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2012 Income Tax Form

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2012 Income Tax Form

2012 income tax form 4. 2012 income tax form   Figuring Depreciation Under MACRS Table of Contents Introduction Useful Items - You may want to see: Which Depreciation System (GDS or ADS) Applies? Which Property Class Applies Under GDS?Rent-to-own dealer. 2012 income tax form Rent-to-own contract. 2012 income tax form What Is the Placed in Service Date? What Is the Basis for Depreciation? Which Recovery Period Applies?Recovery Periods Under GDS Recovery Periods Under ADS Additions and Improvements Which Convention Applies? Which Depreciation Method Applies?Depreciation Methods for Farm Property Electing a Different Method How Is the Depreciation Deduction Figured?Using the MACRS Percentage Tables Figuring the Deduction Without Using the Tables Figuring the Deduction for Property Acquired in a Nontaxable Exchange Figuring the Deduction for a Short Tax Year How Do You Use General Asset Accounts?Grouping Property Figuring Depreciation for a GAA Disposing of GAA Property Terminating GAA Treatment Electing To Use a GAA When Do You Recapture MACRS Depreciation? Introduction The Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) is used to recover the basis of most business and investment property placed in service after 1986. 2012 income tax form MACRS consists of two depreciation systems, the General Depreciation System (GDS) and the Alternative Depreciation System (ADS). 2012 income tax form Generally, these systems provide different methods and recovery periods to use in figuring depreciation deductions. 2012 income tax form To be sure you can use MACRS to figure depreciation for your property, see What Method Can You Use To Depreciate Your Property in chapter 1. 2012 income tax form This chapter explains how to determine which MACRS depreciation system applies to your property. 2012 income tax form It also discusses other information you need to know before you can figure depreciation under MACRS. 2012 income tax form This information includes the property's recovery class, placed in service date, and basis, as well as the applicable recovery period, convention, and depreciation method. 2012 income tax form It explains how to use this information to figure your depreciation deduction and how to use a general asset account to depreciate a group of properties. 2012 income tax form Finally, it explains when and how to recapture MACRS depreciation. 2012 income tax form Useful Items - You may want to see: Publication 225 Farmer's Tax Guide 463 Travel, Entertainment, Gift, and Car  Expenses 544 Sales and Other Dispositions of Assets 551 Basis of Assets 587 Business Use of Your Home (Including Use by Daycare Providers) Form (and Instructions) 2106 Employee Business Expenses 2106-EZ Unreimbursed Employee Business Expenses 4562 Depreciation and Amortization See chapter 6 for information about getting publications and forms. 2012 income tax form Which Depreciation System (GDS or ADS) Applies? Your use of either the General Depreciation System (GDS) or the Alternative Depreciation System (ADS) to depreciate property under MACRS determines what depreciation method and recovery period you use. 2012 income tax form You generally must use GDS unless you are specifically required by law to use ADS or you elect to use ADS. 2012 income tax form If you placed your property in service in 2013, complete Part III of Form 4562 to report depreciation using MACRS. 2012 income tax form Complete section B of Part III to report depreciation using GDS, and complete section C of Part III to report depreciation using ADS. 2012 income tax form If you placed your property in service before 2013 and are required to file Form 4562, report depreciation using either GDS or ADS on line 17 in Part III. 2012 income tax form Required use of ADS. 2012 income tax form   You must use ADS for the following property. 2012 income tax form Listed property used 50% or less in a qualified business use. 2012 income tax form See chapter 5 for information on listed property. 2012 income tax form Any tangible property used predominantly outside the United States during the year. 2012 income tax form Any tax-exempt use property. 2012 income tax form Any tax-exempt bond-financed property. 2012 income tax form All property used predominantly in a farming business and placed in service in any tax year during which an election not to apply the uniform capitalization rules to certain farming costs is in effect. 2012 income tax form Any property imported from a foreign country for which an Executive Order is in effect because the country maintains trade restrictions or engages in other discriminatory acts. 2012 income tax form If you are required to use ADS to depreciate your property, you cannot claim any special depreciation allowance (discussed in chapter 3) for the property. 2012 income tax form Electing ADS. 2012 income tax form   Although your property may qualify for GDS, you can elect to use ADS. 2012 income tax form The election generally must cover all property in the same property class that you placed in service during the year. 2012 income tax form However, the election for residential rental property and nonresidential real property can be made on a property-by-property basis. 2012 income tax form Once you make this election, you can never revoke it. 2012 income tax form   You make the election by completing line 20 in Part III of Form 4562. 2012 income tax form Which Property Class Applies Under GDS? The following is a list of the nine property classifications under GDS and examples of the types of property included in each class. 2012 income tax form These property classes are also listed under column (a) in section B, Part III, of Form 4562. 2012 income tax form For detailed information on property classes, see Appendix B, Table of Class Lives and Recovery Periods, in this publication. 2012 income tax form 3-year property. 2012 income tax form Tractor units for over-the-road use. 2012 income tax form Any race horse over 2 years old when placed in service. 2012 income tax form (All race horses placed in service after December 31, 2008, and before January 1, 2014, are deemed to be 3-year property, regardless of age. 2012 income tax form ) Any other horse (other than a race horse) over 12 years old when placed in service. 2012 income tax form Qualified rent-to-own property (defined later). 2012 income tax form 5-year property. 2012 income tax form Automobiles, taxis, buses, and trucks. 2012 income tax form Computers and peripheral equipment. 2012 income tax form Office machinery (such as typewriters, calculators, and copiers). 2012 income tax form Any property used in research and experimentation. 2012 income tax form Breeding cattle and dairy cattle. 2012 income tax form Appliances, carpets, furniture, etc. 2012 income tax form , used in a residential rental real estate activity. 2012 income tax form Certain geothermal, solar, and wind energy property. 2012 income tax form 7-year property. 2012 income tax form Office furniture and fixtures (such as desks, files, and safes). 2012 income tax form Agricultural machinery and equipment. 2012 income tax form Any property that does not have a class life and has not been designated by law as being in any other class. 2012 income tax form Certain motorsports entertainment complex property (defined later) placed in service before January 1, 2014. 2012 income tax form Any natural gas gathering line placed in service after April 11, 2005. 2012 income tax form See Natural gas gathering line and electric transmission property , later. 2012 income tax form 10-year property. 2012 income tax form Vessels, barges, tugs, and similar water transportation equipment. 2012 income tax form Any single purpose agricultural or horticultural structure. 2012 income tax form Any tree or vine bearing fruits or nuts. 2012 income tax form Qualified small electric meter and qualified smart electric grid system (defined later) placed in service on or after October 3, 2008. 2012 income tax form 15-year property. 2012 income tax form Certain improvements made directly to land or added to it (such as shrubbery, fences, roads, sidewalks, and bridges). 2012 income tax form Any retail motor fuels outlet (defined later), such as a convenience store. 2012 income tax form Any municipal wastewater treatment plant. 2012 income tax form Any qualified leasehold improvement property (defined later) placed in service before January 1, 2014. 2012 income tax form Any qualified restaurant property (defined later) placed in service before January 1, 2014. 2012 income tax form Initial clearing and grading land improvements for gas utility property. 2012 income tax form Electric transmission property (that is section 1245 property) used in the transmission at 69 or more kilovolts of electricity placed in service after April 11, 2005. 2012 income tax form See Natural gas gathering line and electric transmission property , later. 2012 income tax form Any natural gas distribution line placed in service after April 11, 2005 and before January 1, 2011. 2012 income tax form Any qualified retail improvement property placed in service before January 1, 2014. 2012 income tax form 20-year property. 2012 income tax form Farm buildings (other than single purpose agricultural or horticultural structures). 2012 income tax form Municipal sewers not classified as 25-year property. 2012 income tax form Initial clearing and grading land improvements for electric utility transmission and distribution plants. 2012 income tax form 25-year property. 2012 income tax form This class is water utility property, which is either of the following. 2012 income tax form Property that is an integral part of the gathering, treatment, or commercial distribution of water, and that, without regard to this provision, would be 20-year property. 2012 income tax form Municipal sewers other than property placed in service under a binding contract in effect at all times since June 9, 1996. 2012 income tax form Residential rental property. 2012 income tax form This is any building or structure, such as a rental home (including a mobile home), if 80% or more of its gross rental income for the tax year is from dwelling units. 2012 income tax form A dwelling unit is a house or apartment used to provide living accommodations in a building or structure. 2012 income tax form It does not include a unit in a hotel, motel, or other establishment where more than half the units are used on a transient basis. 2012 income tax form If you occupy any part of the building or structure for personal use, its gross rental income includes the fair rental value of the part you occupy. 2012 income tax form Nonresidential real property. 2012 income tax form This is section 1250 property, such as an office building, store, or warehouse, that is neither residential rental property nor property with a class life of less than 27. 2012 income tax form 5 years. 2012 income tax form Qualified rent-to-own property. 2012 income tax form   Qualified rent-to-own property is property held by a rent-to-own dealer for purposes of being subject to a rent-to-own contract. 2012 income tax form It is tangible personal property generally used in the home for personal use. 2012 income tax form It includes computers and peripheral equipment, televisions, videocassette recorders, stereos, camcorders, appliances, furniture, washing machines and dryers, refrigerators, and other similar consumer durable property. 2012 income tax form Consumer durable property does not include real property, aircraft, boats, motor vehicles, or trailers. 2012 income tax form   If some of the property you rent to others under a rent-to-own agreement is of a type that may be used by the renters for either personal or business purposes, you still can treat this property as qualified property as long as it does not represent a significant portion of your leasing property. 2012 income tax form However, if this dual-use property does represent a significant portion of your leasing property, you must prove that this property is qualified rent-to-own property. 2012 income tax form Rent-to-own dealer. 2012 income tax form   You are a rent-to-own dealer if you meet all the following requirements. 2012 income tax form You regularly enter into rent-to-own contracts (defined below) in the ordinary course of your business for the use of consumer property. 2012 income tax form A substantial portion of these contracts end with the customer returning the property before making all the payments required to transfer ownership. 2012 income tax form The property is tangible personal property of a type generally used within the home for personal use. 2012 income tax form Rent-to-own contract. 2012 income tax form   This is any lease for the use of consumer property between a rent-to-own dealer and a customer who is an individual which— Is titled “Rent-to-Own Agreement,” “Lease Agreement with Ownership Option,” or other similar language. 2012 income tax form Provides a beginning date and a maximum period of time, not to exceed 156 weeks or 36 months from the beginning date, for which the contract can be in effect (including renewals or options to extend). 2012 income tax form Provides for regular periodic (weekly or monthly) payments that can be either level or decreasing. 2012 income tax form If the payments are decreasing, no payment can be less than 40% of the largest payment. 2012 income tax form Provides for total payments that generally exceed the normal retail price of the property plus interest. 2012 income tax form Provides for total payments that do not exceed $10,000 for each item of property. 2012 income tax form Provides that the customer has no legal obligation to make all payments outlined in the contract and that, at the end of each weekly or monthly payment period, the customer can either continue to use the property by making the next payment or return the property in good working order with no further obligations and no entitlement to a return of any prior payments. 2012 income tax form Provides that legal title to the property remains with the rent-to-own dealer until the customer makes either all the required payments or the early purchase payments required under the contract to acquire legal title. 2012 income tax form Provides that the customer has no right to sell, sublease, mortgage, pawn, pledge, or otherwise dispose of the property until all contract payments have been made. 2012 income tax form Motorsports entertainment complex. 2012 income tax form   This is a racing track facility permanently situated on land that hosts one or more racing events for automobiles, trucks, or motorcycles during the 36-month period after the first day of the month in which the facility is placed in service. 2012 income tax form The events must be open to the public for the price of admission. 2012 income tax form Qualified smart electric grid system. 2012 income tax form   A qualified smart electric grid system means any smart grid property used as part of a system for electric distribution grid communications, monitoring, and management placed in service after October 3, 2008, by a taxpayer who is a supplier of electrical energy or a provider of electrical energy services. 2012 income tax form Smart grid property includes electronics and related equipment that is capable of: Sensing, collecting, and monitoring data of or from all portions of a utility's electric distribution grid, Providing real-time, two-way communications to monitor or to manage the grid, and Providing real-time analysis of an event prediction based on collected data that can be used to provide electric distribution system reliability, quality, and performance. 2012 income tax form Retail motor fuels outlet. 2012 income tax form   Real property is a retail motor fuels outlet if it is used to a substantial extent in the retail marketing of petroleum or petroleum products (whether or not it is also used to sell food or other convenience items) and meets any one of the following three tests. 2012 income tax form It is not larger than 1,400 square feet. 2012 income tax form 50% or more of the gross revenues generated from the property are derived from petroleum sales. 2012 income tax form 50% or more of the floor space in the property is devoted to petroleum marketing sales. 2012 income tax form A retail motor fuels outlet does not include any facility related to petroleum and natural gas trunk pipelines. 2012 income tax form Qualified leasehold improvement property. 2012 income tax form    Generally, this is any improvement to an interior part of a building (placed in service before January 1, 2014) that is nonresidential real property, provided all of the requirements discussed in chapter 3 under Qualified leasehold improvement property are met. 2012 income tax form   In addition, an improvement made by the lessor does not qualify as qualified leasehold improvement property to any subsequent owner unless it is acquired from the original lessor by reason of the lessor's death or in any of the following types of transactions. 2012 income tax form A transaction to which section 381(a) applies, A mere change in the form of conducting the trade or business so long as the property is retained in the trade or business as qualified leasehold improvement property and the taxpayer retains a substantial interest in the trade or business, A like-kind exchange, involuntary conversion, or reacquisition of real property to the extent that the basis in the property represents the carryover basis, or Certain nonrecognition transactions to the extent that your basis in the property is determined by reference to the transferor's or distributor's basis in the property. 2012 income tax form Examples include the following. 2012 income tax form A complete liquidation of a subsidiary. 2012 income tax form A transfer to a corporation controlled by the transferor. 2012 income tax form An exchange of property by a corporation solely for stock or securities in another corporation in a reorganization. 2012 income tax form Qualified restaurant property. 2012 income tax form   Qualified restaurant property is any section 1250 property that is a building placed in service after December 31, 2008, and before January 1, 2014. 2012 income tax form Also, more than 50% of the building's square footage must be devoted to preparation of meals and seating for on-premises consumption of prepared meals. 2012 income tax form Qualified smart electric meter. 2012 income tax form   A qualified smart electric meter is any time-based meter and related communication equipment which is placed in service by a supplier of electric energy or a provider of electric energy services and which is capable of being used by you as part of a system that: Measures and records electricity usage data on a time-differentiated basis in at least 24 separate time segments per day; Provides for the exchange of information between the supplier or provider and the customer's smart electric meter in support of time-based rates or other forms of demand response; Provides data to the supplier or provider so that the supplier or provider can provide energy usage information to customers electronically, and Provides all commercial and residential customers of such supplier or provider with net metering. 2012 income tax form Net metering means allowing a customer a credit, if any, as complies with applicable federal and state laws and regulations for providing electricity to the supplier or provider. 2012 income tax form Natural gas gathering line and electric transmission property. 2012 income tax form   Any natural gas gathering line placed in service after April 11, 2005, is treated as 7-year property, and electric transmission property (that is section 1245 property) used in the transmission at 69 or more kilovolts of electricity and any natural gas distribution line placed in service after April 11, 2005, are treated as 15-year property, if the following requirements are met. 2012 income tax form The original use of the property must have begun with you after April 11, 2005. 2012 income tax form Original use means the first use to which the property is put, whether or not by you. 2012 income tax form Therefore, property used by any person before April 12, 2005, is not original use. 2012 income tax form Original use includes additional capital expenditures you incurred to recondition or rebuild your property. 2012 income tax form However, original use does not include the cost of reconditioned or rebuilt property you acquired. 2012 income tax form Property containing used parts will not be treated as reconditioned or rebuilt if the cost of the used parts is not more than 20% of the total cost of the property. 2012 income tax form The property must not be placed in service under a binding contract in effect before April 12, 2005. 2012 income tax form The property must not be self-constructed property (property you manufacture, construct, or produce for your own use), if you began the manufacture, construction, or production of the property before April 12, 2005. 2012 income tax form Property that is manufactured, constructed, or produced for your use by another person under a written binding contract entered into by you or a related party before the manufacture, construction, or production of the property is considered to be manufactured, constructed, or produced by you. 2012 income tax form What Is the Placed in Service Date? You begin to claim depreciation when your property is placed in service for either use in a trade or business or the production of income. 2012 income tax form The placed in service date for your property is the date the property is ready and available for a specific use. 2012 income tax form It is therefore not necessarily the date it is first used. 2012 income tax form If you converted property held for personal use to use in a trade or business or for the production of income, treat the property as being placed in service on the conversion date. 2012 income tax form See Placed in Service under When Does Depreciation Begin and End in chapter 1 for examples illustrating when property is placed in service. 2012 income tax form What Is the Basis for Depreciation? The basis for depreciation of MACRS property is the property's cost or other basis multiplied by the percentage of business/investment use. 2012 income tax form For a discussion of business/investment use, see Partial business or investment use under Property Used in Your Business or Income-Producing Activity in chapter 1 . 2012 income tax form Reduce that amount by any credits and deductions allocable to the property. 2012 income tax form The following are examples of some credits and deductions that reduce basis. 2012 income tax form Any deduction for section 179 property. 2012 income tax form Any deduction under section 179B of the Internal Revenue Code for capital costs to comply with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur regulations. 2012 income tax form Any deduction under section 179C of the Internal Revenue Code for certain qualified refinery property placed in service after August 8, 2005, and before January 1, 2014. 2012 income tax form Any deduction under section 179D of the Internal Revenue Code for certain energy efficient commercial building property placed in service after December 31, 2005, and before January 1, 2014. 2012 income tax form Any deduction under section 179E of the Internal Revenue Code for qualified advanced mine safety equipment property placed in service after December 20, 2006, and before January 1, 2014 . 2012 income tax form Any deduction for removal of barriers to the disabled and the elderly. 2012 income tax form Any disabled access credit, enhanced oil recovery credit, and credit for employer-provided childcare facilities and services. 2012 income tax form Any special depreciation allowance. 2012 income tax form Basis adjustment for investment credit property under section 50(c) of the Internal Revenue Code. 2012 income tax form For additional credits and deductions that affect basis, see section 1016 of the Internal Revenue Code. 2012 income tax form Enter the basis for depreciation under column (c) in Part III of Form 4562. 2012 income tax form For information about how to determine the cost or other basis of property, see What Is the Basis of Your Depreciable Property in chapter 1 . 2012 income tax form Which Recovery Period Applies? The recovery period of property is the number of years over which you recover its cost or other basis. 2012 income tax form It is determined based on the depreciation system (GDS or ADS) used. 2012 income tax form Recovery Periods Under GDS Under GDS, property that is not qualified Indian reservation property is depreciated over one of the following recovery periods. 2012 income tax form Property Class Recovery Period 3-year property   3 years 1   5-year property   5 years     7-year property   7 years     10-year property   10 years     15-year property   15 years 2   20-year property   20 years     25-year property   25 years 3   Residential rental property   27. 2012 income tax form 5 years     Nonresidential real property   39 years 4   15 years for qualified rent-to-own property placed in service before August 6, 1997. 2012 income tax form 239 years for property that is a retail motor fuels outlet placed in service before August 20, 1996 (31. 2012 income tax form 5 years if placed in service before May 13, 1993), unless you elected to depreciate it over 15 years. 2012 income tax form 320 years for property placed in service before June 13, 1996, or under a binding contract in effect before June 10, 1996. 2012 income tax form 431. 2012 income tax form 5 years for property placed in service before May 13, 1993 (or before January 1, 1994, if the purchase or construction of the property is under a binding contract in effect before May 13, 1993, or if construction began before May 13, 1993). 2012 income tax form The GDS recovery periods for property not listed above can be found in Appendix B, Table of Class Lives and Recovery Periods. 2012 income tax form Residential rental property and nonresidential real property are defined earlier under Which Depreciation System (GDS or ADS) Applies. 2012 income tax form Enter the appropriate recovery period on Form 4562 under column (d) in section B of Part III, unless already shown (for 25-year property, residential rental property, and nonresidential real property). 2012 income tax form Office in the home. 2012 income tax form   If your home is a personal-use single family residence and you begin to use part of your home as an office, depreciate that part of your home as nonresidential real property over 39 years (31. 2012 income tax form 5 years if you began using it for business before May 13, 1993). 2012 income tax form However, if your home is an apartment in an apartment building that you own and the building is residential rental property as defined earlier under Which Depreciation System (GDS or ADS) Applies , depreciate the part used as an office as residential rental property over 27. 2012 income tax form 5 years. 2012 income tax form See Publication 587 for a discussion of the tests you must meet to claim expenses, including depreciation, for the business use of your home. 2012 income tax form Home changed to rental use. 2012 income tax form   If you begin to rent a home that was your personal home before 1987, you depreciate it as residential rental property over 27. 2012 income tax form 5 years. 2012 income tax form Indian Reservation Property The recovery periods for qualified property you placed in service on an Indian reservation after 1993 and before 2014 are shorter than those listed earlier. 2012 income tax form The following table shows these shorter recovery periods. 2012 income tax form Property Class Recovery  Period 3-year property 2 years 5-year property 3 years 7-year property 4 years 10-year property 6 years 15-year property 9 years 20-year property 12 years Nonresidential real property 22 years Nonresidential real property is defined earlier under Which Property Class Applies Under GDS . 2012 income tax form Use this chart to find the correct percentage table to use for qualified Indian reservation property. 2012 income tax form IF your recovery period is: THEN use the following table in Appendix A: 2 years A-21 3 years A-1, A-2, A-3, A-4, or A-5 4 years A-22 6 years A-23 9 years A-14, A-15, A-16, A-17, or A-18 12 years A-14, A-15, A-16, A-17, or A-18 22 years A-24 Qualified property. 2012 income tax form   Property eligible for the shorter recovery periods are 3-, 5-, 7-, 10-, 15-, and 20-year property and nonresidential real property. 2012 income tax form You must use this property predominantly in the active conduct of a trade or business within an Indian reservation. 2012 income tax form The rental of real property that is located on an Indian reservation is treated as the active conduct of a trade or business within an Indian reservation. 2012 income tax form   The following property is not qualified property. 2012 income tax form Property used or located outside an Indian reservation on a regular basis, other than qualified infrastructure property. 2012 income tax form Property acquired directly or indirectly from a related person. 2012 income tax form Property placed in service for purposes of conducting or housing class I, II, or III gaming activities. 2012 income tax form These activities are defined in section 4 of the Indian Regulatory Act (25 U. 2012 income tax form S. 2012 income tax form C. 2012 income tax form 2703). 2012 income tax form Any property you must depreciate under ADS. 2012 income tax form Determine whether property is qualified without regard to the election to use ADS and after applying the special rules for listed property not used predominantly for qualified business use (discussed in chapter 5). 2012 income tax form Qualified infrastructure property. 2012 income tax form   Item (1) above does not apply to qualified infrastructure property located outside the reservation that is used to connect with qualified infrastructure property within the reservation. 2012 income tax form Qualified infrastructure property is property that meets all the following rules. 2012 income tax form It is qualified property, as defined earlier, except that it is outside the reservation. 2012 income tax form It benefits the tribal infrastructure. 2012 income tax form It is available to the general public. 2012 income tax form It is placed in service in connection with the active conduct of a trade or business within a reservation. 2012 income tax form Infrastructure property includes, but is not limited to, roads, power lines, water systems, railroad spurs, and communications facilities. 2012 income tax form Related person. 2012 income tax form   For purposes of item (2) above, see Related persons in the discussion on property owned or used in 1986 under What Method Can You Use To Depreciate Your Property in chapter 1 for a description of related persons. 2012 income tax form Indian reservation. 2012 income tax form   The term Indian reservation means a reservation as defined in section 3(d) of the Indian Financing Act of 1974 (25 U. 2012 income tax form S. 2012 income tax form C. 2012 income tax form 1452(d)) or section 4(10) of the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (25 U. 2012 income tax form S. 2012 income tax form C. 2012 income tax form 1903(10)). 2012 income tax form Section 3(d) of the Indian Financing Act of 1974 defines reservation to include former Indian reservations in Oklahoma. 2012 income tax form For a definition of the term “former Indian reservations in Oklahoma,” see Notice 98-45 in Internal Revenue Bulletin 1998-35. 2012 income tax form Recovery Periods Under ADS The recovery periods for most property generally are longer under ADS than they are under GDS. 2012 income tax form The following table shows some of the ADS recovery periods. 2012 income tax form Property Recovery  Period Rent-to-own property 4 years Automobiles and light duty trucks 5 years Computers and peripheral equipment 5 years High technology telephone station equipment installed on customer premises 5 years High technology medical equipment 5 years Personal property with no class life 12 years Natural gas gathering lines 14 years Single purpose agricultural and horticultural structures 15 years Any tree or vine bearing fruit or nuts 20 years Initial clearing and grading land  improvements for gas utility property 20 years Initial clearing and grading land  improvements for electric utility  transmission and distribution plants 25 years Electric transmission property used in the transmission at 69 or more kilovolts of electricity 30 years Natural gas distribution lines 35 years Any qualified leasehold improvement property 39 years Any qualified restaurant property 39 years Nonresidential real property 40 years Residential rental property 40 years Section 1245 real property not listed in Appendix B 40 years Railroad grading and tunnel bore 50 years The ADS recovery periods for property not listed above can be found in the tables in Appendix B. 2012 income tax form Rent-to-own property, qualified leasehold improvement property, qualified restaurant property, residential rental property, and nonresidential real property are defined earlier under Which Property Class Applies Under GDS . 2012 income tax form Tax-exempt use property subject to a lease. 2012 income tax form   The ADS recovery period for any property leased under a lease agreement to a tax-exempt organization, governmental unit, or foreign person or entity (other than a partnership) cannot be less than 125% of the lease term. 2012 income tax form Additions and Improvements An addition or improvement you make to depreciable property is treated as separate depreciable property. 2012 income tax form See How Do You Treat Repairs and Improvements in chapter 1 for a definition of improvements. 2012 income tax form Its property class and recovery period are the same as those that would apply to the original property if you had placed it in service at the same time you placed the addition or improvement in service. 2012 income tax form The recovery period begins on the later of the following dates. 2012 income tax form The date you place the addition or improvement in service. 2012 income tax form The date you place in service the property to which you made the addition or improvement. 2012 income tax form If the improvement you make is qualified leasehold improvement property, qualified restaurant property, or qualified retail improvement property, the GDS recovery period is 15 years (39 years under ADS). 2012 income tax form Example. 2012 income tax form You own a rental home that you have been renting out since 1981. 2012 income tax form If you put an addition on the home and place the addition in service this year, you would use MACRS to figure your depreciation deduction for the addition. 2012 income tax form Under GDS, the property class for the addition is residential rental property and its recovery period is 27. 2012 income tax form 5 years because the home to which the addition is made would be residential rental property if you had placed it in service this year. 2012 income tax form Which Convention Applies? Under MACRS, averaging conventions establish when the recovery period begins and ends. 2012 income tax form The convention you use determines the number of months for which you can claim depreciation in the year you place property in service and in the year you dispose of the property. 2012 income tax form The mid-month convention. 2012 income tax form   Use this convention for nonresidential real property, residential rental property, and any railroad grading or tunnel bore. 2012 income tax form   Under this convention, you treat all property placed in service or disposed of during a month as placed in service or disposed of at the midpoint of the month. 2012 income tax form This means that a one-half month of depreciation is allowed for the month the property is placed in service or disposed of. 2012 income tax form   Your use of the mid-month convention is indicated by the “MM” already shown under column (e) in Part III of Form 4562. 2012 income tax form The mid-quarter convention. 2012 income tax form   Use this convention if the mid-month convention does not apply and the total depreciable bases of MACRS property you placed in service during the last 3 months of the tax year (excluding nonresidential real property, residential rental property, any railroad grading or tunnel bore, property placed in service and disposed of in the same year, and property that is being depreciated under a method other than MACRS) are more than 40% of the total depreciable bases of all MACRS property you placed in service during the entire year. 2012 income tax form   Under this convention, you treat all property placed in service or disposed of during any quarter of the tax year as placed in service or disposed of at the midpoint of that quarter. 2012 income tax form This means that 1½ months of depreciation is allowed for the quarter the property is placed in service or disposed of. 2012 income tax form   If you use this convention, enter “MQ” under column (e) in Part III of Form 4562. 2012 income tax form    For purposes of determining whether the mid-quarter convention applies, the depreciable basis of property you placed in service during the tax year reflects the reduction in basis for amounts expensed under section 179 and the part of the basis of property attributable to personal use. 2012 income tax form However, it does not reflect any reduction in basis for any special depreciation allowance. 2012 income tax form The half-year convention. 2012 income tax form   Use this convention if neither the mid-quarter convention nor the mid-month convention applies. 2012 income tax form   Under this convention, you treat all property placed in service or disposed of during a tax year as placed in service or disposed of at the midpoint of the year. 2012 income tax form This means that a one-half year of depreciation is allowed for the year the property is placed in service or disposed of. 2012 income tax form   If you use this convention, enter “HY” under column (e) in Part III of Form 4562. 2012 income tax form Which Depreciation Method Applies? MACRS provides three depreciation methods under GDS and one depreciation method under ADS. 2012 income tax form The 200% declining balance method over a GDS recovery period. 2012 income tax form The 150% declining balance method over a GDS recovery period. 2012 income tax form The straight line method over a GDS recovery period. 2012 income tax form The straight line method over an ADS recovery period. 2012 income tax form For property placed in service before 1999, you could have elected the 150% declining balance method using the ADS recovery periods for certain property classes. 2012 income tax form If you made this election, continue to use the same method and recovery period for that property. 2012 income tax form Table 4–1 lists the types of property you can depreciate under each method. 2012 income tax form It also gives a brief explanation of the method, including any benefits that may apply. 2012 income tax form Depreciation Methods for Farm Property If you place personal property in service in a farming business after 1988, you generally must depreciate it under GDS using the 150% declining balance method unless you are a farmer who must depreciate the property under ADS using the straight line method or you elect to depreciate the property under GDS or ADS using the straight line method. 2012 income tax form You can depreciate real property using the straight line method under either GDS or ADS. 2012 income tax form Fruit or nut trees and vines. 2012 income tax form   Depreciate trees and vines bearing fruit or nuts under GDS using the straight line method over a recovery period of 10 years. 2012 income tax form ADS required for some farmers. 2012 income tax form   If you elect not to apply the uniform capitalization rules to any plant produced in your farming business, you must use ADS. 2012 income tax form You must use ADS for all property you place in service in any year the election is in effect. 2012 income tax form See the regulations under section 263A of the Internal Revenue Code for information on the uniform capitalization rules that apply to farm property. 2012 income tax form Electing a Different Method As shown in Table 4–1 , you can elect a different method for depreciation for certain types of property. 2012 income tax form You must make the election by the due date of the return (including extensions) for the year you placed the property in service. 2012 income tax form However, if you timely filed your return for the year without making the election, you still can make the election by filing an amended return within 6 months of the due date of the return (excluding extensions). 2012 income tax form Attach the election to the amended return and write “Filed pursuant to section 301. 2012 income tax form 9100-2” on the election statement. 2012 income tax form File the amended return at the same address you filed the original return. 2012 income tax form Once you make the election, you cannot change it. 2012 income tax form If you elect to use a different method for one item in a property class, you must apply the same method to all property in that class placed in service during the year of the election. 2012 income tax form However, you can make the election on a property-by-property basis for nonresidential real and residential rental property. 2012 income tax form 150% election. 2012 income tax form   Instead of using the 200% declining balance method over the GDS recovery period for nonfarm property in the 3-, 5-, 7-, and 10-year property classes, you can elect to use the 150% declining balance method. 2012 income tax form Make the election by entering “150 DB” under column (f) in Part III of Form 4562. 2012 income tax form Straight line election. 2012 income tax form   Instead of using either the 200% or 150% declining balance methods over the GDS recovery period, you can elect to use the straight line method over the GDS recovery period. 2012 income tax form Make the election by entering  “S/L” under column (f) in Part III of Form 4562. 2012 income tax form Election of ADS. 2012 income tax form   As explained earlier under Which Depreciation System (GDS or ADS) Applies , you can elect to use ADS even though your property may come under GDS. 2012 income tax form ADS uses the straight line method of depreciation over fixed ADS recovery periods. 2012 income tax form Most ADS recovery periods are listed in Appendix B, or see the table under Recovery Periods Under ADS , earlier. 2012 income tax form   Make the election by completing line 20 in Part III of Form 4562. 2012 income tax form Farm property. 2012 income tax form   Instead of using the 150% declining balance method over a GDS recovery period for property you use in a farming business (other than real property), you can elect to depreciate it using either of the following methods. 2012 income tax form The straight line method over a GDS recovery period. 2012 income tax form The straight line method over an ADS recovery period. 2012 income tax form Table 4-1. 2012 income tax form Depreciation Methods Note. 2012 income tax form The declining balance method is abbreviated as DB and the straight line method is abbreviated as SL. 2012 income tax form Method Type of Property Benefit GDS using 200% DB • Nonfarm 3-, 5-, 7-, and 10-year property • Provides a greater deduction during the earlier recovery years • Changes to SL when that method provides an equal or greater deduction GDS using 150% DB • All farm property (except real property) • All 15- and 20-year property (except qualified leasehold improvement property, qualified restaurant property, and qualified retail improvement property placed in service before January 1, 2014) • Nonfarm 3-, 5-, 7-, and 10-year property • Provides a greater deduction during the earlier recovery years • Changes to SL when that method provides an equal or greater deduction1 GDS using SL • Nonresidential real property • Qualified leasehold improvement property placed in service before January 1, 2014 • Qualified restaurant property placed in service before January 1, 2014 • Qualified retail improvement property placed in service before January 1, 2014 • Residential rental property • Trees or vines bearing fruit or nuts • Water utility property • All 3-, 5-, 7-, 10-, 15-, and 20-year property2 • Property for which you elected section 168(k)(4) • Provides for equal yearly deductions (except for the first and last years) ADS using SL • Listed property used 50% or less for business • Property used predominantly outside the U. 2012 income tax form S. 2012 income tax form  • Tax-exempt property • Tax-exempt bond-financed property • Farm property used when an election not to apply the uniform capitalization rules is in effect • Imported property3 • Any property for which you elect to use this method4 • Provides for equal yearly deductions (except for the first and last years) 1The MACRS percentage tables in Appendix A have the switch to the straight line method built into their rates 2See section 168(b)(5) of the Internal Revenue Code. 2012 income tax form 3See section 168(g)(6) of the Internal Revenue Code 4See section 168(g)(7) of the Internal Revenue Code How Is the Depreciation Deduction Figured? To figure your depreciation deduction under MACRS, you first determine the depreciation system, property class, placed in service date, basis amount, recovery period, convention, and depreciation method that applies to your property. 2012 income tax form Then, you are ready to figure your depreciation deduction. 2012 income tax form You can figure it using a percentage table provided by the IRS, or you can figure it yourself without using the table. 2012 income tax form Using the MACRS Percentage Tables To help you figure your deduction under MACRS, the IRS has established percentage tables that incorporate the applicable convention and depreciation method. 2012 income tax form These percentage tables are in Appendix A near the end of this publication. 2012 income tax form Which table to use. 2012 income tax form    Appendix A contains the MACRS Percentage Table Guide, which is designed to help you locate the correct percentage table to use for depreciating your property. 2012 income tax form The percentage tables immediately follow the guide. 2012 income tax form Rules Covering the Use of the Tables The following rules cover the use of the percentage tables. 2012 income tax form You must apply the rates in the percentage tables to your property's unadjusted basis. 2012 income tax form You cannot use the percentage tables for a short tax year. 2012 income tax form See Figuring the Deduction for a Short Tax Year, later, for information on the short tax year rules. 2012 income tax form Once you start using the percentage tables for any item of property, you generally must continue to use them for the entire recovery period of the property. 2012 income tax form You must stop using the tables if you adjust the basis of the property for any reason other than— Depreciation allowed or allowable, or An addition or improvement to that property that is depreciated as a separate item of property. 2012 income tax form Basis adjustments other than those made due to the items listed in (4) include an increase in basis for the recapture of a clean-fuel deduction or credit and a reduction in basis for a casualty loss. 2012 income tax form Basis adjustment due to recapture of clean-fuel vehicle deduction or credit. 2012 income tax form   If you increase the basis of your property because of the recapture of part or all of a deduction for clean-fuel vehicles or the credit for clean-fuel vehicle refueling property placed in service before January 1, 2006, you cannot continue to use the percentage tables. 2012 income tax form For the year of the adjustment and the remaining recovery period, you must figure the depreciation deduction yourself using the property's adjusted basis at the end of the year. 2012 income tax form See Figuring the Deduction Without Using the Tables, later. 2012 income tax form Basis adjustment due to casualty loss. 2012 income tax form   If you reduce the basis of your property because of a casualty, you cannot continue to use the percentage tables. 2012 income tax form For the year of the adjustment and the remaining recovery period, you must figure the depreciation yourself using the property's adjusted basis at the end of the year. 2012 income tax form See Figuring the Deduction Without Using the Tables, later. 2012 income tax form Example. 2012 income tax form On October 26, 2012, Sandra Elm, a calendar year taxpayer, bought and placed in service in her business a new item of 7-year property. 2012 income tax form It cost $39,000 and she elected a section 179 deduction of $24,000. 2012 income tax form She also took a special depreciation allowance of $7,500 [50% of $15,000 ($39,000 − $24,000)]. 2012 income tax form Her unadjusted basis after the section 179 deduction and special depreciation allowance was $7,500 ($15,000 − $7,500). 2012 income tax form She figured her MACRS depreciation deduction using the percentage tables. 2012 income tax form For 2012, her MACRS depreciation deduction was $268. 2012 income tax form In July 2013, the property was vandalized and Sandra had a deductible casualty loss of $3,000. 2012 income tax form She must adjust the property's basis for the casualty loss, so she can no longer use the percentage tables. 2012 income tax form Her adjusted basis at the end of 2013, before figuring her 2013 depreciation, is $4,232. 2012 income tax form She figures that amount by subtracting the 2012 MACRS depreciation of $268 and the casualty loss of $3,000 from the unadjusted basis of $7,500. 2012 income tax form She must now figure her depreciation for 2013 without using the percentage tables. 2012 income tax form Figuring the Unadjusted Basis of Your Property You must apply the table rates to your property's unadjusted basis each year of the recovery period. 2012 income tax form Unadjusted basis is the same basis amount you would use to figure gain on a sale, but you figure it without reducing your original basis by any MACRS depreciation taken in earlier years. 2012 income tax form However, you do reduce your original basis by other amounts, including the following. 2012 income tax form Any amortization taken on the property. 2012 income tax form Any section 179 deduction claimed. 2012 income tax form Any special depreciation allowance taken on the property. 2012 income tax form For business property you purchase during the year, the unadjusted basis is its cost minus these and other applicable adjustments. 2012 income tax form If you trade property, your unadjusted basis in the property received is the cash paid plus the adjusted basis of the property traded minus these adjustments. 2012 income tax form MACRS Worksheet You can use this worksheet to help you figure your depreciation deduction using the percentage tables. 2012 income tax form Use a separate worksheet for each item of property. 2012 income tax form Then, use the information from this worksheet to prepare Form 4562. 2012 income tax form Do not use this worksheet for automobiles. 2012 income tax form Use the Depreciation Worksheet for Passenger Automobiles in chapter 5. 2012 income tax form MACRS Worksheet Part I   1. 2012 income tax form MACRS system (GDS or ADS)   2. 2012 income tax form Property class   3. 2012 income tax form Date placed in service   4. 2012 income tax form Recovery period   5. 2012 income tax form Method and convention   6. 2012 income tax form Depreciation rate (from tables)   Part II   7. 2012 income tax form Cost or other basis* $     8. 2012 income tax form Business/investment use   %   9. 2012 income tax form Multiply line 7 by line 8   $ 10. 2012 income tax form Total claimed for section 179 deduction and other items   $ 11. 2012 income tax form Subtract line 10 from line 9. 2012 income tax form This is your tentative basis for depreciation   $ 12. 2012 income tax form Multiply line 11 by . 2012 income tax form 50 if the 50% special depreciation allowance applies. 2012 income tax form This is your special depreciation allowance. 2012 income tax form Enter -0- if this is not the year you placed the property in service, the property is not qualified property, or you elected not to claim a special allowance   $ 13. 2012 income tax form Subtract line 12 from line 11. 2012 income tax form This is your basis for depreciation     14. 2012 income tax form Depreciation rate (from line 6)     15. 2012 income tax form Multiply line 13 by line 14. 2012 income tax form This is your MACRS depreciation deduction   $ *If real estate, do not include cost (basis) of land. 2012 income tax form The following example shows how to figure your MACRS depreciation deduction using the percentage tables and the MACRS worksheet. 2012 income tax form Example. 2012 income tax form You bought office furniture (7-year property) for $10,000 and placed it in service on August 11, 2013. 2012 income tax form You use the furniture only for business. 2012 income tax form This is the only property you placed in service this year. 2012 income tax form You did not elect a section 179 deduction and the property is not qualified property for purposes of claiming a special depreciation allowance so your property's unadjusted basis is its cost, $10,000. 2012 income tax form You use GDS and the half-year convention to figure your depreciation. 2012 income tax form You refer to the MACRS Percentage Table Guide in Appendix A and find that you should use Table A-1. 2012 income tax form Multiply your property's unadjusted basis each year by the percentage for 7-year property given in Table A-1. 2012 income tax form You figure your depreciation deduction using the MACRS worksheet as follows. 2012 income tax form MACRS Worksheet Part I 1. 2012 income tax form MACRS system (GDS or ADS) GDS 2. 2012 income tax form Property class 7-year 3. 2012 income tax form Date placed in service 8/11/13 4. 2012 income tax form Recovery period 7-Year 5. 2012 income tax form Method and convention 200%DB/Half-Year 6. 2012 income tax form Depreciation rate (from tables) . 2012 income tax form 1429 Part II 7. 2012 income tax form Cost or other basis* $10,000     8. 2012 income tax form Business/investment use 100 %   9. 2012 income tax form Multiply line 7 by line 8   $10,000 10. 2012 income tax form Total claimed for section 179 deduction and other items   -0- 11. 2012 income tax form Subtract line 10 from line 9. 2012 income tax form This is your tentative basis for depreciation   $10,000 12. 2012 income tax form Multiply line 11 by . 2012 income tax form 50 if the 50% special depreciation allowance applies. 2012 income tax form This is your special depreciation allowance. 2012 income tax form Enter -0- if this is not the year you placed the property in service, the property is not qualified property, or you elected not to claim a special allowance   -0- 13. 2012 income tax form Subtract line 12 from line 11. 2012 income tax form This is your basis for depreciation   $10,000 14. 2012 income tax form Depreciation rate (from line 6)   . 2012 income tax form 1429 15. 2012 income tax form Multiply line 13 by line 14. 2012 income tax form This is your MACRS depreciation deduction   $1,429 *If real estate, do not include cost (basis) of land. 2012 income tax form If there are no adjustments to the basis of the property other than depreciation, your depreciation deduction for each subsequent year of the recovery period will be as follows. 2012 income tax form Year   Basis Percentage Deduction 2014 $ 10,000 24. 2012 income tax form 49%   $2,449   2015   10,000 17. 2012 income tax form 49   1,749   2016   10,000 12. 2012 income tax form 49   1,249   2017   10,000 8. 2012 income tax form 93   893   2018   10,000 8. 2012 income tax form 92   892   2019   10,000 8. 2012 income tax form 93   893   2020   10,000 4. 2012 income tax form 46   446   Examples The following examples are provided to show you how to use the percentage tables. 2012 income tax form In both examples, assume the following. 2012 income tax form You use the property only for business. 2012 income tax form You use the calendar year as your tax year. 2012 income tax form You use GDS for all the properties. 2012 income tax form Example 1. 2012 income tax form You bought a building and land for $120,000 and placed it in service on March 8. 2012 income tax form The sales contract showed that the building cost $100,000 and the land cost $20,000. 2012 income tax form It is nonresidential real property. 2012 income tax form The building's unadjusted basis is its original cost, $100,000. 2012 income tax form You refer to the MACRS Percentage Table Guide in Appendix A and find that you should use Table A-7a. 2012 income tax form March is the third month of your tax year, so multiply the building's unadjusted basis, $100,000, by the percentages for the third month in Table A-7a. 2012 income tax form Your depreciation deduction for each of the first 3 years is as follows: Year   Basis Percentage Deduction 1st $ 100,000 2. 2012 income tax form 033%   $2,033   2nd   100,000 2. 2012 income tax form 564   2,564   3rd   100,000 2. 2012 income tax form 564   2,564   Example 2. 2012 income tax form During the year, you bought a machine (7-year property) for $4,000, office furniture (7-year property) for $1,000, and a computer (5-year property) for $5,000. 2012 income tax form You placed the machine in service in January, the furniture in September, and the computer in October. 2012 income tax form You do not elect a section 179 deduction and none of these items is qualified property for purposes of claiming a special depreciation allowance. 2012 income tax form You placed property in service during the last 3 months of the year, so you must first determine if you have to use the mid-quarter convention. 2012 income tax form The total bases of all property you placed in service during the year is $10,000. 2012 income tax form The $5,000 basis of the computer, which you placed in service during the last 3 months (the fourth quarter) of your tax year, is more than 40% of the total bases of all property ($10,000) you placed in service during the year. 2012 income tax form Therefore, you must use the mid-quarter convention for all three items. 2012 income tax form You refer to the MACRS Percentage Table Guide in Appendix A to determine which table you should use under the mid-quarter convention. 2012 income tax form The machine is 7-year property placed in service in the first quarter, so you use Table A-2. 2012 income tax form The furniture is 7-year property placed in service in the third quarter, so you use Table A-4. 2012 income tax form Finally, because the computer is 5-year property placed in service in the fourth quarter, you use Table A-6. 2012 income tax form Knowing what table to use for each property, you figure the depreciation for the first 2 years as follows. 2012 income tax form Year Property Basis Percentage Deduction 1st Machine $4,000 25. 2012 income tax form 00 $1,000   2nd Machine 4,000 21. 2012 income tax form 43 857   1st Furniture 1,000 10. 2012 income tax form 71 107   2nd Furniture 1,000 25. 2012 income tax form 51 255   1st Computer 5,000 5. 2012 income tax form 00 250   2nd Computer 5,000 38. 2012 income tax form 00 1,900   Sale or Other Disposition Before the Recovery Period Ends If you sell or otherwise dispose of your property before the end of its recovery period, your depreciation deduction for the year of the disposition will be only part of the depreciation amount for the full year. 2012 income tax form You have disposed of your property if you have permanently withdrawn it from use in your business or income-producing activity because of its sale, exchange, retirement, abandonment, involuntary conversion, or destruction. 2012 income tax form After you figure the full-year depreciation amount, figure the deductible part using the convention that applies to the property. 2012 income tax form Half-year convention used. 2012 income tax form   For property for which you used a half-year convention, the depreciation deduction for the year of the disposition is half the depreciation determined for the full year. 2012 income tax form Mid-quarter convention used. 2012 income tax form   For property for which you used the mid-quarter convention, figure your depreciation deduction for the year of the disposition by multiplying a full year of depreciation by the percentage listed below for the quarter in which you disposed of the property. 2012 income tax form Quarter Percentage First 12. 2012 income tax form 5% Second 37. 2012 income tax form 5 Third 62. 2012 income tax form 5 Fourth 87. 2012 income tax form 5 Example. 2012 income tax form On December 2, 2010, you placed in service an item of 5-year property costing $10,000. 2012 income tax form You did not claim a section 179 deduction and the property does not qualify for a special depreciation allowance. 2012 income tax form Your unadjusted basis for the property was $10,000. 2012 income tax form You used the mid-quarter convention because this was the only item of business property you placed in service in 2010 and it was placed in service during the last 3 months of your tax year. 2012 income tax form Your property is in the 5-year property class, so you used Table A-5 to figure your depreciation deduction. 2012 income tax form Your deductions for 2010, 2011, and 2012 were $500 (5% of $10,000), $3,800 (38% of $10,000), and $2,280 (22. 2012 income tax form 80% of $10,000). 2012 income tax form You disposed of the property on April 6, 2013. 2012 income tax form To determine your depreciation deduction for 2013, first figure the deduction for the full year. 2012 income tax form This is $1,368 (13. 2012 income tax form 68% of $10,000). 2012 income tax form April is in the second quarter of the year, so you multiply $1,368 by 37. 2012 income tax form 5% to get your depreciation deduction of $513 for 2013. 2012 income tax form Mid-month convention used. 2012 income tax form   If you dispose of residential rental or nonresidential real property, figure your depreciation deduction for the year of the disposition by multiplying a full year of depreciation by a fraction. 2012 income tax form The numerator of the fraction is the number of months (including partial months) in the year that the property is considered in service. 2012 income tax form The denominator is 12. 2012 income tax form Example. 2012 income tax form On July 2, 2011, you purchased and placed in service residential rental property. 2012 income tax form The property cost $100,000, not including the cost of land. 2012 income tax form You used Table A-6 to figure your MACRS depreciation for this property. 2012 income tax form You sold the property on March 2, 2013. 2012 income tax form You file your tax return based on the calendar year. 2012 income tax form A full year of depreciation for 2013 is $3,636. 2012 income tax form This is $100,000 multiplied by . 2012 income tax form 03636 (the percentage for the seventh month of the third recovery year) from Table A-6 . 2012 income tax form You then apply the mid-month convention for the 2½ months of use in 2013. 2012 income tax form Treat the month of disposition as one-half month of use. 2012 income tax form Multiply $3,636 by the fraction, 2. 2012 income tax form 5 over 12, to get your 2013 depreciation deduction of $757. 2012 income tax form 50. 2012 income tax form Figuring the Deduction Without Using the Tables Instead of using the rates in the percentage tables to figure your depreciation deduction, you can figure it yourself. 2012 income tax form Before making the computation each year, you must reduce your adjusted basis in the property by the depreciation claimed the previous year. 2012 income tax form Figuring MACRS deductions without using the tables generally will result in a slightly different amount than using the tables. 2012 income tax form Declining Balance Method When using a declining balance method, you apply the same depreciation rate each year to the adjusted basis of your property. 2012 income tax form You must use the applicable convention for the first tax year and you must switch to the straight line method beginning in the first year for which it will give an equal or greater deduction. 2012 income tax form The straight line method is explained later. 2012 income tax form You figure depreciation for the year you place property in service as follows. 2012 income tax form Multiply your adjusted basis in the property by the declining balance rate. 2012 income tax form Apply the applicable convention. 2012 income tax form You figure depreciation for all other years (before the year you switch to the straight line method) as follows. 2012 income tax form Reduce your adjusted basis in the property by the depreciation allowed or allowable in earlier years. 2012 income tax form Multiply this new adjusted basis by the same declining balance rate used in earlier years. 2012 income tax form If you dispose of property before the end of its recovery period, see Using the Applicable Convention, later, for information on how to figure depreciation for the year you dispose of it. 2012 income tax form Figuring depreciation under the declining balance method and switching to the straight line method is illustrated in Example 1 , later, under Examples. 2012 income tax form Declining balance rate. 2012 income tax form   You figure your declining balance rate by dividing the specified declining balance percentage (150% or 200% changed to a decimal) by the number of years in the property's recovery period. 2012 income tax form For example, for 3-year property depreciated using the 200% declining balance method, divide 2. 2012 income tax form 00 (200%) by 3 to get 0. 2012 income tax form 6667, or a 66. 2012 income tax form 67% declining balance rate. 2012 income tax form For 15-year property depreciated using the 150% declining balance method, divide 1. 2012 income tax form 50 (150%) by 15 to get 0. 2012 income tax form 10, or a 10% declining balance rate. 2012 income tax form   The following table shows the declining balance rate for each property class and the first year for which the straight line method gives an equal or greater deduction. 2012 income tax form Property Class Method Declining Balance Rate Year 3-year 200% DB 66. 2012 income tax form 667% 3rd 5-year 200% DB 40. 2012 income tax form 0 4th 7-year 200% DB 28. 2012 income tax form 571 5th 10-year 200% DB 20. 2012 income tax form 0 7th 15-year 150% DB 10. 2012 income tax form 0 7th 20-year 150% DB 7. 2012 income tax form 5 9th Straight Line Method When using the straight line method, you apply a different depreciation rate each year to the adjusted basis of your property. 2012 income tax form You must use the applicable convention in the year you place the property in service and the year you dispose of the property. 2012 income tax form You figure depreciation for the year you place property in service as follows. 2012 income tax form Multiply your adjusted basis in the property by the straight line rate. 2012 income tax form Apply the applicable convention. 2012 income tax form You figure depreciation for all other years (including the year you switch from the declining balance method to the straight line method) as follows. 2012 income tax form Reduce your adjusted basis in the property by the depreciation allowed or allowable in earlier years (under any method). 2012 income tax form Determine the depreciation rate for the year. 2012 income tax form Multiply the adjusted basis figured in (1) by the depreciation rate figured in (2). 2012 income tax form If you dispose of property before the end of its recovery period, see Using the Applicable Convention , later, for information on how to figure depreciation for the year you dispose of it. 2012 income tax form Straight line rate. 2012 income tax form   You determine the straight line depreciation rate for any tax year by dividing the number 1 by the years remaining in the recovery period at the beginning of that year. 2012 income tax form When figuring the number of years remaining, you must take into account the convention used in the year you placed the property in service. 2012 income tax form If the number of years remaining is less than 1, the depreciation rate for that tax year is 1. 2012 income tax form 0 (100%). 2012 income tax form Using the Applicable Convention The applicable convention (discussed earlier under Which Convention Applies ) affects how you figure your depreciation deduction for the year you place your property in service and for the year you dispose of it. 2012 income tax form It determines how much of the recovery period remains at the beginning of each year, so it also affects the depreciation rate for property you depreciate under the straight line method. 2012 income tax form See Straight line rate in the previous discussion. 2012 income tax form Use the applicable convention as explained in the following discussions. 2012 income tax form Half-year convention. 2012 income tax form   If this convention applies, you deduct a half-year of depreciation for the first year and the last year that you depreciate the property. 2012 income tax form You deduct a full year of depreciation for any other year during the recovery period. 2012 income tax form   Figure your depreciation deduction for the year you place the property in service by dividing the depreciation for a full year by 2. 2012 income tax form If you dispose of the property before the end of the recovery period, figure your depreciation deduction for the year of the disposition the same way. 2012 income tax form If you hold the property for the entire recovery period, your depreciation deduction for the year that includes the final 6 months of the recovery period is the amount of your unrecovered basis in the property. 2012 income tax form Mid-quarter convention. 2012 income tax form   If this convention applies, the depreciation you can deduct for the first year you depreciate the property depends on the quarter in which you place the property in service. 2012 income tax form   A quarter of a full 12-month tax year is a period of 3 months. 2012 income tax form The first quarter in a year begins on the first day of the tax year. 2012 income tax form The second quarter begins on the first day of the fourth month of the tax year. 2012 income tax form The third quarter begins on the first day of the seventh month of the tax year. 2012 income tax form The fourth quarter begins on the first day of the tenth month of the tax year. 2012 income tax form A calendar year is divided into the following quarters. 2012 income tax form Quarter Months First January, February, March Second April, May, June Third July, August, September Fourth October, November, December   Figure your depreciation deduction for the year you place the property in service by multiplying the depreciation for a full year by the percentage listed below for the quarter you place the property in service. 2012 income tax form Quarter Percentage First 87. 2012 income tax form 5% Second 62. 2012 income tax form 5 Third 37. 2012 income tax form 5 Fourth 12. 2012 income tax form 5   If you dispose of the property before the end of the recovery period, figure your depreciation deduction for the year of the disposition by multiplying a full year of depreciation by the percentage listed below for the quarter you dispose of the property. 2012 income tax form Quarter Percentage First 12. 2012 income tax form 5% Second 37. 2012 income tax form 5 Third 62. 2012 income tax form 5 Fourth 87. 2012 income tax form 5   If you hold the property for the entire recovery period, your depreciation deduction for the year that includes the final quarter of the recovery period is the amount of your unrecovered basis in the property. 2012 income tax form Mid-month convention. 2012 income tax form   If this convention applies, the depreciation you can deduct for the first year that you depreciate the property depends on the month in which you place the property in service. 2012 income tax form Figure your depreciation deduction for the year you place the property in service by multiplying the depreciation for a full year by a fraction. 2012 income tax form The numerator of the fraction is the number of full months in the year that the property is in service plus ½ (or 0. 2012 income tax form 5). 2012 income tax form The denominator is 12. 2012 income tax form   If you dispose of the property before the end of the recovery period, figure your depreciation deduction for the year of the disposition the same way. 2012 income tax form If you hold the property for the entire recovery period, your depreciation deduction for the year that includes the final month of the recovery period is the amount of your unrecovered basis in the property. 2012 income tax form Example. 2012 income tax form You use the calendar year and place nonresidential real property in service in August. 2012 income tax form The property is in service 4 full months (September, October, November, and December). 2012 income tax form Your numerator is 4. 2012 income tax form 5 (4 full months plus 0. 2012 income tax form 5). 2012 income tax form You multiply the depreciation for a full year by 4. 2012 income tax form 5/12, or 0. 2012 income tax form 375. 2012 income tax form Examples The following examples show how to figure depreciation under MACRS without using the percentage tables. 2012 income tax form Figures are rounded for purposes of the examples. 2012 income tax form Assume for all the examples that you use a calendar year as your tax year. 2012 income tax form Example 1—200% DB method and half-year convention. 2012 income tax form In February, you placed in service depreciable property with a 5-year recovery period and a basis of $1,000. 2012 income tax form You do not elect to take the section 179 deduction and the property does not qualify for a special depreciation allowance. 2012 income tax form You use GDS and the 200% declining balance (DB) method to figure your depreciation. 2012 income tax form When the straight line (SL) method results in an equal or larger deduction, you switch to the SL method. 2012 income tax form You did not place any property in service in the last 3 months of the year, so you must use the half-year convention. 2012 income tax form First year. 2012 income tax form You figure the depreciation rate under the 200% DB method by dividing 2 (200%) by 5 (the number of years in the recovery period). 2012 income tax form The result is 40%. 2012 income tax form You multiply the adjusted basis of the property ($1,000) by the 40% DB rate. 2012 income tax form You apply the half-year convention by dividing the result ($400) by 2. 2012 income tax form Depreciation for the first year under the 200% DB method is $200. 2012 income tax form You figure the depreciation rate under the straight line (SL) method by dividing 1 by 5, the number of years in the recovery period. 2012 income tax form The result is 20%. 2012 income tax form You multiply the adjusted basis of the property ($1,000) by the 20% SL rate. 2012 income tax form You apply the half-year convention by dividing the result ($200) by 2. 2012 income tax form Depreciation for the first year under the SL method is $100. 2012 income tax form The DB method provides a larger deduction, so you deduct the $200 figured under the 200% DB method. 2012 income tax form Second year. 2012 income tax form You reduce the adjusted basis ($1,000) by the depreciation claimed in the first year ($200). 2012 income tax form You multiply the result ($800) by the DB rate (40%). 2012 income tax form Depreciation for the second year under the 200% DB method is $320. 2012 income tax form You figure the SL depreciation rate by dividing 1 by 4. 2012 income tax form 5, the number of years remaining in the recovery period. 2012 income tax form (Based on the half-year convention, you used only half a year of the recovery period in the first year. 2012 income tax form ) You multiply the reduced adjusted basis ($800) by the result (22. 2012 income tax form 22%). 2012 income tax form Depreciation under the SL method for the second year is $178. 2012 income tax form The DB method provides a larger deduction, so you deduct the $320 figured under the 200% DB method. 2012 income tax form Third year. 2012 income tax form You reduce the adjusted basis ($800) by the depreciation claimed in the second year ($320). 2012 income tax form You multiply the result ($480) by the DB rate (40%). 2012 income tax form Depreciation for the third year under the 200% DB method is $192. 2012 income tax form You figure the SL depreciation rate by dividing 1 by 3. 2012 income tax form 5. 2012 income tax form You multiply the reduced adjusted basis ($480) by the result (28. 2012 income tax form 57%). 2012 income tax form Depreciation under the SL method for the third year is $137. 2012 income tax form The DB method provides a larger deduction, so you deduct the $192 figured under the 200% DB method. 2012 income tax form Fourth year. 2012 income tax form You reduce the adjusted basis ($480) by the de
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The 2012 Income Tax Form

2012 income tax form Index A Administrative adjustment requests, Amended Returns and Administrative Adjustment Requests (AARs) Allocations Built-in gain or loss, Allocations to account for built-in gain or loss. 2012 income tax form Installment sale, Installment reporting for sale of partnership interest. 2012 income tax form Amended returns, Amended Returns and Administrative Adjustment Requests (AARs) Assistance (see Tax help) B Built-in gain or loss, Allocations to account for built-in gain or loss. 2012 income tax form C C corporation, TEFRA, Small Partnerships and the Small Partnership Exception Capital interest, Capital interest. 2012 income tax form , Capital interest. 2012 income tax form Comments on publication, Comments and suggestions. 2012 income tax form Contribution Basis of property, Basis of contributed property. 2012 income tax form Built-in gain or loss, Allocations to account for built-in gain or loss. 2012 income tax form Distribution of property, Distribution of contributed property to another partner. 2012 income tax form Net precontribution gain, Net precontribution gain. 2012 income tax form Property, Contribution of Property Services, Contribution of Services D Definition, partnership, Forming a Partnership Determining ownership, More than 50% ownership. 2012 income tax form Distributions Gain or loss, Partner's Gain or Loss Partner's debt, Distribution of partner's debt. 2012 income tax form Partnership, Partnership Distributions Distributive share Adjusted basis, Adjusted Basis Guaranteed payments, Guaranteed Payments E e-file, IRS e-file (Electronic Filing) Electronic filing, IRS e-file (Electronic Filing) F Family partnership, Family Partnership Form 8275, Form 8275 required. 2012 income tax form 8308, Information return required of partnership. 2012 income tax form 8832, Organizations formed after 1996. 2012 income tax form 8865, Contribution to foreign partnership. 2012 income tax form G Guaranteed payments, Guaranteed Payments I Insurance, self-employed health, Self-employed health insurance premiums. 2012 income tax form Inventory items, substantially appreciated, Substantially appreciated inventory items. 2012 income tax form L Liability Assumption of, Assumption of liability. 2012 income tax form Partner's assumed by partnership, Partner's liabilities assumed by partnership. 2012 income tax form Partnership's, Effect of Partnership Liabilities Limited liability company, Limited liability company. 2012 income tax form Liquidation Constructive, Constructive liquidation. 2012 income tax form Partner's interest, Complete liquidation of partner's interest. 2012 income tax form Partner's retirement or death, Liquidation at Partner's Retirement or Death Losses Sales or exchanges, Losses. 2012 income tax form M Marketable securities, Marketable securities treated as money. 2012 income tax form N Notice group, TEFRA, Notice group. 2012 income tax form Notice partner, TEFRA, Notice partner. 2012 income tax form P Partner's Basis Distributed property, Partner's Basis for Distributed Property Partnership interest, Basis of Partner's Interest Interest Acquired by gift, Interest acquired by gift, etc. 2012 income tax form Alternative rule, adjusted basis, Alternative rule for figuring adjusted basis. 2012 income tax form Basis, Basis of Partner's Interest Basis adjustments, Adjusted Basis Book value, Book value of partner's interest. 2012 income tax form Liquidation of, Complete liquidation of partner's interest. 2012 income tax form , Liquidation at Partner's Retirement or Death Mandatory basis adjustment, Mandatory adjustment. 2012 income tax form Sale, exchange, transfer, Sale, Exchange, or Other Transfer Special basis adjustment, Special adjustment to basis. 2012 income tax form Transactions with partnership, Transactions Between Partnership and Partners Partnership Abandoned or worthless interest, Abandoned or worthless partnership interest. 2012 income tax form Agreement, Partnership Agreement Basis, contributed property, Basis of contributed property. 2012 income tax form Capital interest, Capital interest. 2012 income tax form Defined, Forming a Partnership Exclusion from rules, Exclusion From Partnership Rules Family, Family Partnership Forming, Forming a Partnership Liabilities, Effect of Partnership Liabilities Terminating, Terminating a Partnership Transactions with partner, Transactions Between Partnership and Partners Partnership item, TEFRA, Partnership Item. 2012 income tax form Precontribution gain, Net precontribution gain. 2012 income tax form Profits interest, Profits interest. 2012 income tax form Publications (see Tax help) R Related person, Related person. 2012 income tax form S Self-employed health insurance, Self-employed health insurance premiums. 2012 income tax form Short period return, Short period return. 2012 income tax form Small partnership exception to TEFRA, Small Partnerships and the Small Partnership Exception, Small Partnership TEFRA Election Statute of Limitations and TEFRA, Statute of Limitations and TEFRA Substantially appreciated inventory items, Substantially appreciated inventory items. 2012 income tax form Suggestions for publication, Comments and suggestions. 2012 income tax form T Tax help, How To Get Tax Help Tax matters partner, Role of Tax Matters Partner (TMP) in TEFRA Proceedings Tax withholding, foreign person or firm, Withholding on foreign partner or firm. 2012 income tax form TEFRA, Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982 (TEFRA) Terminating a partnership, Terminating a Partnership TTY/TDD information, How To Get Tax Help U Uniform Limited Partnership ACT (ULPA), Role of Tax Matters Partner (TMP) in TEFRA Proceedings Unrealized receivables, Unrealized receivables. 2012 income tax form Prev  Up     Home   More Online Publications