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2011 Tax Calculator

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2011 Tax Calculator

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The 2011 Tax Calculator

2011 tax calculator 1. 2011 tax calculator   Rental Income and Expenses (If No Personal Use of Dwelling) Table of Contents Rental IncomeWhen To Report Types of Income Rental ExpensesWhen To Deduct Types of Expenses This chapter discusses the various types of rental income and expenses for a residential rental activity with no personal use of the dwelling. 2011 tax calculator Generally, each year you will report all income and deduct all out-of-pocket expenses in full. 2011 tax calculator The deduction to recover the cost of your rental property—depreciation—is taken over a prescribed number of years, and is discussed in chapter 2, Depreciation of Rental Property. 2011 tax calculator If your rental income is from property you also use personally or rent to someone at less than a fair rental price, first read the information in chapter 5 , Personal Use of Dwelling Unit (Including Vacation Home). 2011 tax calculator Rental Income In most cases, you must include in your gross income all amounts you receive as rent. 2011 tax calculator Rental income is any payment you receive for the use or occupation of property. 2011 tax calculator In addition to amounts you receive as normal rental payments, there are other amounts that may be rental income. 2011 tax calculator When To Report When you report rental income on your tax return generally depends on whether you are a cash basis taxpayer or use an accrual method. 2011 tax calculator Most individual taxpayers use the cash method. 2011 tax calculator Cash method. 2011 tax calculator   You are a cash basis taxpayer if you report income on your return in the year you actually or constructively receive it, regardless of when it was earned. 2011 tax calculator You constructively receive income when it is made available to you, for example, by being credited to your bank account. 2011 tax calculator Accrual method. 2011 tax calculator    If you are an accrual basis taxpayer, you generally report income when you earn it, rather than when you receive it. 2011 tax calculator You generally deduct your expenses when you incur them, rather than when you pay them. 2011 tax calculator More information. 2011 tax calculator   See Publication 538, Accounting Periods and Methods, for more information about when you constructively receive income and accrual methods of accounting. 2011 tax calculator Types of Income The following are common types of rental income. 2011 tax calculator Advance rent. 2011 tax calculator   Advance rent is any amount you receive before the period that it covers. 2011 tax calculator Include advance rent in your rental income in the year you receive it regardless of the period covered or the method of accounting you use. 2011 tax calculator Example. 2011 tax calculator On March 18, 2013, you signed a 10-year lease to rent your property. 2011 tax calculator During 2013, you received $9,600 for the first year's rent and $9,600 as rent for the last year of the lease. 2011 tax calculator You must include $19,200 in your rental income in the first year. 2011 tax calculator Canceling a lease. 2011 tax calculator   If your tenant pays you to cancel a lease, the amount you receive is rent. 2011 tax calculator Include the payment in your income in the year you receive it regardless of your method of accounting. 2011 tax calculator Expenses paid by tenant. 2011 tax calculator   If your tenant pays any of your expenses, those payments are rental income. 2011 tax calculator Because you must include this amount in income, you can also deduct the expenses if they are deductible rental expenses. 2011 tax calculator For more information, see Rental Expenses , later. 2011 tax calculator Example 1. 2011 tax calculator Your tenant pays the water and sewage bill for your rental property and deducts the amount from the normal rent payment. 2011 tax calculator Under the terms of the lease, your tenant does not have to pay this bill. 2011 tax calculator Include the utility bill paid by the tenant and any amount received as a rent payment in your rental income. 2011 tax calculator You can deduct the utility payment made by your tenant as a rental expense. 2011 tax calculator Example 2. 2011 tax calculator While you are out of town, the furnace in your rental property stops working. 2011 tax calculator Your tenant pays for the necessary repairs and deducts the repair bill from the rent payment. 2011 tax calculator Include the repair bill paid by the tenant and any amount received as a rent payment in your rental income. 2011 tax calculator You can deduct the repair payment made by your tenant as a rental expense. 2011 tax calculator Property or services. 2011 tax calculator   If you receive property or services as rent, instead of money, include the fair market value of the property or services in your rental income. 2011 tax calculator   If the services are provided at an agreed upon or specified price, that price is the fair market value unless there is evidence to the contrary. 2011 tax calculator Example. 2011 tax calculator Your tenant is a house painter. 2011 tax calculator He offers to paint your rental property instead of paying 2 months rent. 2011 tax calculator You accept his offer. 2011 tax calculator Include in your rental income the amount the tenant would have paid for 2 months rent. 2011 tax calculator You can deduct that same amount as a rental expense for painting your property. 2011 tax calculator Security deposits. 2011 tax calculator   Do not include a security deposit in your income when you receive it if you plan to return it to your tenant at the end of the lease. 2011 tax calculator But if you keep part or all of the security deposit during any year because your tenant does not live up to the terms of the lease, include the amount you keep in your income in that year. 2011 tax calculator    If an amount called a security deposit is to be used as a final payment of rent, it is advance rent. 2011 tax calculator Include it in your income when you receive it. 2011 tax calculator Other Sources of Rental Income Lease with option to buy. 2011 tax calculator   If the rental agreement gives your tenant the right to buy your rental property, the payments you receive under the agreement are generally rental income. 2011 tax calculator If your tenant exercises the right to buy the property, the payments you receive for the period after the date of sale are considered part of the selling price. 2011 tax calculator Part interest. 2011 tax calculator   If you own a part interest in rental property, you must report your part of the rental income from the property. 2011 tax calculator Rental of property also used as your home. 2011 tax calculator   If you rent property that you also use as your home and you rent it less than 15 days during the tax year, do not include the rent you receive in your income and do not deduct rental expenses. 2011 tax calculator However, you can deduct on Schedule A (Form 1040), Itemized Deductions, the interest, taxes, and casualty and theft losses that are allowed for nonrental property. 2011 tax calculator See chapter 5, Personal Use of Dwelling Unit (Including Vacation Home). 2011 tax calculator Rental Expenses In most cases, the expenses of renting your property, such as maintenance, insurance, taxes, and interest, can be deducted from your rental income. 2011 tax calculator Personal use of rental property. 2011 tax calculator   If you sometimes use your rental property for personal purposes, you must divide your expenses between rental and personal use. 2011 tax calculator Also, your rental expense deductions may be limited. 2011 tax calculator See chapter 5, Personal Use of Dwelling Unit (Including Vacation Home). 2011 tax calculator Part interest. 2011 tax calculator   If you own a part interest in rental property, you can deduct expenses you paid according to your percentage of ownership. 2011 tax calculator Example. 2011 tax calculator Roger owns a one-half undivided interest in a rental house. 2011 tax calculator Last year he paid $968 for necessary repairs on the property. 2011 tax calculator Roger can deduct $484 (50% × $968) as a rental expense. 2011 tax calculator He is entitled to reimbursement for the remaining half from the co-owner. 2011 tax calculator When To Deduct You generally deduct your rental expenses in the year you pay them. 2011 tax calculator If you use the accrual method, see Publication 538 for more information. 2011 tax calculator Types of Expenses Listed below are the most common rental expenses. 2011 tax calculator Advertising. 2011 tax calculator Auto and travel expenses. 2011 tax calculator Cleaning and maintenance. 2011 tax calculator Commissions. 2011 tax calculator Depreciation. 2011 tax calculator Insurance. 2011 tax calculator Interest (other). 2011 tax calculator Legal and other professional fees. 2011 tax calculator Local transportation expenses. 2011 tax calculator Management fees. 2011 tax calculator Mortgage interest paid to banks, etc. 2011 tax calculator Points. 2011 tax calculator Rental payments. 2011 tax calculator Repairs. 2011 tax calculator Taxes. 2011 tax calculator Utilities. 2011 tax calculator Some of these expenses, as well as other less common ones, are discussed below. 2011 tax calculator Depreciation. 2011 tax calculator   Depreciation is a capital expense. 2011 tax calculator It is the mechanism for recovering your cost in an income producing property and must be taken over the expected life of the property. 2011 tax calculator   You can begin to depreciate rental property when it is ready and available for rent. 2011 tax calculator See Placed in Service under When Does Depreciation Begin and End in chapter 2. 2011 tax calculator Insurance premiums paid in advance. 2011 tax calculator   If you pay an insurance premium for more than one year in advance, for each year of coverage you can deduct the part of the premium payment that will apply to that year. 2011 tax calculator You cannot deduct the total premium in the year you pay it. 2011 tax calculator See chapter 6 of Publication 535 for information on deductible premiums. 2011 tax calculator Interest expense. 2011 tax calculator   You can deduct mortgage interest you pay on your rental property. 2011 tax calculator When you refinance a rental property for more than the previous outstanding balance, the portion of the interest allocable to loan proceeds not related to rental use generally cannot be deducted as a rental expense. 2011 tax calculator Chapter 4 of Publication 535 explains mortgage interest in detail. 2011 tax calculator Expenses paid to obtain a mortgage. 2011 tax calculator   Certain expenses you pay to obtain a mortgage on your rental property cannot be deducted as interest. 2011 tax calculator These expenses, which include mortgage commissions, abstract fees, and recording fees, are capital expenses that are part of your basis in the property. 2011 tax calculator Form 1098, Mortgage Interest Statement. 2011 tax calculator   If you paid $600 or more of mortgage interest on your rental property to any one person, you should receive a Form 1098 or similar statement showing the interest you paid for the year. 2011 tax calculator If you and at least one other person (other than your spouse if you file a joint return) were liable for, and paid interest on, the mortgage, and the other person received the Form 1098, report your share of the interest on Schedule E (Form 1040), line 13. 2011 tax calculator Attach a statement to your return showing the name and address of the other person. 2011 tax calculator On the dotted line next to line 13, enter “See attached. 2011 tax calculator ” Legal and other professional fees. 2011 tax calculator   You can deduct, as a rental expense, legal and other professional expenses such as tax return preparation fees you paid to prepare Schedule E, Part I. 2011 tax calculator For example, on your 2013 Schedule E you can deduct fees paid in 2013 to prepare Part I of your 2012 Schedule E. 2011 tax calculator You can also deduct, as a rental expense, any expense (other than federal taxes and penalties) you paid to resolve a tax underpayment related to your rental activities. 2011 tax calculator Local benefit taxes. 2011 tax calculator   In most cases, you cannot deduct charges for local benefits that increase the value of your property, such as charges for putting in streets, sidewalks, or water and sewer systems. 2011 tax calculator These charges are nondepreciable capital expenditures and must be added to the basis of your property. 2011 tax calculator However, you can deduct local benefit taxes that are for maintaining, repairing, or paying interest charges for the benefits. 2011 tax calculator Local transportation expenses. 2011 tax calculator   You may be able to deduct your ordinary and necessary local transportation expenses if you incur them to collect rental income or to manage, conserve, or maintain your rental property. 2011 tax calculator However, transportation expenses incurred to travel between your home and a rental property generally constitute nondeductible commuting costs unless you use your home as your principal place of business. 2011 tax calculator See Publication 587, Business Use of Your Home, for information on determining if your home office qualifies as a principal place of business. 2011 tax calculator   Generally, if you use your personal car, pickup truck, or light van for rental activities, you can deduct the expenses using one of two methods: actual expenses or the standard mileage rate. 2011 tax calculator For 2013, the standard mileage rate for business use is 56. 2011 tax calculator 5 cents per mile. 2011 tax calculator For more information, see chapter 4 of Publication 463. 2011 tax calculator    To deduct car expenses under either method, you must keep records that follow the rules in chapter 5 of Publication 463. 2011 tax calculator In addition, you must complete Form 4562, Part V, and attach it to your tax return. 2011 tax calculator Pre-rental expenses. 2011 tax calculator   You can deduct your ordinary and necessary expenses for managing, conserving, or maintaining rental property from the time you make it available for rent. 2011 tax calculator Rental of equipment. 2011 tax calculator   You can deduct the rent you pay for equipment that you use for rental purposes. 2011 tax calculator However, in some cases, lease contracts are actually purchase contracts. 2011 tax calculator If so, you cannot deduct these payments. 2011 tax calculator You can recover the cost of purchased equipment through depreciation. 2011 tax calculator Rental of property. 2011 tax calculator   You can deduct the rent you pay for property that you use for rental purposes. 2011 tax calculator If you buy a leasehold for rental purposes, you can deduct an equal part of the cost each year over the term of the lease. 2011 tax calculator Travel expenses. 2011 tax calculator   You can deduct the ordinary and necessary expenses of traveling away from home if the primary purpose of the trip is to collect rental income or to manage, conserve, or maintain your rental property. 2011 tax calculator You must properly allocate your expenses between rental and nonrental activities. 2011 tax calculator You cannot deduct the cost of traveling away from home if the primary purpose of the trip is to improve the property. 2011 tax calculator The cost of improvements is recovered by taking depreciation. 2011 tax calculator For information on travel expenses, see chapter 1 of Publication 463. 2011 tax calculator    To deduct travel expenses, you must keep records that follow the rules in chapter 5 of Publication 463. 2011 tax calculator Uncollected rent. 2011 tax calculator   If you are a cash basis taxpayer, do not deduct uncollected rent. 2011 tax calculator Because you have not included it in your income, it is not deductible. 2011 tax calculator   If you use an accrual method, report income when you earn it. 2011 tax calculator If you are unable to collect the rent, you may be able to deduct it as a business bad debt. 2011 tax calculator See chapter 10 of Publication 535 for more information about business bad debts. 2011 tax calculator Vacant rental property. 2011 tax calculator   If you hold property for rental purposes, you may be able to deduct your ordinary and necessary expenses (including depreciation) for managing, conserving, or maintaining the property while the property is vacant. 2011 tax calculator However, you cannot deduct any loss of rental income for the period the property is vacant. 2011 tax calculator Vacant while listed for sale. 2011 tax calculator   If you sell property you held for rental purposes, you can deduct the ordinary and necessary expenses for managing, conserving, or maintaining the property until it is sold. 2011 tax calculator If the property is not held out and available for rent while listed for sale, the expenses are not deductible rental expenses. 2011 tax calculator Points The term “points” is often used to describe some of the charges paid, or treated as paid, by a borrower to take out a loan or a mortgage. 2011 tax calculator These charges are also called loan origination fees, maximum loan charges, or premium charges. 2011 tax calculator Any of these charges (points) that are solely for the use of money are interest. 2011 tax calculator Because points are prepaid interest, you generally cannot deduct the full amount in the year paid, but must deduct the interest over the term of the loan. 2011 tax calculator The method used to figure the amount of points you can deduct each year follows the original issue discount (OID) rules. 2011 tax calculator In this case, points are equivalent to OID, which is the difference between: The amount borrowed (redemption price at maturity, or principal) and The proceeds (issue price). 2011 tax calculator The first step is to determine whether your total OID (which you may have on bonds or other investments in addition to the mortgage loan), including the OID resulting from the points, is insignificant or de minimis. 2011 tax calculator If the OID is not de minimis, you must use the constant-yield method to figure how much you can deduct. 2011 tax calculator De minimis OID. 2011 tax calculator   The OID is de minimis if it is less than one-fourth of 1% (. 2011 tax calculator 0025) of the stated redemption price at maturity (principal amount of the loan) multiplied by the number of full years from the date of original issue to maturity (term of the loan). 2011 tax calculator   If the OID is de minimis, you can choose one of the following ways to figure the amount of points you can deduct each year. 2011 tax calculator On a constant-yield basis over the term of the loan. 2011 tax calculator On a straight line basis over the term of the loan. 2011 tax calculator In proportion to stated interest payments. 2011 tax calculator In its entirety at maturity of the loan. 2011 tax calculator You make this choice by deducting the OID (points) in a manner consistent with the method chosen on your timely filed tax return for the tax year in which the loan is issued. 2011 tax calculator Example. 2011 tax calculator Carol Madison took out a $100,000 mortgage loan on January 1, 2013, to buy a house she will use as a rental during 2013. 2011 tax calculator The loan is to be repaid over 30 years. 2011 tax calculator During 2013, Carol paid $10,000 of mortgage interest (stated interest) to the lender. 2011 tax calculator When the loan was made, she paid $1,500 in points to the lender. 2011 tax calculator The points reduced the principal amount of the loan from $100,000 to $98,500, resulting in $1,500 of OID. 2011 tax calculator Carol determines that the points (OID) she paid are de minimis based on the following computation. 2011 tax calculator Redemption price at maturity (principal amount of the loan) $100,000 Multiplied by: The term of the  loan in complete years ×30 Multiplied by ×. 2011 tax calculator 0025 De minimis amount $7,500 The points (OID) she paid ($1,500) are less than the de minimis amount ($7,500). 2011 tax calculator Therefore, Carol has de minimis OID and she can choose one of the four ways discussed earlier to figure the amount she can deduct each year. 2011 tax calculator Under the straight line method, she can deduct $50 each year for 30 years. 2011 tax calculator Constant-yield method. 2011 tax calculator   If the OID is not de minimis, you must use the constant-yield method to figure how much you can deduct each year. 2011 tax calculator   You figure your deduction for the first year in the following manner. 2011 tax calculator Determine the issue price of the loan. 2011 tax calculator If you paid points on the loan, the issue price generally is the difference between the principal and the points. 2011 tax calculator Multiply the result in (1) by the yield to maturity (defined later). 2011 tax calculator Subtract any qualified stated interest payments (defined later) from the result in (2). 2011 tax calculator This is the OID you can deduct in the first year. 2011 tax calculator Yield to maturity (YTM). 2011 tax calculator   This rate is generally shown in the literature you receive from your lender. 2011 tax calculator If you do not have this information, consult your lender or tax advisor. 2011 tax calculator In general, the YTM is the discount rate that, when used in computing the present value of all principal and interest payments, produces an amount equal to the principal amount of the loan. 2011 tax calculator Qualified stated interest (QSI). 2011 tax calculator   In general, this is the stated interest that is unconditionally payable in cash or property (other than another loan of the issuer) at least annually over the term of the loan at a fixed rate. 2011 tax calculator Example—Year 1. 2011 tax calculator The facts are the same as in the previous example. 2011 tax calculator The yield to maturity on Carol's loan is 10. 2011 tax calculator 2467%, compounded annually. 2011 tax calculator She figured the amount of points (OID) she could deduct in 2013 as follows. 2011 tax calculator Principal amount of the loan $100,000 Minus: Points (OID) –1,500 Issue price of the loan $98,500 Multiplied by: YTM × . 2011 tax calculator 102467 Total 10,093 Minus: QSI –10,000 Points (OID) deductible in 2013 $93 To figure your deduction in any subsequent year, you start with the adjusted issue price. 2011 tax calculator To get the adjusted issue price, add to the issue price figured in Year 1 any OID previously deducted. 2011 tax calculator Then follow steps (2) and (3), earlier. 2011 tax calculator Example—Year 2. 2011 tax calculator Carol figured the deduction for 2014 as follows. 2011 tax calculator Issue price $98,500 Plus: Points (OID) deducted  in 2013 +93 Adjusted issue price $98,593 Multiplied by: YTM × . 2011 tax calculator 102467 Total 10,103 Minus: QSI –10,000 Points (OID) deductible in 2014 $103 Loan or mortgage ends. 2011 tax calculator    If your loan or mortgage ends, you may be able to deduct any remaining points (OID) in the tax year in which the loan or mortgage ends. 2011 tax calculator A loan or mortgage may end due to a refinancing, prepayment, foreclosure, or similar event. 2011 tax calculator However, if the refinancing is with the same lender, the remaining points (OID) generally are not deductible in the year in which the refinancing occurs, but may be deductible over the term of the new mortgage or loan. 2011 tax calculator Points when loan refinance is more than the previous outstanding balance. 2011 tax calculator   When you refinance a rental property for more than the previous outstanding balance, the portion of the points allocable to loan proceeds not related to rental use generally cannot be deducted as a rental expense. 2011 tax calculator For example, if an individual refinanced a loan with a balance of $100,000, the amount of the new loan was $120,000, and the taxpayer used $20,000 to purchase a car, points allocable to the $20,000 would be treated as nondeductible personal interest. 2011 tax calculator Repairs and Improvements Generally, an expense for repairing or maintaining your rental property may be deducted if you are not required to capitalize the expense. 2011 tax calculator Improvements. 2011 tax calculator   You must capitalize any expense you pay to improve your rental property. 2011 tax calculator An expense is for an improvement if it results in a betterment to your property, restores your property, or adapts your property to a new or different use. 2011 tax calculator Betterments. 2011 tax calculator   Expenses that may result in a betterment to your property include expenses for fixing a pre-existing defect or condition, enlarging or expanding your property, or increasing the capacity, strength, or quality of your property. 2011 tax calculator Restoration. 2011 tax calculator   Expenses that may be for restoration include expenses for replacing a substantial structural part of your property, repairing damage to your property after you properly adjusted the basis of your property as a result of a casualty loss, or rebuilding your property to a like-new condition. 2011 tax calculator Adaptation. 2011 tax calculator   Expenses that may be for adaptation include expenses for altering your property to a use that is not consistent with the intended ordinary use of your property when you began renting the property. 2011 tax calculator Separate the costs of repairs and improvements, and keep accurate records. 2011 tax calculator You will need to know the cost of improvements when you sell or depreciate your property. 2011 tax calculator The expenses you capitalize for improving your property can generally be depreciated as if the improvement were separate property. 2011 tax calculator Table 1-1. 2011 tax calculator Examples of Improvements Additions Bedroom Bathroom Deck Garage Porch Patio  Lawn & Grounds Landscaping Driveway Walkway Fence Retaining wall Sprinkler system Swimming pool Miscellaneous Storm windows, doors New roof Central vacuum Wiring upgrades Satellite dish Security system   Heating & Air Conditioning Heating system Central air conditioning Furnace Duct work Central humidifier Filtration system Plumbing Septic system Water heater Soft water system Filtration system  Interior Improvements Built-in appliances Kitchen modernization Flooring Wall-to-wall carpeting  Insulation Attic Walls, floor Pipes, duct work Prev  Up  Next   Home   More Online Publications