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10ez

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10ez

10ez Index A Absence, temporary, Temporary absence from work. 10ez , Temporary absence from work. 10ez Accountable plans, Accountable Plans Address, change of, Reminders Adequate accounting, Adequate accounting. 10ez Armed Forces, Retirees, survivors, and Armed Forces members. 10ez , Members of the Armed Forces Distance test, special rule, Armed Forces. 10ez Form 3903, how to complete, How to complete Form 3903 for members of the Armed Forces. 10ez Services or reimbursements provided by government, Services or reimbursements provided by government. 10ez Spouse and dependents, Spouse and dependents. 10ez Assistance (see Tax help) C Change of address, Reminders Closely related in place, Closely related in place. 10ez Closely related in time, Closely related in time. 10ez D Deductible moving expenses, Deductible Moving Expenses, Moving expenses allocable to excluded foreign income. 10ez Household goods, Household goods and personal effects. 10ez Moving to and from storage, Moving goods and effects to and from storage. 10ez Member of your household, Member of your household. 10ez Moves in U. 10ez S. 10ez , Moves to Locations in the United States Moves outside U. 10ez S. 10ez , Moves to Locations Outside the United States Moving expenses allocable to excluded foreign income, Moving expenses allocable to excluded foreign income. 10ez Personal effects, Household goods and personal effects. 10ez Moving to and from storage, Moving goods and effects to and from storage. 10ez Reasonable expenses, Reasonable expenses. 10ez Storage expenses, Storage expenses. 10ez , Storage expenses. 10ez Travel by car, Travel by car. 10ez Travel expenses, Travel expenses. 10ez Distance test, Distance Test Armed Forces, special rule, Armed Forces. 10ez First job, First job or return to full-time work. 10ez Illustration of (Figure A), Main job location, Main job location. 10ez Return to full-time work, First job or return to full-time work. 10ez Worksheet 1, Distance Test E Employees Time test for, Time Test for Employees Estimated tax, Tax Withholding and Estimated Tax, Estimated tax. 10ez Excess reimbursements, Excess reimbursement. 10ez Excluded foreign income Moving expenses allocable to, Moving expenses allocable to excluded foreign income. 10ez F Figures (see Tables and figures) First job, First job or return to full-time work. 10ez Form 1040 Moving expense deduction, Where to deduct. 10ez Form 3903 Armed Forces members, how to complete, How to complete Form 3903 for members of the Armed Forces. 10ez Completing form, Completing Form 3903. 10ez Moving expense deduction calculation, Form 3903 Form W-2 Reimbursements, You meet accountable plan rules. 10ez , Expenses deducted in earlier year. 10ez Government provided for Armed Forces members, Services or reimbursements provided by government. 10ez Form W-4 Withholding allowance, Amount of income tax withheld. 10ez Free tax services, Free help with your tax return. 10ez Full-time work, defined, Full-time work. 10ez H Help (see Tax help) Home, defined, Home defined. 10ez Household goods, Household goods and personal effects. 10ez Moving to and from storage, Moving goods and effects to and from storage. 10ez I Important reminders, Reminders J Joint returns, Joint Return M Main job location Defined, Main job location. 10ez More than one job, More than one job. 10ez Union members, Union members. 10ez Member of household, Member of your household. 10ez Members of Armed Forces (see Armed Forces) Mileage rate, What's New Missing children, photographs of, Reminders Moves In U. 10ez S. 10ez , Moves to Locations in the United States Outside U. 10ez S. 10ez , Moves to Locations Outside the United States To and from storage, Moving goods and effects to and from storage. 10ez Moving expenses, Who Can Deduct Moving Expenses, Deductible Moving Expenses (see also Deductible moving expenses) (see also Who can deduct) N Nonaccountable plans, Nonaccountable Plans Nondeductible expenses, Nondeductible Expenses Reimbursements of, Reimbursement of nondeductible expenses. 10ez , Reimbursement for deductible and nondeductible expenses. 10ez P Permanently retired, defined, Retirees who were working abroad. 10ez Personal effects, Household goods and personal effects. 10ez Moving to and from storage, Moving goods and effects to and from storage. 10ez Publications (see Tax help) R Reasonable expenses, Reasonable expenses. 10ez Reasonable period of time, Reasonable period of time. 10ez Reimbursements, Reimbursements, Estimated tax. 10ez Accountable plans, Accountable Plans Adequate accounting, Adequate accounting. 10ez Armed Forces members, Services or reimbursements provided by government. 10ez Estimated tax, Estimated tax. 10ez Excess, Excess reimbursement. 10ez Excluded from income, Reimbursements excluded from income. 10ez Included in income, Reimbursements included in income. 10ez Nonaccountable plans, Nonaccountable Plans Nondeductible expenses, Reimbursement of nondeductible expenses. 10ez , Reimbursement for deductible and nondeductible expenses. 10ez Reasonable period of time, Reasonable period of time. 10ez Reporting moving expenses and reimbursements (Table 2), How and When To Report Types of plans, Types of Reimbursement Plans Reporting expenses, How and When To Report Expenses equal to or less than reimbursement, Expenses equal to or less than reimbursement. 10ez Expenses greater than reimbursement, Expenses greater than reimbursement. 10ez Form 3903, deduction calculation, Form 3903 Moving expenses and reimbursements (Table 2), How and When To Report Retirees who move to U. 10ez S. 10ez , Retirees, survivors, and Armed Forces members. 10ez , Retirees or survivors. 10ez Permanently retired, defined, Retirees who were working abroad. 10ez Return to full-time work, First job or return to full-time work. 10ez S Seasonal trade or business, Seasonal trade or business. 10ez Seasonal work, Seasonal work. 10ez Self-employed persons Time test, Time Test for Self-Employed Persons, Self-employment. 10ez Table 1, Time Test for Employees Spouse of Armed Forces member, Spouse and dependents. 10ez Standard mileage rate, What's New Storage expenses, Storage expenses. 10ez , Storage expenses. 10ez Survivors who move to U. 10ez S. 10ez , Retirees, survivors, and Armed Forces members. 10ez , Retirees or survivors. 10ez , Retirees or Survivors Who Move to the United States, Survivors of decedents who were working abroad. 10ez When move begins, When a move begins. 10ez T Tables and figures Distance test, Distance Test Nonmilitary move within U. 10ez S. 10ez , can you deduct expenses (Figure B), Seasonal work. 10ez Reporting moving expenses and reimbursements (Table 2), How and When To Report Time test, satisfying for employees and self-employed persons (Table 1), Time Test for Employees Tax help, How To Get Tax Help Temporary absence, Temporary absence from work. 10ez , Temporary absence from work. 10ez Time test, Time Test Employees, Time Test for Employees Exceptions to, Exceptions to the Time Test Full-time work, Full-time work. 10ez Joint return, Joint Return Not yet met, Time Test Not Yet Met Satisfying for employees and self-employed persons (Table 1), Time Test for Employees Seasonal trade or business, Seasonal trade or business. 10ez Seasonal work, Seasonal work. 10ez Self-employed persons, Time Test for Self-Employed Persons, Self-employment. 10ez Temporary absence from work, Temporary absence from work. 10ez , Temporary absence from work. 10ez Travel by car, Travel by car. 10ez Travel expenses, Travel expenses. 10ez TTY/TDD information, How To Get Tax Help U Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policies Act of 1970, Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policies Act of 1970 Unions Main job location of member, Union members. 10ez W When to deduct expenses, When To Deduct Expenses, Illustrated Example Choosing when to deduct, Choosing when to deduct. 10ez Expenses not reimbursed, Expenses not reimbursed. 10ez Expenses reimbursed, Expenses reimbursed. 10ez How to make choice, How to make the choice. 10ez Who can deduct, Who Can Deduct Moving Expenses, When a move begins. 10ez Armed Forces, members of, Retirees, survivors, and Armed Forces members. 10ez Distance test, Distance Test Nonmilitary move within U. 10ez S. 10ez (Figure B), Seasonal work. 10ez Related to start of work, Move Related to Start of Work Retirees who move to U. 10ez S. 10ez , Retirees, survivors, and Armed Forces members. 10ez , Retirees or survivors. 10ez , Retirees or Survivors Who Move to the United States Survivors who move to U. 10ez S. 10ez , Retirees, survivors, and Armed Forces members. 10ez , Retirees or survivors. 10ez , Retirees or Survivors Who Move to the United States, Survivors of decedents who were working abroad. 10ez Time test, Time Test Withholding, Tax Withholding and Estimated Tax Worksheet Distance test (Worksheet 1), Distance Test Prev  Up     Home   More Online 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The 10ez

10ez 1. 10ez   Travel Table of Contents Traveling Away From HomeTax Home Tax Home Different From Family Home Temporary Assignment or Job What Travel Expenses Are Deductible?Employee. 10ez Business associate. 10ez Bona fide business purpose. 10ez Meals Travel in the United States Travel Outside the United States Luxury Water Travel Conventions If you temporarily travel away from your tax home, you can use this chapter to determine if you have deductible travel expenses. 10ez This chapter discusses: Traveling away from home, Temporary assignment or job, and What travel expenses are deductible. 10ez It also discusses the standard meal allowance, rules for travel inside and outside the United States, luxury water travel, and deductible convention expenses. 10ez Travel expenses defined. 10ez   For tax purposes, travel expenses are the ordinary and necessary expenses of traveling away from home for your business, profession, or job. 10ez   An ordinary expense is one that is common and accepted in your trade or business. 10ez A necessary expense is one that is helpful and appropriate for your business. 10ez An expense does not have to be required to be considered necessary. 10ez   You will find examples of deductible travel expenses in Table 1-1 , later. 10ez Traveling Away From Home You are traveling away from home if: Your duties require you to be away from the general area of your tax home (defined later) substantially longer than an ordinary day's work, and You need to sleep or rest to meet the demands of your work while away from home. 10ez This rest requirement is not satisfied by merely napping in your car. 10ez You do not have to be away from your tax home for a whole day or from dusk to dawn as long as your relief from duty is long enough to get necessary sleep or rest. 10ez Example 1. 10ez You are a railroad conductor. 10ez You leave your home terminal on a regularly scheduled round-trip run between two cities and return home 16 hours later. 10ez During the run, you have 6 hours off at your turnaround point where you eat two meals and rent a hotel room to get necessary sleep before starting the return trip. 10ez You are considered to be away from home. 10ez Example 2. 10ez You are a truck driver. 10ez You leave your terminal and return to it later the same day. 10ez You get an hour off at your turnaround point to eat. 10ez Because you are not off to get necessary sleep and the brief time off is not an adequate rest period, you are not traveling away from home. 10ez Members of the Armed Forces. 10ez   If you are a member of the U. 10ez S. 10ez Armed Forces on a permanent duty assignment overseas, you are not traveling away from home. 10ez You cannot deduct your expenses for meals and lodging. 10ez You cannot deduct these expenses even if you have to maintain a home in the United States for your family members who are not allowed to accompany you overseas. 10ez If you are transferred from one permanent duty station to another, you may have deductible moving expenses, which are explained in Publication 521, Moving Expenses. 10ez   A naval officer assigned to permanent duty aboard a ship that has regular eating and living facilities has a tax home (explained next) aboard the ship for travel expense purposes. 10ez Tax Home To determine whether you are traveling away from home, you must first determine the location of your tax home. 10ez Generally, your tax home is your regular place of business or post of duty, regardless of where you maintain your family home. 10ez It includes the entire city or general area in which your business or work is located. 10ez If you have more than one regular place of business, your tax home is your main place of business. 10ez See Main place of business or work , later. 10ez If you do not have a regular or a main place of business because of the nature of your work, then your tax home may be the place where you regularly live. 10ez See No main place of business or work , later. 10ez If you do not have a regular or main place of business or post of duty and there is no place where you regularly live, you are considered an itinerant (a transient) and your tax home is wherever you work. 10ez As an itinerant, you cannot claim a travel expense deduction because you are never considered to be traveling away from home. 10ez Main place of business or work. 10ez   If you have more than one place of work, consider the following when determining which one is your main place of business or work. 10ez The total time you ordinarily spend in each place. 10ez The level of your business activity in each place. 10ez Whether your income from each place is significant or insignificant. 10ez Example. 10ez You live in Cincinnati where you have a seasonal job for 8 months each year and earn $40,000. 10ez You work the other 4 months in Miami, also at a seasonal job, and earn $15,000. 10ez Cincinnati is your main place of work because you spend most of your time there and earn most of your income there. 10ez No main place of business or work. 10ez   You may have a tax home even if you do not have a regular or main place of work. 10ez Your tax home may be the home where you regularly live. 10ez Factors used to determine tax home. 10ez   If you do not have a regular or main place of business or work, use the following three factors to determine where your tax home is. 10ez You perform part of your business in the area of your main home and use that home for lodging while doing business in the area. 10ez You have living expenses at your main home that you duplicate because your business requires you to be away from that home. 10ez You have not abandoned the area in which both your historical place of lodging and your claimed main home are located; you have a member or members of your family living at your main home; or you often use that home for lodging. 10ez   If you satisfy all three factors, your tax home is the home where you regularly live. 10ez If you satisfy only two factors, you may have a tax home depending on all the facts and circumstances. 10ez If you satisfy only one factor, you are an itinerant; your tax home is wherever you work and you cannot deduct travel expenses. 10ez Example 1. 10ez You are single and live in Boston in an apartment you rent. 10ez You have worked for your employer in Boston for a number of years. 10ez Your employer enrolls you in a 12-month executive training program. 10ez You do not expect to return to work in Boston after you complete your training. 10ez During your training, you do not do any work in Boston. 10ez Instead, you receive classroom and on-the-job training throughout the United States. 10ez You keep your apartment in Boston and return to it frequently. 10ez You use your apartment to conduct your personal business. 10ez You also keep up your community contacts in Boston. 10ez When you complete your training, you are transferred to Los Angeles. 10ez You do not satisfy factor (1) because you did not work in Boston. 10ez You satisfy factor (2) because you had duplicate living expenses. 10ez You also satisfy factor (3) because you did not abandon your apartment in Boston as your main home, you kept your community contacts, and you frequently returned to live in your apartment. 10ez Therefore, you have a tax home in Boston. 10ez Example 2. 10ez You are an outside salesperson with a sales territory covering several states. 10ez Your employer's main office is in Newark, but you do not conduct any business there. 10ez Your work assignments are temporary, and you have no way of knowing where your future assignments will be located. 10ez You have a room in your married sister's house in Dayton. 10ez You stay there for one or two weekends a year, but you do no work in the area. 10ez You do not pay your sister for the use of the room. 10ez You do not satisfy any of the three factors listed earlier. 10ez You are an itinerant and have no tax home. 10ez Tax Home Different From Family Home If you (and your family) do not live at your tax home (defined earlier), you cannot deduct the cost of traveling between your tax home and your family home. 10ez You also cannot deduct the cost of meals and lodging while at your tax home. 10ez See Example 1 , later. 10ez If you are working temporarily in the same city where you and your family live, you may be considered as traveling away from home. 10ez See Example 2 , later. 10ez Example 1. 10ez You are a truck driver and you and your family live in Tucson. 10ez You are employed by a trucking firm that has its terminal in Phoenix. 10ez At the end of your long runs, you return to your home terminal in Phoenix and spend one night there before returning home. 10ez You cannot deduct any expenses you have for meals and lodging in Phoenix or the cost of traveling from Phoenix to Tucson. 10ez This is because Phoenix is your tax home. 10ez Example 2. 10ez Your family home is in Pittsburgh, where you work 12 weeks a year. 10ez The rest of the year you work for the same employer in Baltimore. 10ez In Baltimore, you eat in restaurants and sleep in a rooming house. 10ez Your salary is the same whether you are in Pittsburgh or Baltimore. 10ez Because you spend most of your working time and earn most of your salary in Baltimore, that city is your tax home. 10ez You cannot deduct any expenses you have for meals and lodging there. 10ez However, when you return to work in Pittsburgh, you are away from your tax home even though you stay at your family home. 10ez You can deduct the cost of your round trip between Baltimore and Pittsburgh. 10ez You can also deduct your part of your family's living expenses for meals and lodging while you are living and working in Pittsburgh. 10ez Temporary Assignment or Job You may regularly work at your tax home and also work at another location. 10ez It may not be practical to return to your tax home from this other location at the end of each work day. 10ez Temporary assignment vs. 10ez indefinite assignment. 10ez   If your assignment or job away from your main place of work is temporary, your tax home does not change. 10ez You are considered to be away from home for the whole period you are away from your main place of work. 10ez You can deduct your travel expenses if they otherwise qualify for deduction. 10ez Generally, a temporary assignment in a single location is one that is realistically expected to last (and does in fact last) for 1 year or less. 10ez    However, if your assignment or job is indefinite, the location of the assignment or job becomes your new tax home and you cannot deduct your travel expenses while there. 10ez An assignment or job in a single location is considered indefinite if it is realistically expected to last for more than 1 year, whether or not it actually lasts for more than 1 year. 10ez   If your assignment is indefinite, you must include in your income any amounts you receive from your employer for living expenses, even if they are called travel allowances and you account to your employer for them. 10ez You may be able to deduct the cost of relocating to your new tax home as a moving expense. 10ez See Publication 521 for more information. 10ez Exception for federal crime investigations or prosecutions. 10ez   If you are a federal employee participating in a federal crime investigation or prosecution, you are not subject to the 1-year rule. 10ez This means you may be able to deduct travel expenses even if you are away from your tax home for more than 1 year provided you meet the other requirements for deductibility. 10ez   For you to qualify, the Attorney General (or his or her designee) must certify that you are traveling: For the federal government, In a temporary duty status, and To investigate, prosecute, or provide support services for the investigation or prosecution of a federal crime. 10ez Determining temporary or indefinite. 10ez   You must determine whether your assignment is temporary or indefinite when you start work. 10ez If you expect an assignment or job to last for 1 year or less, it is temporary unless there are facts and circumstances that indicate otherwise. 10ez An assignment or job that is initially temporary may become indefinite due to changed circumstances. 10ez A series of assignments to the same location, all for short periods but that together cover a long period, may be considered an indefinite assignment. 10ez   The following examples illustrate whether an assignment or job is temporary or indefinite. 10ez Example 1. 10ez You are a construction worker. 10ez You live and regularly work in Los Angeles. 10ez You are a member of a trade union in Los Angeles that helps you get work in the Los Angeles area. 10ez Your tax home is Los Angeles. 10ez Because of a shortage of work, you took a job on a construction project in Fresno. 10ez Your job was scheduled to end in 8 months. 10ez The job actually lasted 10 months. 10ez You realistically expected the job in Fresno to last 8 months. 10ez The job actually did last less than 1 year. 10ez The job is temporary and your tax home is still in Los Angeles. 10ez Example 2. 10ez The facts are the same as in Example 1, except that you realistically expected the work in Fresno to last 18 months. 10ez The job actually was completed in 10 months. 10ez Your job in Fresno is indefinite because you realistically expected the work to last longer than 1 year, even though it actually lasted less than 1 year. 10ez You cannot deduct any travel expenses you had in Fresno because Fresno became your tax home. 10ez Example 3. 10ez The facts are the same as in Example 1, except that you realistically expected the work in Fresno to last 9 months. 10ez After 8 months, however, you were asked to remain for 7 more months (for a total actual stay of 15 months). 10ez Initially, you realistically expected the job in Fresno to last for only 9 months. 10ez However, due to changed circumstances occurring after 8 months, it was no longer realistic for you to expect that the job in Fresno would last for 1 year or less. 10ez You can only deduct your travel expenses for the first 8 months. 10ez You cannot deduct any travel expenses you had after that time because Fresno became your tax home when the job became indefinite. 10ez Going home on days off. 10ez   If you go back to your tax home from a temporary assignment on your days off, you are not considered away from home while you are in your hometown. 10ez You cannot deduct the cost of your meals and lodging there. 10ez However, you can deduct your travel expenses, including meals and lodging, while traveling between your temporary place of work and your tax home. 10ez You can claim these expenses up to the amount it would have cost you to stay at your temporary place of work. 10ez   If you keep your hotel room during your visit home, you can deduct the cost of your hotel room. 10ez In addition, you can deduct your expenses of returning home up to the amount you would have spent for meals had you stayed at your temporary place of work. 10ez Probationary work period. 10ez   If you take a job that requires you to move, with the understanding that you will keep the job if your work is satisfactory during a probationary period, the job is indefinite. 10ez You cannot deduct any of your expenses for meals and lodging during the probationary period. 10ez What Travel Expenses Are Deductible? Once you have determined that you are traveling away from your tax home, you can determine what travel expenses are deductible. 10ez You can deduct ordinary and necessary expenses you have when you travel away from home on business. 10ez The type of expense you can deduct depends on the facts and your circumstances. 10ez Table 1-1 summarizes travel expenses you may be able to deduct. 10ez You may have other deductible travel expenses that are not covered there, depending on the facts and your circumstances. 10ez When you travel away from home on business, you should keep records of all the expenses you have and any advances you receive from your employer. 10ez You can use a log, diary, notebook, or any other written record to keep track of your expenses. 10ez The types of expenses you need to record, along with supporting documentation, are described in Table 5-1 (see chapter 5). 10ez Separating costs. 10ez   If you have one expense that includes the costs of meals, entertainment, and other services (such as lodging or transportation), you must allocate that expense between the cost of meals and entertainment and the cost of other services. 10ez You must have a reasonable basis for making this allocation. 10ez For example, you must allocate your expenses if a hotel includes one or more meals in its room charge. 10ez Travel expenses for another individual. 10ez    If a spouse, dependent, or other individual goes with you (or your employee) on a business trip or to a business convention, you generally cannot deduct his or her travel expenses. 10ez Employee. 10ez   You can deduct the travel expenses of someone who goes with you if that person: Is your employee, Has a bona fide business purpose for the travel, and Would otherwise be allowed to deduct the travel expenses. 10ez Business associate. 10ez   If a business associate travels with you and meets the conditions in (2) and (3), earlier, you can deduct the travel expenses you have for that person. 10ez A business associate is someone with whom you could reasonably expect to actively conduct business. 10ez A business associate can be a current or prospective (likely to become) customer, client, supplier, employee, agent, partner, or professional advisor. 10ez Bona fide business purpose. 10ez   A bona fide business purpose exists if you can prove a real business purpose for the individual's presence. 10ez Incidental services, such as typing notes or assisting in entertaining customers, are not enough to make the expenses deductible. 10ez Table 1-1. 10ez Travel Expenses You Can Deduct   This chart summarizes expenses you can deduct when you travel away from home for business purposes. 10ez IF you have expenses for. 10ez . 10ez . 10ez THEN you can deduct the cost of. 10ez . 10ez . 10ez transportation travel by airplane, train, bus, or car between your home and your business destination. 10ez If you were provided with a free ticket or you are riding free as a result of a frequent traveler or similar program, your cost is zero. 10ez If you travel by ship, see Luxury Water Travel and Cruise Ships (under Conventions) for additional rules and limits. 10ez taxi, commuter bus, and airport limousine fares for these and other types of transportation that take you between: The airport or station and your hotel, and The hotel and the work location of your customers or clients, your business meeting place, or your temporary work location. 10ez baggage and shipping sending baggage and sample or display material between your regular and temporary work locations. 10ez car operating and maintaining your car when traveling away from home on business. 10ez You can deduct actual expenses or the standard mileage rate, as well as business-related tolls and parking. 10ez If you rent a car while away from home on business, you can deduct only the business-use portion of the expenses. 10ez lodging and meals your lodging and meals if your business trip is overnight or long enough that you need to stop for sleep or rest to properly perform your duties. 10ez Meals include amounts spent for food, beverages, taxes, and related tips. 10ez See Meals for additional rules and limits. 10ez cleaning dry cleaning and laundry. 10ez telephone business calls while on your business trip. 10ez This includes business communication by fax machine or other communication devices. 10ez tips tips you pay for any expenses in this chart. 10ez other other similar ordinary and necessary expenses related to your business travel. 10ez These expenses might include transportation to or from a business meal, public stenographer's fees, computer rental fees, and operating and maintaining a house trailer. 10ez Example. 10ez Jerry drives to Chicago on business and takes his wife, Linda, with him. 10ez Linda is not Jerry's employee. 10ez Linda occasionally types notes, performs similar services, and accompanies Jerry to luncheons and dinners. 10ez The performance of these services does not establish that her presence on the trip is necessary to the conduct of Jerry's business. 10ez Her expenses are not deductible. 10ez Jerry pays $199 a day for a double room. 10ez A single room costs $149 a day. 10ez He can deduct the total cost of driving his car to and from Chicago, but only $149 a day for his hotel room. 10ez If he uses public transportation, he can deduct only his fare. 10ez Meals You can deduct the cost of meals in either of the following situations. 10ez It is necessary for you to stop for substantial sleep or rest to properly perform your duties while traveling away from home on business. 10ez The meal is business-related entertainment. 10ez Business-related entertainment is discussed in chapter 2 . 10ez The following discussion deals only with meals that are not business-related entertainment. 10ez Lavish or extravagant. 10ez   You cannot deduct expenses for meals that are lavish or extravagant. 10ez An expense is not considered lavish or extravagant if it is reasonable based on the facts and circumstances. 10ez Expenses will not be disallowed merely because they are more than a fixed dollar amount or take place at deluxe restaurants, hotels, nightclubs, or resorts. 10ez 50% limit on meals. 10ez   You can figure your meals expense using either of the following methods. 10ez Actual cost. 10ez The standard meal allowance. 10ez Both of these methods are explained below. 10ez But, regardless of the method you use, you generally can deduct only 50% of the unreimbursed cost of your meals. 10ez   If you are reimbursed for the cost of your meals, how you apply the 50% limit depends on whether your employer's reimbursement plan was accountable or nonaccountable. 10ez If you are not reimbursed, the 50% limit applies whether the unreimbursed meal expense is for business travel or business entertainment. 10ez Chapter 2 discusses the 50% Limit in more detail, and chapter 6 discusses accountable and nonaccountable plans. 10ez Actual Cost You can use the actual cost of your meals to figure the amount of your expense before reimbursement and application of the 50% deduction limit. 10ez If you use this method, you must keep records of your actual cost. 10ez Standard Meal Allowance Generally, you can use the “standard meal allowance” method as an alternative to the actual cost method. 10ez It allows you to use a set amount for your daily meals and incidental expenses (M&IE), instead of keeping records of your actual costs. 10ez The set amount varies depending on where and when you travel. 10ez In this publication, “standard meal allowance” refers to the federal rate for M&IE, discussed later under Amount of standard meal allowance . 10ez If you use the standard meal allowance, you still must keep records to prove the time, place, and business purpose of your travel. 10ez See the recordkeeping rules for travel in chapter 5 . 10ez Incidental expenses. 10ez   The term “incidental expenses” means fees and tips given to porters, baggage carriers, hotel staff, and staff on ships. 10ez   Incidental expenses do not include expenses for laundry, cleaning and pressing of clothing, lodging taxes, costs of telegrams or telephone calls, transportation between places of lodging or business and places where meals are taken, or the mailing cost of filing travel vouchers and paying employer-sponsored charge card billings. 10ez Incidental-expenses-only method. 10ez   You can use an optional method (instead of actual cost) for deducting incidental expenses only. 10ez The amount of the deduction is $5 a day. 10ez You can use this method only if you did not pay or incur any meal expenses. 10ez You cannot use this method on any day that you use the standard meal allowance. 10ez This method is subject to the proration rules for partial days. 10ez See Travel for days you depart and return , later in this chapter. 10ez Note. 10ez The incidental-expenses-only method is not subject to the 50% limit discussed below. 10ez Federal employees should refer to the Federal Travel Regulations at www. 10ez gsa. 10ez gov. 10ez Find the “Most Requested Links” on the upper left and click on “Regulations: FAR, FMR, FTR” for Federal Travel Regulation (FTR) for changes affecting claims for reimbursement. 10ez 50% limit may apply. 10ez   If you use the standard meal allowance method for meal expenses and you are not reimbursed or you are reimbursed under a nonaccountable plan, you can generally deduct only 50% of the standard meal allowance. 10ez If you are reimbursed under an accountable plan and you are deducting amounts that are more than your reimbursements, you can deduct only 50% of the excess amount. 10ez The 50% limit is discussed in more detail in chapter 2, and accountable and nonaccountable plans are discussed in chapter 6. 10ez There is no optional standard lodging amount similar to the standard meal allowance. 10ez Your allowable lodging expense deduction is your actual cost. 10ez Who can use the standard meal allowance. 10ez   You can use the standard meal allowance whether you are an employee or self-employed, and whether or not you are reimbursed for your traveling expenses. 10ez Use of the standard meal allowance for other travel. 10ez   You can use the standard meal allowance to figure your meal expenses when you travel in connection with investment and other income-producing property. 10ez You can also use it to figure your meal expenses when you travel for qualifying educational purposes. 10ez You cannot use the standard meal allowance to figure the cost of your meals when you travel for medical or charitable purposes. 10ez Amount of standard meal allowance. 10ez   The standard meal allowance is the federal M&IE rate. 10ez For travel in 2013, the rate for most small localities in the United States is $46 a day. 10ez    Most major cities and many other localities in the United States are designated as high-cost areas, qualifying for higher standard meal allowances. 10ez    You can find this information (organized by state) on the Internet at www. 10ez gsa. 10ez gov/perdiem. 10ez Enter a zip code or select a city and state for the per diem rates for the current fiscal year. 10ez Per diem rates for prior fiscal years are available by using the drop down menu under “Search by State. 10ez ”   Per diem rates are listed by the Federal government's fiscal year which runs from October 1 to September 30. 10ez You can choose to use the rates from the 2013 fiscal year per diem tables or the rates from the 2014 fiscal year tables, but you must consistently use the same tables for all travel you are reporting on your income tax return for the year. 10ez   If you travel to more than one location in one day, use the rate in effect for the area where you stop for sleep or rest. 10ez If you work in the transportation industry, however, see Special rate for transportation workers , later. 10ez Standard meal allowance for areas outside the continental United States. 10ez   The standard meal allowance rates above do not apply to travel in Alaska, Hawaii, or any other location outside the continental United States. 10ez The Department of Defense establishes per diem rates for Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, Midway, the Northern Mariana Islands, the U. 10ez S. 10ez Virgin Islands, Wake Island, and other non-foreign areas outside the continental United States. 10ez The Department of State establishes per diem rates for all other foreign areas. 10ez    You can access per diem rates for non-foreign areas outside the continental United States at: www. 10ez defensetravel. 10ez dod. 10ez mil/site/perdiemCalc. 10ez cfm. 10ez You can access all other foreign per diem rates at: www. 10ez state. 10ez gov/travel/. 10ez Click on “Travel Per Diem Allowances for Foreign Areas,” under “Foreign Per Diem Rates” to obtain the latest foreign per diem rates. 10ez Special rate for transportation workers. 10ez   You can use a special standard meal allowance if you work in the transportation industry. 10ez You are in the transportation industry if your work: Directly involves moving people or goods by airplane, barge, bus, ship, train, or truck, and Regularly requires you to travel away from home and, during any single trip, usually involves travel to areas eligible for different standard meal allowance rates. 10ez If this applies to you, you can claim a standard meal allowance of $59 a day ($65 for travel outside the continental United States). 10ez   Using the special rate for transportation workers eliminates the need for you to determine the standard meal allowance for every area where you stop for sleep or rest. 10ez If you choose to use the special rate for any trip, you must use the special rate (and not use the regular standard meal allowance rates) for all trips you take that year. 10ez Travel for days you depart and return. 10ez   For both the day you depart for and the day you return from a business trip, you must prorate the standard meal allowance (figure a reduced amount for each day). 10ez You can do so by one of two methods. 10ez Method 1: You can claim 3/4 of the standard meal allowance. 10ez Method 2: You can prorate using any method that you consistently apply and that is in accordance with reasonable business practice. 10ez Example. 10ez Jen is employed in New Orleans as a convention planner. 10ez In March, her employer sent her on a 3-day trip to Washington, DC, to attend a planning seminar. 10ez She left her home in New Orleans at 10 a. 10ez m. 10ez on Wednesday and arrived in Washington, DC, at 5:30 p. 10ez m. 10ez After spending two nights there, she flew back to New Orleans on Friday and arrived back home at 8:00 p. 10ez m. 10ez Jen's employer gave her a flat amount to cover her expenses and included it with her wages. 10ez Under Method 1, Jen can claim 2½ days of the standard meal allowance for Washington, DC: 3/4 of the daily rate for Wednesday and Friday (the days she departed and returned), and the full daily rate for Thursday. 10ez Under Method 2, Jen could also use any method that she applies consistently and that is in accordance with reasonable business practice. 10ez For example, she could claim 3 days of the standard meal allowance even though a federal employee would have to use Method 1 and be limited to only 2½ days. 10ez Travel in the United States The following discussion applies to travel in the United States. 10ez For this purpose, the United States includes the 50 states and the District of Columbia. 10ez The treatment of your travel expenses depends on how much of your trip was business related and on how much of your trip occurred within the United States. 10ez See Part of Trip Outside the United States , later. 10ez Trip Primarily for Business You can deduct all of your travel expenses if your trip was entirely business related. 10ez If your trip was primarily for business and, while at your business destination, you extended your stay for a vacation, made a personal side trip, or had other personal activities, you can deduct only your business-related travel expenses. 10ez These expenses include the travel costs of getting to and from your business destination and any business-related expenses at your business destination. 10ez Example. 10ez You work in Atlanta and take a business trip to New Orleans in May. 10ez Your business travel totals 850 miles round trip. 10ez On your way, you stop in Mobile to visit your parents. 10ez You spend $2,120 for the 9 days you are away from home for travel, meals, lodging, and other travel expenses. 10ez If you had not stopped in Mobile, you would have been gone only 6 days, and your total cost would have been $1,820. 10ez You can deduct $1,820 for your trip, including the cost of round-trip transportation to and from New Orleans. 10ez The deduction for your meals is subject to the 50% limit on meals mentioned earlier. 10ez Trip Primarily for Personal Reasons If your trip was primarily for personal reasons, such as a vacation, the entire cost of the trip is a nondeductible personal expense. 10ez However, you can deduct any expenses you have while at your destination that are directly related to your business. 10ez A trip to a resort or on a cruise ship may be a vacation even if the promoter advertises that it is primarily for business. 10ez The scheduling of incidental business activities during a trip, such as viewing videotapes or attending lectures dealing with general subjects, will not change what is really a vacation into a business trip. 10ez Part of Trip Outside the United States If part of your trip is outside the United States, use the rules described later in this chapter under Travel Outside the United States for that part of the trip. 10ez For the part of your trip that is inside the United States, use the rules for travel in the United States. 10ez Travel outside the United States does not include travel from one point in the United States to another point in the United States. 10ez The following discussion can help you determine whether your trip was entirely within the United States. 10ez Public transportation. 10ez   If you travel by public transportation, any place in the United States where that vehicle makes a scheduled stop is a point in the United States. 10ez Once the vehicle leaves the last scheduled stop in the United States on its way to a point outside the United States, you apply the rules under Travel Outside the United States . 10ez Example. 10ez You fly from New York to Puerto Rico with a scheduled stop in Miami. 10ez You return to New York nonstop. 10ez The flight from New York to Miami is in the United States, so only the flight from Miami to Puerto Rico is outside the United States. 10ez Because there are no scheduled stops between Puerto Rico and New York, all of the return trip is outside the United States. 10ez Private car. 10ez   Travel by private car in the United States is travel between points in the United States, even though you are on your way to a destination outside the United States. 10ez Example. 10ez You travel by car from Denver to Mexico City and return. 10ez Your travel from Denver to the border and from the border back to Denver is travel in the United States, and the rules in this section apply. 10ez The rules under Travel Outside the United States apply to your trip from the border to Mexico City and back to the border. 10ez Travel Outside the United States If any part of your business travel is outside the United States, some of your deductions for the cost of getting to and from your destination may be limited. 10ez For this purpose, the United States includes the 50 states and the District of Columbia. 10ez How much of your travel expenses you can deduct depends in part upon how much of your trip outside the United States was business related. 10ez Travel Entirely for Business or Considered Entirely for Business You can deduct all your travel expenses of getting to and from your business destination if your trip is entirely for business or considered entirely for business. 10ez Travel entirely for business. 10ez   If you travel outside the United States and you spend the entire time on business activities, you can deduct all of your travel expenses. 10ez Travel considered entirely for business. 10ez   Even if you did not spend your entire time on business activities, your trip is considered entirely for business if you meet at least one of the following four exceptions. 10ez Exception 1 - No substantial control. 10ez   Your trip is considered entirely for business if you did not have substantial control over arranging the trip. 10ez The fact that you control the timing of your trip does not, by itself, mean that you have substantial control over arranging your trip. 10ez   You do not have substantial control over your trip if you: Are an employee who was reimbursed or paid a travel expense allowance, and Are not related to your employer, or Are not a managing executive. 10ez    “Related to your employer” is defined later in chapter 6 under Per Diem and Car Allowances . 10ez   A “managing executive” is an employee who has the authority and responsibility, without being subject to the veto of another, to decide on the need for the business travel. 10ez   A self-employed person generally has substantial control over arranging business trips. 10ez Exception 2 - Outside United States no more than a week. 10ez   Your trip is considered entirely for business if you were outside the United States for a week or less, combining business and nonbusiness activities. 10ez One week means 7 consecutive days. 10ez In counting the days, do not count the day you leave the United States, but do count the day you return to the United States. 10ez Example. 10ez You traveled to Brussels primarily for business. 10ez You left Denver on Tuesday and flew to New York. 10ez On Wednesday, you flew from New York to Brussels, arriving the next morning. 10ez On Thursday and Friday, you had business discussions, and from Saturday until Tuesday, you were sightseeing. 10ez You flew back to New York, arriving Wednesday afternoon. 10ez On Thursday, you flew back to Denver. 10ez Although you were away from your home in Denver for more than a week, you were not outside the United States for more than a week. 10ez This is because the day you depart does not count as a day outside the United States. 10ez You can deduct your cost of the round-trip flight between Denver and Brussels. 10ez You can also deduct the cost of your stay in Brussels for Thursday and Friday while you conducted business. 10ez However, you cannot deduct the cost of your stay in Brussels from Saturday through Tuesday because those days were spent on nonbusiness activities. 10ez Exception 3 - Less than 25% of time on personal activities. 10ez   Your trip is considered entirely for business if: You were outside the United States for more than a week, and You spent less than 25% of the total time you were outside the United States on nonbusiness activities. 10ez For this purpose, count both the day your trip began and the day it ended. 10ez Example. 10ez You flew from Seattle to Tokyo, where you spent 14 days on business and 5 days on personal matters. 10ez You then flew back to Seattle. 10ez You spent 1 day flying in each direction. 10ez Because only 5/21 (less than 25%) of your total time abroad was for nonbusiness activities, you can deduct as travel expenses what it would have cost you to make the trip if you had not engaged in any nonbusiness activity. 10ez The amount you can deduct is the cost of the round-trip plane fare and 16 days of meals (subject to the 50% limit), lodging, and other related expenses. 10ez Exception 4 - Vacation not a major consideration. 10ez   Your trip is considered entirely for business if you can establish that a personal vacation was not a major consideration, even if you have substantial control over arranging the trip. 10ez Travel Primarily for Business If you travel outside the United States primarily for business but spend some of your time on other activities, you generally cannot deduct all of your travel expenses. 10ez You can only deduct the business portion of your cost of getting to and from your destination. 10ez You must allocate the costs between your business and other activities to determine your deductible amount. 10ez See Travel allocation rules , later. 10ez You do not have to allocate your travel expenses if you meet one of the four exceptions listed earlier under Travel considered entirely for business . 10ez In those cases, you can deduct the total cost of getting to and from your destination. 10ez Travel allocation rules. 10ez   If your trip outside the United States was primarily for business, you must allocate your travel time on a day-to-day basis between business days and nonbusiness days. 10ez The days you depart from and return to the United States are both counted as days outside the United States. 10ez   To figure the deductible amount of your round-trip travel expenses, use the following fraction. 10ez The numerator (top number) is the total number of business days outside the United States. 10ez The denominator (bottom number) is the total number of business and nonbusiness days of travel. 10ez Counting business days. 10ez   Your business days include transportation days, days your presence was required, days you spent on business, and certain weekends and holidays. 10ez Transportation day. 10ez   Count as a business day any day you spend traveling to or from a business destination. 10ez However, if because of a nonbusiness activity you do not travel by a direct route, your business days are the days it would take you to travel a reasonably direct route to your business destination. 10ez Extra days for side trips or nonbusiness activities cannot be counted as business days. 10ez Presence required. 10ez   Count as a business day any day your presence is required at a particular place for a specific business purpose. 10ez Count it as a business day even if you spend most of the day on nonbusiness activities. 10ez Day spent on business. 10ez   If your principal activity during working hours is the pursuit of your trade or business, count the day as a business day. 10ez Also, count as a business day any day you are prevented from working because of circumstances beyond your control. 10ez Certain weekends and holidays. 10ez   Count weekends, holidays, and other necessary standby days as business days if they fall between business days. 10ez But if they follow your business meetings or activity and you remain at your business destination for nonbusiness or personal reasons, do not count them as business days. 10ez Example 1. 10ez Your tax home is New York City. 10ez You travel to Quebec, where you have a business appointment on Friday. 10ez You have another appointment on the following Monday. 10ez Because your presence was required on both Friday and Monday, they are business days. 10ez Because the weekend is between business days, Saturday and Sunday are counted as business days. 10ez This is true even though you use the weekend for sightseeing, visiting friends, or other nonbusiness activity. 10ez Example 2. 10ez If, in Example 1, you had no business in Quebec after Friday, but stayed until Monday before starting home, Saturday and Sunday would be nonbusiness days. 10ez Nonbusiness activity on the way to or from your business destination. 10ez   If you stopped for a vacation or other nonbusiness activity either on the way from the United States to your business destination, or on the way back to the United States from your business destination, you must allocate part of your travel expenses to the nonbusiness activity. 10ez   The part you must allocate is the amount it would have cost you to travel between the point where travel outside the United States begins and your nonbusiness destination and a return to the point where travel outside the United States ends. 10ez   You determine the nonbusiness portion of that expense by multiplying it by a fraction. 10ez The numerator (top number) of the fraction is the number of nonbusiness days during your travel outside the United States and the denominator (bottom number) is the total number of days you spend outside the United States. 10ez Example. 10ez You live in New York. 10ez On May 4 you flew to Paris to attend a business conference that began on May 5. 10ez The conference ended at noon on May 14. 10ez That evening you flew to Dublin where you visited with friends until the afternoon of May 21, when you flew directly home to New York. 10ez The primary purpose for the trip was to attend the conference. 10ez If you had not stopped in Dublin, you would have arrived home the evening of May 14. 10ez You do not meet any of the exceptions that would allow you to consider your travel entirely for business. 10ez May 4 through May 14 (11 days) are business days and May 15 through May 21 (7 days) are nonbusiness days. 10ez You can deduct the cost of your meals (subject to the 50% limit), lodging, and other business-related travel expenses while in Paris. 10ez You cannot deduct your expenses while in Dublin. 10ez You also cannot deduct 7/18 of what it would have cost you to travel round-trip between New York and Dublin. 10ez You paid $750 to fly from New York to Paris, $400 to fly from Paris to Dublin, and $700 to fly from Dublin back to New York. 10ez Round-trip airfare from New York to Dublin would have been $1,250. 10ez You figure the deductible part of your air travel expenses by subtracting 7/18 of the round-trip fare and other expenses you would have had in traveling directly between New York and Dublin ($1,250 × 7/18 = $486) from your total expenses in traveling from New York to Paris to Dublin and back to New York ($750 + $400 + $700 = $1,850). 10ez Your deductible air travel expense is $1,364 ($1,850 − $486). 10ez Nonbusiness activity at, near, or beyond business destination. 10ez   If you had a vacation or other nonbusiness activity at, near, or beyond your business destination, you must allocate part of your travel expenses to the nonbusiness activity. 10ez   The part you must allocate is the amount it would have cost you to travel between the point where travel outside the United States begins and your business destination and a return to the point where travel outside the United States ends. 10ez   You determine the nonbusiness portion of that expense by multiplying it by a fraction. 10ez The numerator (top number) of the fraction is the number of nonbusiness days during your travel outside the United States and the denominator (bottom number) is the total number of days you spend outside the United States. 10ez   None of your travel expenses for nonbusiness activities at, near, or beyond your business destination are deductible. 10ez Example. 10ez Assume that the dates are the same as in the previous example but that instead of going to Dublin for your vacation, you fly to Venice, Italy, for a vacation. 10ez You cannot deduct any part of the cost of your trip from Paris to Venice and return to Paris. 10ez In addition, you cannot deduct 7/18 of the airfare and other expenses from New York to Paris and back to New York. 10ez You can deduct 11/18 of the round-trip plane fare and other travel expenses from New York to Paris, plus your meals (subject to the 50% limit), lodging, and any other business expenses you had in Paris. 10ez (Assume these expenses total $4,939. 10ez ) If the round-trip plane fare and other travel-related expenses (such as food during the trip) are $1,750, you can deduct travel costs of $1,069 (11/18 × $1,750), plus the full $4,939 for the expenses you had in Paris. 10ez Other methods. 10ez   You can use another method of counting business days if you establish that it more clearly reflects the time spent on other than business activities outside the United States. 10ez Travel Primarily for Personal Reasons If you travel outside the United States primarily for vacation or for investment purposes, the entire cost of the trip is a nondeductible personal expense. 10ez However, if you spend some time attending brief professional seminars or a continuing education program, you can deduct your registration fees and other expenses you have that are directly related to your business. 10ez Example. 10ez The university from which you graduated has a continuing education program for members of its alumni association. 10ez This program consists of trips to various foreign countries where academic exercises and conferences are set up to acquaint individuals in most occupations with selected facilities in several regions of the world. 10ez However, none of the conferences are directed toward specific occupations or professions. 10ez It is up to each participant to seek out specialists and organizational settings appropriate to his or her occupational interests. 10ez Three-hour sessions are held each day over a 5-day period at each of the selected overseas facilities where participants can meet with individual practitioners. 10ez These sessions are composed of a variety of activities including workshops, mini-lectures, role playing, skill development, and exercises. 10ez Professional conference directors schedule and conduct the sessions. 10ez Participants can choose those sessions they wish to attend. 10ez You can participate in this program since you are a member of the alumni association. 10ez You and your family take one of the trips. 10ez You spend about 2 hours at each of the planned sessions. 10ez The rest of the time you go touring and sightseeing with your family. 10ez The trip lasts less than 1 week. 10ez Your travel expenses for the trip are not deductible since the trip was primarily a vacation. 10ez However, registration fees and any other incidental expenses you have for the five planned sessions you attended that are directly related and beneficial to your business are deductible business expenses. 10ez These expenses should be specifically stated in your records to ensure proper allocation of your deductible business expenses. 10ez Luxury Water Travel If you travel by ocean liner, cruise ship, or other form of luxury water transportation for business purposes, there is a daily limit on the amount you can deduct. 10ez The limit is twice the highest federal per diem rate allowable at the time of your travel. 10ez (Generally, the federal per diem is the amount paid to federal government employees for daily living expenses when they travel away from home, but in the United States, for business purposes. 10ez ) Daily limit on luxury water travel. 10ez   The highest federal per diem rate allowed and the daily limit for luxury water travel in 2013 is shown in the following table. 10ez   2013 Dates Highest Federal Per Diem Daily Limit on Luxury Water Travel   Jan. 10ez 1 – Mar. 10ez 31 $367 $734   Apr. 10ez 1 – June 30 312 624   July 1 – Aug. 10ez 31 310 620   Sept. 10ez 1 – Sept. 10ez 30 366 732   Oct. 10ez 1 – Dec. 10ez 31 374 748 Example. 10ez Caroline, a travel agent, traveled by ocean liner from New York to London, England, on business in May. 10ez Her expense for the 6-day cruise was $5,200. 10ez Caroline's deduction for the cruise cannot exceed $3,744 (6 days × $624 daily limit). 10ez Meals and entertainment. 10ez   If your expenses for luxury water travel include separately stated amounts for meals or entertainment, those amounts are subject to the 50% limit on meals and entertainment before you apply the daily limit. 10ez For a discussion of the 50% Limit , see chapter 2. 10ez Example. 10ez In the previous example, Caroline's luxury water travel had a total cost of $5,200. 10ez Of that amount, $3,700 was separately stated as meals and entertainment. 10ez Caroline, who is self-employed, is not reimbursed for any of her travel expenses. 10ez Caroline figures her deductible travel expenses as follows. 10ez Meals and entertainment $3,700   50% limit × . 10ez 50   Allowable meals &     entertainment $1,850   Other travel expenses + 1,800   Allowable cost before the daily limit $3,650 Daily limit for May 2013 $624   Times number of days × 6   Maximum luxury water travel     deduction $3,744 Amount of allowable deduction $3,650 Caroline's deduction for her cruise is limited to $3,650, even though the limit on luxury water travel is slightly higher. 10ez Not separately stated. 10ez   If your meal or entertainment charges are not separately stated or are not clearly identifiable, you do not have to allocate any portion of the total charge to meals or entertainment. 10ez Exceptions The daily limit on luxury water travel (discussed earlier) does not apply to expenses you have to attend a convention, seminar, or meeting on board a cruise ship. 10ez See Cruise Ships under Conventions. 10ez Conventions You can deduct your travel expenses when you attend a convention if you can show that your attendance benefits your trade or business. 10ez You cannot deduct the travel expenses for your family. 10ez If the convention is for investment, political, social, or other purposes unrelated to your trade or business, you cannot deduct the expenses. 10ez Your appointment or election as a delegate does not, in itself, determine whether you can deduct travel expenses. 10ez You can deduct your travel expenses only if your attendance is connected to your own trade or business. 10ez Convention agenda. 10ez   The convention agenda or program generally shows the purpose of the convention. 10ez You can show your attendance at the convention benefits your trade or business by comparing the agenda with the official duties and responsibilities of your position. 10ez The agenda does not have to deal specifically with your official duties and responsibilities; it will be enough if the agenda is so related to your position that it shows your attendance was for business purposes. 10ez Conventions Held Outside the North American Area You cannot deduct expenses for attending a convention, seminar, or similar meeting held outside the North American area unless: The meeting is directly related to your trade or business, and It is reasonable to hold the meeting outside the North American area. 10ez See Reasonableness test , later. 10ez If the meeting meets these requirements, you also must satisfy the rules for deducting expenses for business trips in general, discussed earlier under Travel Outside the United States . 10ez North American area. 10ez   The North American area includes the following locations. 10ez American Samoa Johnston Island Antigua and Barbuda Kingman Reef Aruba Marshall Islands Bahamas Mexico Baker Island Micronesia Barbados Midway Islands Bermuda Netherlands Antilles Canada Northern Mariana Costa Rica Islands Dominica Palau Dominican Republic Palmyra Atoll Grenada Panama Guam Puerto Rico Guyana Trinidad and Tobago Honduras USA Howland Island U. 10ez S. 10ez Virgin Islands Jamaica Wake Island Jarvis Island   The North American area also includes U. 10ez S. 10ez islands, cays, and reefs that are possessions of the United States and not part of the fifty states or the District of Columbia. 10ez Reasonableness test. 10ez   The following factors are taken into account to determine if it was reasonable to hold the meeting outside the North American area. 10ez The purpose of the meeting and the activities taking place at the meeting. 10ez The purposes and activities of the sponsoring organizations or groups. 10ez The homes of the active members of the sponsoring organizations and the places at which other meetings of the sponsoring organizations or groups have been or will be held. 10ez Other relevant factors you may present. 10ez Cruise Ships You can deduct up to $2,000 per year of your expenses of attending conventions, seminars, or similar meetings held on cruise ships. 10ez All ships that sail are considered cruise ships. 10ez You can deduct these expenses only if all of the following requirements are met. 10ez The convention, seminar, or meeting is directly related to your trade or business. 10ez The cruise ship is a vessel registered in the United States. 10ez All of the cruise ship's ports of call are in the United States or in possessions of the United States. 10ez You attach to your return a written statement signed by you that includes information about: The total days of the trip (not including the days of transportation to and from the cruise ship port), The number of hours each day that you devoted to scheduled business activities, and A program of the scheduled business activities of the meeting. 10ez You attach to your return a written statement signed by an officer of the organization or group sponsoring the meeting that includes: A schedule of the business activities of each day of the meeting, and The number of hours you attended the scheduled business activities. 10ez Prev  Up  Next   Home   More Online Publications