest. 040ez You can deduct the interest that you pay at settlement if you itemize your deductions on Schedule A (Form 1040). 040ez This amount should be included in the mortgage interest statement provided by your lender. 040ez See the discussion under Mortgage Interest Statement , later. 040ez Also, if you pay interest in advance, see Prepaid interest , earlier, and Points , next. 040ez Points The term “points” is used to describe certain charges paid, or treated as paid, by a borrower to obtain a home mortgage. 040ez Points also may be called loan origination fees, maximum loan charges, loan discount, or discount points. 040ez A borrower is treated as paying any points that a home seller pays for the borrower's mortgage. 040ez See Points paid by the seller , later. 040ez General rule. 040ez   You cannot deduct the full amount of points in the year paid. 040ez They are prepaid interest, so you generally must deduct them over the life (term) of the mortgage. 040ez Exception. 040ez   You can deduct the full amount of points in the year paid if you meet all the following tests. 040ez Your loan is secured by your main home. 040ez (Generally, your main home is the one you live in most of the time. 040ez ) Paying points is an established business practice in the area where the loan was made. 040ez The points paid were not more than the points generally charged in that area. 040ez You use the cash method of accounting. 040ez This means you report income in the year you receive it and deduct expenses in the year you pay them. 040ez Most individuals use this method. 040ez The points were not paid in place of amounts that ordinarily are stated separately on the settlement statement, such as appraisal fees, inspection fees, title fees, attorney fees, and property taxes. 040ez The funds you provided at or before closing, plus any points the seller paid, were at least as much as the points charged. 040ez The funds you provided are not required to have been applied to the points. 040ez They can include a down payment, an escrow deposit, earnest money, and other funds you paid at or before closing for any purpose. 040ez You cannot have borrowed these funds. 040ez You use your loan to buy or build your main home. 040ez The points were computed as a percentage of the principal amount of the mortgage. 040ez The amount is clearly shown on the settlement statement (such as the Uniform Settlement Statement, Form HUD-1) as points charged for the mortgage. 040ez The points may be shown as paid from either your funds or the seller's. 040ez Note. 040ez If you meet all of the tests listed above and you itemize your deductions in the year you get the loan, you can either deduct the full amount of points in the year paid or deduct them over the life of the loan, beginning in the year you get the loan. 040ez If you do not itemize your deductions in the year you get the loan, you can spread the points over the life of the loan and deduct the appropriate amount in each future year, if any, when you do itemize your deductions. 040ez Home improvement loan. 040ez   You can also fully deduct in the year paid points paid on a loan to improve your main home, if you meet the first six tests listed earlier. 040ez Refinanced loan. 040ez   If you use part of the refinanced mortgage proceeds to improve your main home and you meet the first six tests listed earlier, you can fully deduct the part of the points related to the improvement in the year you paid them with your own funds. 040ez You can deduct the rest of the points over the life of the loan. 040ez Points not fully deductible in year paid. 040ez    If you do not qualify under the exception to deduct the full amount of points in the year paid (or choose not to do so), see Points in Publication 936 for the rules on when and how much you can deduct. 040ez Figure A. 040ez   You can use Figure A, next, as a quick guide to see whether your points are fully deductible in the year paid. 040ez    Please click here for the text description of the image. 040ez Figure A. 040ez Are my points fully deductible this year? Amounts charged for services. 040ez   Amounts charged by the lender for specific services connected to the loan are not interest. 040ez Examples of these charges are: Appraisal fees, Notary fees, and Preparation costs for the mortgage note or deed of trust. 040ez You cannot deduct these amounts as points either in the year paid or over the life of the mortgage. 040ez For information about the tax treatment of these amounts and other settlement fees and closing costs, see Basis , later. 040ez Points paid by the seller. 040ez   The term “points” includes loan placement fees that the seller pays to the lender to arrange financing for the buyer. 040ez Treatment by seller. 040ez   The seller cannot deduct these fees as interest. 040ez However, they are a selling expense that reduces the seller's amount realized. 040ez See Publication 523 for more information. 040ez Treatment by buyer. 040ez   The buyer treats seller-paid points as if he or she had paid them. 040ez If all the tests listed earlier under Exception are met, the buyer can deduct the points in the year paid. 040ez If any of those tests are not met, the buyer must deduct the points over the life of the loan. 040ez   The buyer must also reduce the basis of the home by the amount of the seller-paid points. 040ez For more information about the basis of your home, see Basis , later. 040ez Funds provided are less than points. 040ez   If you meet all the tests listed earlier under Exception except that the funds you provided were less than the points charged to you (test 6), you can deduct the points in the year paid up to the amount of funds you provided. 040ez In addition, you can deduct any points paid by the seller. 040ez Example 1. 040ez When you took out a $100,000 mortgage loan to buy your home in December, you were charged one point ($1,000). 040ez You meet all the tests for deducting points in the year paid (see Exception , earlier), except the only funds you provided were a $750 down payment. 040ez Of the $1,000 you were charged for points, you can deduct $750 in the year paid. 040ez You spread the remaining $250 over the life of the mortgage. 040ez Example 2. 040ez The facts are the same as in Example 1 , except that the person who sold you your home also paid one point ($1,000) to help you get your mortgage. 040ez In the year paid, you can deduct $1,750 ($750 of the amount you were charged plus the $1,000 paid by the seller). 040ez You spread the remaining $250 over the life of the mortgage. 040ez You must reduce the basis of your home by the $1,000 paid by the seller. 040ez Excess points. 040ez   If you meet all the tests under Exception , earlier, except that the points paid were more than are generally charged in your area (test 3), you can deduct in the year paid only the points that are generally charged. 040ez You must spread any additional points over the life of the mortgage. 040ez Mortgage ending early. 040ez   If you spread your deduction for points over the life of the mortgage, you can deduct any remaining balance in the year the mortgage ends. 040ez A mortgage may end early due to a prepayment, refinancing, foreclosure, or similar event. 040ez Example. 040ez Dan paid $3,000 in points in 2006 that he had to spread out over the 15-year life of the mortgage. 040ez He had deducted $1,400 of these points through 2012. 040ez Dan prepaid his mortgage in full in 2013. 040ez He can deduct the remaining $1,600 of points in 2013. 040ez Exception. 040ez   If you refinance the mortgage with the same lender, you cannot deduct any remaining points for the year. 040ez Instead, deduct them over the term of the new loan. 040ez Form 1098. 040ez   The mortgage interest statement you receive should show not only the total interest paid during the year, but also your deductible points paid during the year. 040ez See Mortgage Interest Statement , later. 040ez Where To Deduct Home Mortgage Interest Enter on Schedule A (Form 1040), line 10, the home mortgage interest and points reported to you on Form 1098 (discussed next). 040ez If you did not receive a Form 1098, enter your deductible interest on line 11, and any deductible points on line 12. 040ez See Table 1 below for a summary of where to deduct home mortgage interest and real estate taxes. 040ez If you paid home mortgage interest to the person from whom you bought your home, show that person's name, address, and social security number (SSN) or employer identification number (EIN) on the dotted lines next to line 11. 040ez The seller must give you this number and you must give the seller your SSN. 040ez Form W-9, Request for Taxpayer Identification Number and Certification, can be used for this purpose. 040ez Failure to meet either of these requirements may result in a $50 penalty for each failure. 040ez Table 1. 040ez Where To Deduct Interest and Taxes Paid on Your Home See the text for information on what expenses are eligible. 040ez IF you are eligible to deduct . 040ez . 040ez . 040ez THEN report the amount  on Schedule A (Form 1040) . 040ez . 040ez . 040ez real estate taxes line 6. 040ez home mortgage interest and points reported on Form 1098 line 10. 040ez home mortgage interest not reported on  Form 1098 line 11. 040ez points not reported on Form 1098 line 12. 040ez qualified mortgage insurance premiums line 13. 040ez Mortgage Interest Statement If you paid $600 or more of mortgage interest (including certain points and mortgage insurance premiums) during the year on any one mortgage to a mortgage holder in the course of that holder's trade or business, you should receive a Form 1098 or similar statement from the mortgage holder. 040ez The statement will show the total interest paid on your mortgage during the year. 040ez If you bought a main home during the year, it also will show the deductible points you paid and any points you can deduct that were paid by the person who sold you your home. 040ez See Points , earlier. 040ez The interest you paid at settlement should be included on the statement. 040ez If it is not, add the interest from the settlement sheet that qualifies as home mortgage interest to the total shown on Form 1098 or similar statement. 040ez Put the total on Schedule A (Form 1040), line 10, and attach a statement to your return explaining the difference. 040ez Write “See attached” to the right of line 10. 040ez A mortgage holder can be a financial institution, a governmental unit, or a cooperative housing corporation. 040ez If a statement comes from a cooperative housing corporation, it generally will show your share of interest. 040ez Your mortgage interest statement for 2013 should be provided or sent to you by January 31, 2014. 040ez If it is mailed, you should allow adequate time to receive it before contacting the mortgage holder. 040ez A copy of this form will be sent to the IRS also. 040ez Example. 040ez You bought a new home on May 3. 040ez You paid no points on the purchase. 040ez During the year, you made mortgage payments which included $4,480 deductible interest on your new home. 040ez The settlement sheet for the purchase of the home included interest of $620 for 29 days in May. 040ez The mortgage statement you receive from the lender includes total interest of $5,100 ($4,480 + $620). 040ez You can deduct the $5,100 if you itemize your deductions. 040ez Refund of overpaid interest. 040ez   If you receive a refund of mortgage interest you overpaid in a prior year, you generally will receive a Form 1098 showing the refund in box 3. 040ez Generally, you must include the refund in income in the year you receive it. 040ez See Refund of home mortgage interest , earlier, under Home Mortgage Interest. 040ez More than one borrower. 040ez   If you and at least one other person (other than your spouse if you file a joint return) were liable for and paid interest on a mortgage that was for your home, and the other person received a Form 1098 showing the interest that was paid during the year, attach a statement to your return explaining this. 040ez Show how much of the interest each of you paid, and give the name and address of the person who received the form. 040ez Deduct your share of the interest on Schedule A (Form 1040), line 11, and write “See attached” to the right of that line. 040ez Mortgage Insurance Premiums You may be able to take an itemized deduction on Schedule A (Form 1040), line 13, for premiums you pay or accrue during 2013 for qualified mortgage insurance in connection with home acquisition debt on your qualified home. 040ez Mortgage insurance premiums you paid or accrued on any mortgage insurance contract issued before January 1, 2007, are not deductible as an itemized deduction. 040ez Qualified Mortgage Insurance Qualified mortgage insurance is mortgage insurance provided by the Veterans Administration, the Federal Housing Administration, or the Rural Housing Administration, and private mortgage insurance (as defined in section 2 of the Homeowners Protection Act of 1998 as in effect on December 20, 2006). 040ez Prepaid mortgage insurance premiums. 040ez   If you paid premiums that are allocable to periods after 2013, you must allocate them over the shorter of: The stated term of the mortgage, or 84 months, beginning with the month the insurance was obtained. 040ez The premiums are treated as paid in the year to which they were allocated. 040ez If the mortgage is satisfied before its term, no deduction is allowed for the unamortized balance. 040ez See Publication 936 for details. 040ez Exception for certain mortgage insurance. 040ez   The allocation rules, explained above, do not apply to qualified mortgage insurance provided by the Department of Veterans Affairs or Rural Housing Service. 040ez Home Acquisition Debt Home acquisition debt is a mortgage you took out after October 13, 1987, to buy, build, or substantially improve a qualified home. 040ez It also must be secured by that home. 040ez If the amount of your mortgage is more than the cost of the home plus the cost of any substantial improvements, only the debt that is not more than the cost of the home plus improvements qualifies as home acquisition debt. 040ez Home acquisition debt limit. 040ez   The total amount you can treat as home acquisition debt at any time on your home cannot be more than $1 million ($500,000 if married filing separately). 040ez Discharges of qualified principal residence indebtedness. 040ez   You can exclude from gross income any discharges of qualified principal residence indebtedness made after 2006 and before 2014. 040ez You must reduce the basis of your principal residence (but not below zero) by the amount you exclude. 040ez Principal residence. 040ez   Your principal residence is the home where you ordinarily live most of the time. 040ez You can have only one principal residence at any one time. 040ez Qualified principal residence indebtedness. 040ez   This is a mortgage that you took out to buy, build, or substantially improve your principal residence and that is secured by that residence. 040ez If the amount of your original mortgage is more than the cost of your principal residence plus the cost of substantial improvements, qualified principal residence indebtedness cannot be more than the cost of your principal residence plus improvements. 040ez   Any debt secured by your principal residence that you use to refinance qualified principal residence indebtedness is qualified principal residence indebtedness up to the amount of your old mortgage principal just before the refinancing. 040ez Additional debt incurred to substantially improve your principal residence is also qualified principal residence indebtedness. 040ez Amount you can exclude. 040ez   You can only exclude debt discharged after 2006 and before 2014. 040ez The most you can exclude is $2 million ($1 million if married filing separately). 040ez You cannot exclude any amount that was discharged because of services performed for the lender or on account of any other factor not directly related either to a decline in the value of your residence or to your financial condition. 040ez Ordering rule. 040ez   If only a part of a loan is qualified principal residence indebtedness, you can exclude only the amount of the discharge that is more than the amount of the loan (immediately before the discharge) that is not qualified principal residence indebtedness. 040ez Qualified Home This means your main home or your second home. 040ez A home includes a house, condominium, cooperative, mobile home, house trailer, boat, or similar property that has sleeping, cooking, and toilet facilities. 040ez Main home. 040ez   You can have only one main home at any one time. 040ez This is the home where you ordinarily live most of the time. 040ez Second home and other special situations. 040ez   If you have a second home, use part of your home for other than residential living (such as a home office), rent out part of your home, or are having your home constructed, see Qualified Home in Publication 936. 040ez Limit on Deduction If your adjusted gross income (AGI) on Form 1040, line 38, is more than $100,000 ($50,000 if your filing status is married filing separately), the amount of your mortgage insurance premiums that are deductible is reduced and may be eliminated. 040ez See Line 13 in the instructions for Schedule A (Form 1040) and complete the Mortgage Insurance Premiums Deduction Worksheet to figure the amount you can deduct. 040ez If your AGI is more than $109,000 ($54,500 if married filing separately), you cannot deduct your mortgage insurance premiums. 040ez Form 1098. 040ez   The amount of mortgage insurance premiums you paid during 2013 should be reported in box 4. 040ez See Form 1098, Mortgage Interest Statement in Publication 936. 040ez Mortgage Interest Credit The mortgage interest credit is intended to help lower-income individuals afford home ownership. 040ez If you qualify, you can claim the credit on Form 8396 each year for part of the home mortgage interest you pay. 040ez Who qualifies. 040ez   You may be eligible for the credit if you were issued a qualified Mortgage Credit Certificate (MCC) from your state or local government. 040ez Generally, an MCC is issued only in connection with a new mortgage for the purchase of your main home. 040ez The MCC will show the certificate credit rate you will use to figure your credit. 040ez It also will show the certified indebtedness amount. 040ez Only the interest on that amount qualifies for the credit. 040ez See Figuring the Credit , later. 040ez You must contact the appropriate government agency about getting an MCC before you get a mortgage and buy your home. 040ez Contact your state or local housing finance agency for information about the availability of MCCs in your area. 040ez How to claim the credit. 040ez   To claim the credit, complete Form 8396 and attach it to your Form 1040 or Form 1040NR, U. 040ez S. 040ez Nonresident Alien Income Tax Return. 040ez Include the credit in your total for Form 1040, line 53, or Form 1040NR, line 50; be sure to check box c and write “Form 8396” on that line. 040ez Reducing your home mortgage interest deduction. 040ez   If you itemize your deductions on Schedule A (Form 1040), you must reduce your home mortgage interest deduction by the amount of the mortgage interest credit shown on Form 8396, line 3. 040ez You must do this even if part of that amount is to be carried forward to 2014. 040ez Selling your home. 040ez   If you purchase a home after 1990 using an MCC, and you sell that home within 9 years, you may have to recapture (repay) all or part of the benefit you received from the MCC program. 040ez For additional information, see Recapturing (Paying Back) a Federal Mortgage Subsidy, in Publication 523. 040ez Figuring the Credit Figure your credit on Form 8396. 040ez Mortgage not more than certified indebtedness. 040ez   If your mortgage loan amount is equal to (or smaller than) the certified indebtedness amount shown on your MCC, enter on Form 8396, line 1, all the interest you paid on your mortgage during the year. 040ez Mortgage more than certified indebtedness. 040ez   If your mortgage loan amount is larger than the certified indebtedness amount shown on your MCC, you can figure the credit on only part of the interest you paid. 040ez To find the amount to enter on line 1, multiply the total interest you paid during the year on your mortgage by the following fraction. 040ez Certified indebtedness amount on your MCC Original amount of your mortgage   The fraction will not change as long as you are entitled to take the mortgage interest credit. 040ez Example. 040ez Emily bought a home this year. 040ez Her mortgage loan is $125,000. 040ez The certified indebtedness amount on her MCC is $100,000. 040ez She paid $7,500 interest this year. 040ez Emily figures the interest to enter on Form 8396, line 1, as follows:   $100,000 = 80% (. 040ez 80)       $125,000       $7,500 x . 040ez 80 = $6,000   Emily enters $6,000 on Form 8396, line 1. 040ez In each later year, she will figure her credit using only 80% of the interest she pays for that year. 040ez Limits Two limits may apply to your credit. 040ez A limit based on the credit rate, and A limit based on your tax. 040ez Limit based on credit rate. 040ez   If the certificate credit rate is higher than 20%, the credit you are allowed cannot be more than $2,000. 040ez Limit based on tax. 040ez   After applying the limit based on the credit rate, your credit generally cannot be more than your tax liability. 040ez See the Credit Limit Worksheet in the Form 8396 instructions to calculate the limit based on tax. 040ez Dividing the Credit If two or more persons (other than a married couple filing a joint return) hold an interest in the home to which the MCC relates, the credit must be divided based on the interest held by each person. 040ez Example. 040ez John and his brother, George, were issued an MCC. 040ez They used it to get a mortgage on their main home. 040ez John has a 60% ownership interest in the home, and George has a 40% ownership interest in the home. 040ez John paid $5,400 mortgage interest this year and George paid $3,600. 040ez The MCC shows a credit rate of 25% and a certified indebtedness amount of $130,000. 040ez The loan amount (mortgage) on their home is $120,000. 040ez The credit is limited to $2,000 because the credit rate is more than 20%. 040ez John figures the credit by multiplying the mortgage interest he paid this year ($5,400) by the certificate credit rate (25%) for a total of $1,350. 040ez His credit is limited to $1,200 ($2,000 × 60%). 040ez George figures the credit by multiplying the mortgage interest he paid this year ($3,600) by the certificate credit rate (25%) for a total of $900. 040ez His credit is limited to $800 ($2,000 × 40%). 040ez Carryforward If your allowable credit is reduced because of the limit based on your tax, you can carry forward the unused portion of the credit to the next 3 years or until used, whichever comes first. 040ez Example. 040ez You receive a mortgage credit certificate from State X. 040ez This year, your regular tax liability is $1,100, you owe no alternative minimum tax, and your mortgage interest credit is $1,700. 040ez You claim no other credits. 040ez Your unused mortgage interest credit for this year is $600 ($1,700 − $1,100). 040ez You can carry forward this amount to the next 3 years or until used, whichever comes first. 040ez Credit rate more than 20%. 040ez   If you are subject to the $2,000 limit because your certificate credit rate is more than 20%, you cannot carry forward any amount more than $2,000 (or your share of the $2,000 if you must divide the credit). 040ez Example. 040ez In the earlier example under Dividing the Credit , John and George used the entire $2,000 credit. 040ez The excess   John $1,350 − $1,200 = $150     George $900 − $800 = $100   $150 for John ($1,350 − $1,200) and $100 for George ($900 − $800) cannot be carried forward to future years, despite the respective tax liabilities for John and George. 040ez Refinancing If you refinance your original mortgage loan on which you had been given an MCC, you must get a new MCC to be able to claim the credit on the new loan. 040ez The amount of credit you can claim on the new loan may change. 040ez Table 2 below summarizes how to figure your credit if you refinance your original mortgage loan. 040ez Table 2. 040ez Effect of Refinancing on Your Credit IF you get a new (reissued) MCC and the amount of your new mortgage is . 040ez . 040ez . 040ez THEN the interest you claim on Form 8396, line 1, is* . 040ez . 040ez . 040ez smaller than or equal to the certified indebtedness amount on the new MCC all the interest paid during the year on your new mortgage. 040ez larger than the certified indebtedness amount on the new MCC interest paid during the year on your new mortgage multiplied by the following fraction. 040ez         certified indebtedness  amount on your new MCC       original amount of your  mortgage   *The credit using the new MCC cannot be more than the credit using the old MCC. 040ez  See New MCC cannot increase your credit above. 040ez An issuer may reissue an MCC after you refinance your mortgage. 040ez If you did not get a new MCC, you may want to contact the state or local housing finance agency that issued your original MCC for information about whether you can get a reissued MCC. 040ez Year of refinancing. 040ez   In the year of refinancing, add the applicable amount of interest paid on the old mortgage and the applicable amount of interest paid on the new mortgage, and enter the total on Form 8396, line 1. 040ez   If your new MCC has a credit rate different from the rate on the old MCC, you must attach a statement to Form 8396. 040ez The statement must show the calculation for lines 1, 2, and 3 for the part of the year when the old MCC was in effect. 040ez It must show a separate calculation for the part of the year when the new MCC was in effect. 040ez Combine the amounts from both calculations for line 3, enter the total on line 3 of the form, and write “See attached” on the dotted line next to line 2. 040ez New MCC cannot increase your credit. 040ez   The credit that you claim with your new MCC cannot be more than the credit that you could have claimed with your old MCC. 040ez   In most cases, the agency that issues your new MCC will make sure that it does not increase your credit. 040ez However, if either your old loan or your new loan has a variable (adjustable) interest rate, you will need to check this yourself. 040ez In that case, you will need to know the amount of the credit you could have claimed using the old MCC. 040ez   There are two methods for figuring the credit you could have claimed. 040ez Under one method, you figure the actual credit that would have been allowed. 040ez This means you use the credit rate on the old MCC and the interest you would have paid on the old loan. 040ez   If your old loan was a variable rate mortgage, you can use another method to determine the credit that you could have claimed. 040ez Under this method, you figure the credit using a payment schedule of a hypothetical self-amortizing mortgage with level payments projected to the final maturity date of the old mortgage. 040ez The interest rate of the hypothetical mortgage is the annual percentage rate (APR) of the new mortgage for purposes of the Federal Truth in Lending Act. 040ez The principal of the hypothetical mortgage is the remaining outstanding balance of the certified mortgage indebtedness shown on the old MCC. 040ez    You must choose one method and use it consistently beginning with the first tax year for which you claim the credit based on the new MCC. 040ez    As part of your tax records, you should keep your old MCC and the schedule of payments for your old mortgage. 040ez Basis Basis is your starting point for figuring a gain or loss if you later sell your home, or for figuring depreciation if you later use part of your home for business purposes or for rent. 040ez While you own your home, you may add certain items to your basis. 040ez You may subtract certain other items from your basis. 040ez These items are called adjustments to basis and are explained later under Adjusted Basis . 040ez It is important that you understand these terms when you first acquire your home because you must keep track of your basis and adjusted basis during the period you own your home. 040ez You also must keep records of the events that affect basis or adjusted basis. 040ez See Keeping Records , below. 040ez Figuring Your Basis How you figure your basis depends on how you acquire your home. 040ez If you buy or build your home, your cost is your basis. 040ez If you receive your home as a gift, your basis is usually the same as the adjusted basis of the person who gave you the property. 040ez If you inherit your home from a decedent, different rules apply depending on the date of the decedent's death. 040ez Each of these topics is discussed later. 040ez Property transferred from a spouse. 040ez   If your home is transferred to you from your spouse, or from your former spouse as a result of a divorce, your basis is the same as your spouse's (or former spouse's) adjusted basis just before the transfer. 040ez Publication 504, Divorced or Separated Individuals, fully discusses transfers between spouses. 040ez Cost as Basis The cost of your home, whether you purchased it or constructed it, is the amount you paid for it, including any debt you assumed. 040ez The cost of your home includes most settlement or closing costs you paid when you bought the home. 040ez If you built your home, your cost includes most closing costs paid when you bought the land or settled on your mortgage. 040ez See Settlement or closing costs , later. 040ez If you elect to deduct the sales taxes on the purchase or construction of your home as an itemized deduction on Schedule A (Form 1040), you cannot include the sales taxes as part of your cost basis in the home. 040ez Purchase. 040ez   The basis of a home you bought is the amount you paid for it. 040ez This usually includes your down payment and any debt you assumed. 040ez The basis of a cooperative apartment is the amount you paid for your shares in the corporation that owns or controls the property. 040ez This amount includes any purchase commissions or other costs of acquiring the shares. 040ez Construction. 040ez   If you contracted to have your home built on land that you own, your basis in the home is your basis in the land plus the amount you paid to have the home built. 040ez This includes the cost of labor and materials, the amount you paid the contractor, any architect's fees, building permit charges, utility meter and connection charges, and legal fees that are directly connected with building your home. 040ez If you built all or part of your home yourself, your basis is the total amount it cost you to build it. 040ez You cannot include in basis the value of your own labor or any other labor for which you did not pay. 040ez Real estate taxes. 040ez   Real estate taxes are usually divided so that you and the seller each pay taxes for the part of the property tax year that each owned the home. 040ez See the earlier discussion of Real estate taxes paid at settlement or closing , under Real Estate Taxes, earlier, to figure the real estate taxes you paid or are considered to have paid. 040ez   If you pay any part of the seller's share of the real estate taxes (the taxes up to the date of sale), and the seller did not reimburse you, add those taxes to your basis in the home. 040ez You cannot deduct them as taxes paid. 040ez   If the seller paid any of your share of the real estate taxes (the taxes beginning with the date of sale), you can still deduct those taxes. 040ez Do not include those taxes in your basis. 040ez If you did not reimburse the seller, you must reduce your basis by the amount of those taxes. 040ez Example 1. 040ez You bought your home on September 1. 040ez The property tax year in your area is the calendar year, and the tax is due on August 15. 040ez The real estate taxes on the home you bought were $1,275 for the year and had been paid by the seller on August 15. 040ez You did not reimburse the seller for your share of the real estate taxes from September 1 through December 31. 040ez You must reduce the basis of your home by the $426 [(122 ÷ 365) × $1,275] the seller paid for you. 040ez You can deduct your $426 share of real estate taxes on your return for the year you purchased your home. 040ez Example 2. 040ez You bought your home on May 3, 2013. 040ez The property tax year in your area is the calendar year. 040ez The taxes for the previous year are assessed on January 2 and are due on May 31 and November 30. 040ez Under state law, the taxes become a lien on May 31. 040ez You agreed to pay all taxes due after the date of sale. 040ez The taxes due in 2013 for 2012 were $1,375. 040ez The taxes due in 2014 for 2013 will be $1,425. 040ez You cannot deduct any of the taxes paid in 2013 because they relate to the 2012 property tax year and you did not own the home until 2013. 040ez Instead, you add the $1,375 to the cost (basis) of your home. 040ez You owned the home in 2013 for 243 days (May 3 to December 31), so you can take a tax deduction on your 2014 return of $949 [(243 ÷ 365) × $1,425] paid in 2014 for 2013. 040ez You add the remaining $476 ($1,425 − $949) of taxes paid in 2014 to the cost (basis) of your home. 040ez Settlement or closing costs. 040ez   If you bought your home, you probably paid settlement or closing costs in addition to the contract price. 040ez These costs are divided between you and the seller according to the sales contract, local custom, or understanding of the parties. 040ez If you built your home, you probably paid these costs when you bought the land or settled on your mortgage. 040ez   The only settlement or closing costs you can deduct are home mortgage interest and certain real estate taxes. 040ez You deduct them in the year you buy your home if you itemize your deductions. 040ez You can add certain other settlement or closing costs to the basis of your home. 040ez Items added to basis. 040ez   You can include in your basis the settlement fees and closing costs you paid for buying your home. 040ez A fee is for buying the home if you would have had to pay it even if you paid cash for the home. 040ez   The following are some of the settlement fees and closing costs that you can include in the original basis of your home. 040ez Abstract fees (abstract of title fees). 040ez Charges for installing utility services. 040ez Legal fees (including fees for the title search and preparation of the sales contract and deed). 040ez Recording fees. 040ez Surveys. 040ez Transfer or stamp taxes. 040ez Owner's title insurance. 040ez Any amount the seller owes that you agree to pay, such as back taxes or interest, recording or mortgage fees, cost for improvements or repairs, and sales commissions. 040ez   If the seller actually paid for any item for which you are liable and for which you can take a deduction (such as your share of the real estate taxes for the year of sale), you must reduce your basis by that amount unless you are charged for it in the settlement. 040ez Items not added to basis and not deductible. 040ez   Here are some settlement and closing costs that you cannot deduct or add to your basis. 040ez Fire insurance premiums. 040ez Charges for using utilities or other services related to occupancy of the home before closing. 040ez Rent for occupying the home before closing. 040ez Charges connected with getting or refinancing a mortgage loan, such as: Loan assumption fees, Cost of a credit report, and Fee for an appraisal required by a lender. 040ez Points paid by seller. 040ez   If you bought your home after April 3, 1994, you must reduce your basis by any points paid for your mortgage by the person who sold you your home. 040ez   If you bought your home after 1990 but before April 4, 1994, you must reduce your basis by seller-paid points only if you deducted them. 040ez See Points , earlier, for the rules on deducting points. 040ez Gift To figure the basis of property you receive as a gift, you must know its adjusted basis (defined later) to the donor just before it was given to you, its fair market value (FMV) at the time it was given to you, and any gift tax paid on it. 040ez Fair market value. 040ez   Fair market value (FMV) is the price at which property would change hands between a willing buyer and a willing seller, neither being under any compulsion to buy or sell and who both have a reasonable knowledge of all the necessary facts. 040ez Donor's adjusted basis is more than FMV. 040ez   If someone gave you your home and the donor's adjusted basis, when it was given to you, was more than the FMV, your basis at the time of receipt is the same as the donor's adjusted basis. 040ez Disposition basis. 040ez   If the donor's adjusted basis at the time of the gift is more than the FMV, your basis (plus or minus any required adjustments, see Adjusted Basis , later) when you dispose of the property will depend on whether you have a gain or a loss. 040ez Your basis for figuring a gain is the same as the donor's adjusted basis. 040ez Your basis for figuring a loss is the FMV when you received the gift. 040ez If you use the donor's adjusted basis to figure a gain and it results in a loss, then you must use the FMV (at the time of the gift) to refigure the loss. 040ez However, if using the FMV results in a gain, then you neither have a gain nor a loss. 040ez Example 1. 040ez Andrew received a house as a gift from Ishmael (the donor). 040ez At the time of the gift, the home had an FMV of $80,000. 040ez Ishmael's adjusted basis was $100,000. 040ez After he received the house, no events occurred to increase or decrease the basis. 040ez If Andrew sells the house for $120,000, he will have a $20,000 gain because he must use the donor's adjusted basis ($100,000) at the time of the gift as his basis to figure the gain. 040ez Example 2. 040ez Same facts as Example 1 , except this time Andrew sells the house for $70,000. 040ez He will have a loss of $10,000 because he must use the FMV ($80,000) at the time of the gift as his basis to figure the loss. 040ez Example 3. 040ez Same facts as Example 1 , except this time Andrew sells the house for $90,000. 040ez Initially, he figures the gain using Ishmael's adjusted basis ($100,000), which results in a loss of $10,000. 040ez Since it is a loss, Andrew must now recalculate the loss using the FMV ($80,000), which results in a gain of $10,000. 040ez So in this situation, Andrew will neither have a gain nor a loss. 040ez Donor's adjusted basis equal to or less than the FMV. 040ez   If someone gave you your home after 1976 and the donor's adjusted basis, when it was given to you, was equal to or less than the FMV, your basis at the time of receipt is the same as the donor's adjusted basis, plus the part of any federal gift tax paid that is due to the net increase in value of the home. 040ez Part of federal gift tax due to net increase in value. 040ez   Figure the part of the federal gift tax paid that is due to the net increase in value of the home by multiplying the total federal gift tax paid by a fraction. 040ez The numerator (top part) of the fraction is the net increase in the value of the home, and the denominator (bottom part) is the value of the home for gift tax purposes after reduction for any annual exclusion and marital or charitable deduction that applies to the gift. 040ez The net increase in the value of the home is its FMV minus the adjusted basis of the donor. 040ez Publication 551 gives more information, including examples, on figuring your basis when you receive property as a gift. 040ez Inheritance Your basis in a home you inherited is generally the fair market value of the home on the date of the decedent's death or on the alternative valuation date if the personal representative for the estate chooses to use alternative valuation. 040ez If an estate tax return was filed, your basis is generally the value of the home listed on the estate tax return. 040ez If an estate tax return was not filed, your basis is the appraised value of the home at the decedent's date of death for state inheritance or transmission taxes. 040ez Publication 551 and Publication 559, Survivors, Executors, and Administrators, have more information on the basis of inherited property. 040ez If you inherited your home from someone who died in 2010, and the executor of the decedent's estate made the election to file Form 8939, Allocation of Increase in Basis for Property Acquired From a Decedent, refer to the information provided by the executor or see Publication 4895, Tax Treatment of Property Acquired From a Decedent Dying in 2010. 040ez Adjusted Basis While you own your home, various events may take place that can change the original basis of your home. 040ez These events can increase or decrease your original basis. 040ez The result is called adjusted basis. 040ez See Table 3, on this page, for a list of some of the items that can adjust your basis. 040ez Table 3. 040ez Adjusted Basis This table lists examples of some items that generally will increase or decrease your basis in your home. 040ez It is not intended to be all-inclusive. 040ez Increases to Basis Decreases to Basis Improvements: Putting an addition on your home Replacing an entire roof Paving your driveway Installing central air conditioning Rewiring your home Assessments for local improvements (see Assessments for local benefits , under What You Can and Cannot Deduct, earlier) Amounts spent to restore damaged property Insurance or other reimbursement for casualty losses Deductible casualty loss not covered by insurance Payments received for easement or right-of-way granted Depreciation allowed or allowable if home is used for business or rental purposes Value of subsidy for energy conservation measure excluded from income Improvements. 040ez   An improvement materially adds to the value of your home, considerably prolongs its useful life, or adapts it to new uses. 040ez You must add the cost of any improvements to the basis of your home. 040ez You cannot deduct these costs. 040ez   Improvements include putting a recreation room in your unfinished basement, adding another bathroom or bedroom, putting up a fence, putting in new plumbing or wiring, installing a new roof, and paving your driveway. 040ez Amount added to basis. 040ez   The amount you add to your basis for improvements is your actual cost. 040ez This includes all costs for material and labor, except your own labor, and all expenses related to the improvement. 040ez For example, if you had your lot surveyed to put up a fence, the cost of the survey is a part of the cost of the fence. 040ez   You also must add to your basis state and local assessments for improvements such as streets and sidewalks if they increase the value of the property. 040ez These assessments are discussed earlier under Real Estate Taxes . 040ez Improvements no longer part of home. 040ez    Your home's adjusted basis does not include the cost of any improvements that are replaced and are no longer part of the home. 040ez Example. 040ez You put wall-to-wall carpeting in your home 15 years ago. 040ez Later, you replaced that carpeting with new wall-to-wall carpeting. 040ez The cost of the old carpeting you replaced is no longer part of your home's adjusted basis. 040ez Repairs versus improvements. 040ez   A repair keeps your home in an ordinary, efficient operating condition. 040ez It does not add to the value of your home or prolong its life. 040ez Repairs include repainting your home inside or outside, fixing your gutters or floors, fixing leaks or plastering, and replacing broken window panes. 040ez You cannot deduct repair costs and generally cannot add them to the basis of your home. 040ez   However, repairs that are done as part of an extensive remodeling or restoration of your home are considered improvements. 040ez You add them to the basis of your home. 040ez Records to keep. 040ez   You can use Table 4 (at the end of the publication) as a guide to help you keep track of improvements to your home. 040ez Also see Keeping Records , below. 040ez Energy conservation subsidy. 040ez   If a public utility gives you (directly or indirectly) a subsidy for the purchase or installation of an energy conservation measure for your home, do not include the value of that subsidy in your income. 040ez You must reduce the basis of your home by that value. 040ez   An energy conservation measure is an installation or modification primarily designed to reduce consumption of electricity or natural gas or to improve the management of energy demand. 040ez Keeping Records Keeping full and accurate records is vital to properly report your income and expenses, to support your deductions and credits, and to know the basis or adjusted basis of your home. 040ez These records include your purchase contract and settlement papers if you bought the property, or other objective evidence if you acquired it by gift, inheritance, or similar means. 040ez You should keep any receipts, canceled checks, and similar evidence for improvements or other additions to the basis. 040ez In addition, you should keep track of any decreases to the basis such as those listed in Table 3, earlier. 040ez How to keep records. 040ez   How you keep records is up to you, but they must be clear and accurate and must be available to the IRS. 040ez How long to keep records. 040ez   You must keep your records for as long as they are important for meeting any provision of the federal tax law. 040ez   Keep records that support an item of income, a deduction, or a credit appearing on a return until the period of limitations for the return runs out. 040ez (A period of limitations is the period of time after which no legal action can be brought. 040ez ) For assessment of tax you owe, this is generally 3 years from the date you filed the return. 040ez For filing a claim for credit or refund, this is generally 3 years from the date you filed the original return, or 2 years from the date you paid the tax, whichever is later. 040ez Returns filed before the due date are treated as filed on the due date. 040ez   You may need to keep records relating to the basis of property (discussed earlier) for longer than the period of limitations. 040ez Keep those records as long as they are important in figuring the basis of the original or replacement property. 040ez Generally, this means for as long as you own the property and, after you dispose of it, for the period of limitations that applies to you. 040ez Table 4. 040ez Record of Home Improvements Keep this for your records. 040ez Also, keep receipts or other proof of improvements. 040ez Remove from this record any improvements that are no longer part of your main home. 040ez For example, if you put wall-to-wall carpeting in your home and later replace it with new wall-to-wall carpeting, remove the cost of the first carpeting. 040ez (a) Type of Improvement (b) Date (c) Amount   (a) Type of Improvement (b) Date (c) Amount Additions:       Heating & Air  Conditioning:     Bedroom       Heating system     Bathroom       Central air conditioning     Deck       Furnace     Garage       Duct work     Porch       Central humidifier     Patio       Filtration system     Storage shed       Other     Fireplace       Electrical:     Other           Lawn & Grounds:       Lighting fixtures           Wiring upgrades     Landscaping       Other     Driveway       Plumbing:     Walkway           Fences       Water heater     Retaining wall       Soft water system     Sprinkler system       Filtration system     Swimming pool       Other     Exterior lighting       Insulation:     Other           Communications:       Attic           Walls     Satellite dish       Floors     Intercom       Pipes and duct work     Security system       Other     Other             Miscellaneous:       Interior  Improvements:     Storm windows and doors       Built-in appliances     Roof       Kitchen modernization     Central vacuum       Bathroom modernization     Other       Flooring             Wall-to-wall carpeting             Other     How To