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2012 Tax Return Software

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2012 Tax Return Software

2012 tax return software 25. 2012 tax return software   Pérdidas por Hecho Fortuito y Robo no Relacionadas con los Negocios Table of Contents Qué Hay de Nuevo Introduction Useful Items - You may want to see: Hecho FortuitoMascota de la familia. 2012 tax return software Deterioro progresivo. 2012 tax return software Daños ocasionados por paneles de yeso (drywall) corrosivos. 2012 tax return software Robo Pérdidas de Depósitos Comprobación de las Pérdidas Cómo Calcular una PérdidaDisminución del Valor Justo de Mercado Base Ajustada Seguro y Otros Reembolsos Un Solo Hecho Fortuito en Bienes Múltiples Límites de la DeducciónRegla de los $100 Regla del 10% Cuándo Declarar Ganancias y PérdidasPérdidas en Zonas de Desastre Cómo Declarar Ganancias y Pérdidas Qué Hay de Nuevo Nueva Sección C en el Formulario 4684 para esquemas de inversión de tipo Ponzi (Ponzi-type schemes). 2012 tax return software  La Sección C del Formulario 4684 (disponible en inglés) es nueva para el año 2013. 2012 tax return software Usted debe completar la Sección C si está reclamando una deducción de pérdida por robo debido a un esquema de inversión de tipo Ponzi (Ponzi-type scheme) y estará usando el Procedimiento Tributario (Revenue Procedure) 2009-20, según modificado por el Procedimiento Tributario (Revenue Procedure) 2011-58. 2012 tax return software La Sección C del Formulario 4864 reemplaza el Anexo A del Procedimiento Tributario (Revenue Procedure) 2009-20. 2012 tax return software No necesita completar el Anexo A. 2012 tax return software Para más información, vea Pérdidas provenientes de esquemas de inversión de tipo Ponzi (Ponzi-type schemes) en este capítulo. 2012 tax return software Introduction Este capítulo explica el trato tributario de pérdidas personales (no relacionadas con los negocios o las inversiones) por hecho fortuito, pérdidas por robo y pérdidas en depósitos. 2012 tax return software Este capítulo también presenta los siguientes temas: Cómo calcular el monto de su pérdida. 2012 tax return software Cómo considerar seguros y otros reembolsos que reciba. 2012 tax return software Límites de la deducción. 2012 tax return software Cuándo y cómo declarar la ocurrencia de un hecho fortuito o robo. 2012 tax return software Formularios que tiene que presentar. 2012 tax return software    Si es víctima de un hecho fortuito o robo, tiene que presentar el Formulario 4684, en inglés. 2012 tax return software Asimismo, tiene que presentar por lo menos uno de los siguientes formularios, todos en inglés: Anexo A (Formulario 1040), Itemized Deductions (Deducciones detalladas). 2012 tax return software Anexo D (Formulario 1040), Capital Gains and Losses (Ganancias y pérdidas de capital). 2012 tax return software Expropiaciones forzosas. 2012 tax return software   Para obtener información sobre expropiaciones de propiedad, vea Involuntary Conversions (Conversiones involuntarias) en el capítulo 1 de la Publicación 544, Sales and other Disposition of Assets (Ventas y otras enajenaciones de bienes), en inglés. 2012 tax return software Registro para el cálculo de pérdidas por hecho fortuito y robo. 2012 tax return software    La Publicación 584SP está a su disposición para ayudarle a hacer una lista de artículos de propiedad personal que hayan sido robados o hayan sufrido daños, y luego calcular su pérdida. 2012 tax return software En dicha publicación se incluyen tablas para ayudarle a calcular el monto de las pérdidas de su casa, artículos del hogar y sus vehículos motorizados. 2012 tax return software Pérdidas relacionadas con negocios o inversiones. 2012 tax return software   Para obtener información sobre pérdidas de propiedad de un negocio o de generación de ingresos debido a hechos fortuitos o robo, vea la Publicación 547(SP), Hechos Fortuitos, Desastres y Robos. 2012 tax return software Useful Items - You may want to see: Publicación 544 Sales and Other Dispositions of Assets (Ventas y otras enajenaciones de activos), en inglés 547(SP) Hechos Fortuitos, Desastres y Robos 584SP Registro de Pérdidas por Hechos Fortuitos (Imprevistos), Desastres y Robos (Propiedad de uso personal)  Formulario (e Instrucciones) Anexo A (Formulario 1040) Itemized Deductions (Deducciones detalladas), en inglés Anexo D (Formulario 1040) Capital Gains and Losses (Ganancias y pérdidas de capital), en inglés 4684 Casualties and Thefts (Hechos fortuitos y robos), en inglés Hecho Fortuito Un hecho fortuito es el daño, la destrucción o la pérdida de propiedad ocasionados por un acontecimiento identificable y repentino, inesperado o poco común. 2012 tax return software Un acontecimiento repentino es aquél que ocurre rápidamente; no es paulatino ni progresivo. 2012 tax return software Un acontecimiento inesperado es aquél que comúnmente no se anticipa ni es intencionado. 2012 tax return software Un acontecimiento poco común es aquél que no ocurre a diario y no es algo típico dentro de las actividades que usted realiza. 2012 tax return software Pérdidas deducibles. 2012 tax return software   Las pérdidas deducibles por hechos fortuitos pueden deberse a diversas causas, entre ellas: Accidentes automovilísticos (vea las excepciones en el tema Pérdidas no deducibles , que aparece a continuación). 2012 tax return software Terremotos. 2012 tax return software Incendios (vea las excepciones en el tema Pérdidas no deducibles , que aparece a continuación). 2012 tax return software Inundaciones. 2012 tax return software Demolición o reubicación de una vivienda poco segura por orden del gobierno debido a un desastre, como se explica en la sección Pérdidas en Zonas de Desastre en la Publicación 547(SP). 2012 tax return software Hundimientos (derrumbes) de minas. 2012 tax return software Naufragios. 2012 tax return software Estallidos supersónicos. 2012 tax return software Tormentas, incluidos huracanes y tornados. 2012 tax return software Ataques terroristas. 2012 tax return software Vandalismo. 2012 tax return software Erupciones volcánicas. 2012 tax return software Pérdidas no deducibles. 2012 tax return software   Una pérdida por hecho fortuito no es deducible si el daño o la destrucción ha sido causado por los siguientes factores: El quiebre accidental de artículos como, por ejemplo, vasos o vajilla fina en condiciones normales. 2012 tax return software Una mascota de la familia (se explica más adelante). 2012 tax return software Un incendio si usted, por voluntad propia, lo prendió o le pagó a alguien para que lo prendiera. 2012 tax return software Un accidente automovilístico si éste fue causado por su propia negligencia o acto voluntario. 2012 tax return software Esto también es aplicable si el acto o negligencia de alguna persona que actuaba en nombre suyo fue causa del accidente. 2012 tax return software Deterioro progresivo (explicado más adelante). 2012 tax return software Mascota de la familia. 2012 tax return software   La pérdida de bienes debido a daños causados por una mascota de la familia no es deducible como pérdida por hecho fortuito a menos que se cumplan los requisitos indicados anteriormente bajo Hecho Fortuito . 2012 tax return software Ejemplo. 2012 tax return software Antes de acostumbrarse a su casa, su nuevo cachorro causó daños a su alfombra oriental antigua. 2012 tax return software Debido a que los daños no fueron inesperados ni fuera de lo común, la pérdida resultante no se puede deducir como pérdida por hecho fortuito. 2012 tax return software Deterioro progresivo. 2012 tax return software    La pérdida de propiedad por causa de deterioro progresivo no es deducible como hecho fortuito. 2012 tax return software Esto se debe a que el daño ocurre como resultado de un funcionamiento permanente o un proceso normal, en lugar de ser resultado de un acontecimiento repentino. 2012 tax return software A continuación se presentan algunos ejemplos de daños producidos por el deterioro progresivo: El debilitamiento continuo de un edificio debido al viento normal y las condiciones del tiempo. 2012 tax return software El deterioro y daño causados a un calentador de agua que explota. 2012 tax return software Sin embargo, el óxido y el daño por el agua a alfombras y cortinas al explotar el calentador, sí se considera hecho fortuito. 2012 tax return software La mayoría de las pérdidas de propiedad por motivo de sequía. 2012 tax return software Para que una pérdida relacionada con sequía sea deducible, por lo general, tiene que ocurrir durante un oficio o negocio o alguna transacción en la que se participe con fines de lucro. 2012 tax return software Daño por termitas o polillas. 2012 tax return software El daño o destrucción de árboles, arbustos u otras plantas, causado por hongos, enfermedades, insectos, gusanos o pestes similares. 2012 tax return software Sin embargo, si ocurre una destrucción repentina debido a una infestación poco común de escarabajos u otros insectos, ésta puede dar lugar a una pérdida por hecho fortuito. 2012 tax return software Daños ocasionados por paneles de yeso (drywall) corrosivos. 2012 tax return software   Conforme a un procedimiento especial, es posible que pueda reclamar una deducción por pérdidas fortuitas si su vivienda y sus electrodomésticos quedaron dañados por paneles de yeso corrosivos y usted pagó los costos para reparar dichos bienes. 2012 tax return software Para información adicional, vea la Publicación 547(SP). 2012 tax return software Robo Un robo es el acto de tomar y sacar dinero o propiedad con la intención de privar al dueño de éstos. 2012 tax return software Tomar la propiedad tiene que ser ilegal conforme a las leyes del estado donde el robo tuvo lugar y tiene que haberse realizado con intenciones delictivas. 2012 tax return software No es necesario indicar una condena por robo. 2012 tax return software Un robo incluye tomar dinero o propiedad a través de los siguientes medios: Chantaje. 2012 tax return software Escalamiento (violación de domicilio). 2012 tax return software Malversación. 2012 tax return software Extorsión. 2012 tax return software Secuestro para exigir rescate. 2012 tax return software Hurto. 2012 tax return software Robo. 2012 tax return software Tomar dinero o bienes mediante fraude o declaraciones falsas constituye robo si es un acto ilegal conforme a las leyes estatales o locales. 2012 tax return software Disminución del valor de mercado de acciones. 2012 tax return software   No puede deducir como pérdida por robo la disminución del valor de las acciones que haya adquirido en el mercado abierto con fines de inversión si dicha disminución es causada por la revelación de un fraude contable u otro tipo de conducta ilegal por parte de los funcionarios o directores de la entidad que emitió las acciones. 2012 tax return software Sin embargo, puede deducir como pérdida de capital la pérdida que haya tenido al vender o intercambiar las acciones o si éstas pierden totalmente su valor. 2012 tax return software Se declara una pérdida de capital en el Anexo D (Formulario 1040), en inglés. 2012 tax return software Para obtener más información sobre la venta de acciones, acciones sin valor y pérdidas de capital, vea el capítulo 4 de la Publicación 550, en inglés. 2012 tax return software Propiedad extraviada o perdida. 2012 tax return software   La simple desaparición de dinero o propiedad no constituye un robo. 2012 tax return software Sin embargo, una pérdida o desaparición accidental de propiedad puede considerarse hecho fortuito si es el resultado de un acontecimiento identificable que ocurre de manera repentina, inesperada o poco común. 2012 tax return software Los acontecimientos repentinos, inesperados y poco comunes se definen en una sección anterior. 2012 tax return software Ejemplo. 2012 tax return software Se cierra una puerta de su automóvil accidentalmente en su mano y rompe el engaste de su anillo de diamante. 2012 tax return software El diamante se cae del anillo y nunca lo pudo encontrar. 2012 tax return software La pérdida del diamante es un hecho fortuito. 2012 tax return software Pérdidas provenientes de esquemas de inversión de tipo Ponzi (Ponzi-type schemes). 2012 tax return software   Si sufrió una pérdida por un esquema de inversión de tipo Ponzi, vea: la Resolución Administrativa Tributaria (Revenue Ruling) 2009-9, 2009-14 I. 2012 tax return software R. 2012 tax return software B. 2012 tax return software 735 (disponible en el sitio www. 2012 tax return software irs. 2012 tax return software gov/irb/2009-14_IRB/ar07. 2012 tax return software html). 2012 tax return software el Procedimiento Tributario (Revenue Procedure) 2009-20, 2009-14 I. 2012 tax return software R. 2012 tax return software B. 2012 tax return software 749 (disponible en el sitio www. 2012 tax return software irs. 2012 tax return software gov/irb/2009-14_IRB/ar11. 2012 tax return software html). 2012 tax return software el Procedimiento Tributario (Revenue Procedure) 2011-58, 2011-50 I. 2012 tax return software R. 2012 tax return software B. 2012 tax return software 849 (disponible en el sitio www. 2012 tax return software irs. 2012 tax return software gov/irb/2011-50_IRB/ar11. 2012 tax return software html). 2012 tax return software Si reúne los requisitos y opta por seguir los procedimientos indicados en el Procedimiento Tributario (Revenue Procedure) 2009-20, según modificado por el Procedimiento Tributario (Revenue Procedure) 2011-58, primero debe completar la Sección C del Formulario 4684, en inglés, para determinar la cantidad a entrar en la línea 28 de la Sección B. 2012 tax return software No complete las líneas 19 a la 27. 2012 tax return software La Sección C reemplaza al Anexo A del Procedimiento Tributario (Revenue Procedure) 2009-20. 2012 tax return software No necesita completar el Anexo A. 2012 tax return software Para información adicional, vea la orden reglamentaria sobre impuestos y los procedimientos tributarios mencionados anteriormente y las Instrucciones para el Formulario 4684. 2012 tax return software   Si escoge no utilizar el procedimiento del Procedimiento Tributario (Revenue Procedure) 2009-20, usted puede declarar su pérdida por robo completando las líneas 19 a la 39 de la Sección B, según corresponda. 2012 tax return software Pérdidas de Depósitos Una pérdida de depósitos monetarios puede ocurrir cuando un banco, una cooperativa de crédito u otra institución financiera se declara insolvente o en quiebra (bancarrota). 2012 tax return software Si usted ha sufrido este tipo de pérdida, puede escoger uno de los métodos siguientes para deducir dicha pérdida: Pérdida por hechos fortuitos. 2012 tax return software Pérdida ordinaria. 2012 tax return software Deuda incobrable no relacionada con los negocios. 2012 tax return software Pérdida ordinaria o por hechos fortuitos. 2012 tax return software   Tiene la opción de deducir una pérdida de depósitos como hecho fortuito o como pérdida ordinaria, cualquier año en el que pueda calcular de manera razonable la cantidad de depósitos que ha perdido en una institución financiera insolvente o en quiebra. 2012 tax return software Generalmente puede escoger esta opción cuando presente su declaración de impuestos para ese año y es aplicable a todas las pérdidas en depósitos que haya tenido ese año y en esa institución financiera en particular. 2012 tax return software Si trata la pérdida como pérdida por hecho fortuito o pérdida ordinaria, no puede considerar la misma cantidad de la pérdida como deuda incobrable no relacionada con los negocios cuando dicha cantidad pierda su valor total. 2012 tax return software Sin embargo, sí puede tomar una deducción por deuda incobrable no relacionada con los negocios por todo monto de pérdida cuyo valor sea superior a la cantidad estimada que dedujo como pérdida por hecho fortuito o pérdida ordinaria. 2012 tax return software Una vez que haya tomado esta opción, no puede cambiarla sin autorización del IRS. 2012 tax return software   Si declara una pérdida ordinaria, reclámela como una deducción miscelánea detallada en la línea 23 del Anexo A (Formulario 1040). 2012 tax return software La cantidad máxima que puede reclamar es $20,000 ($10,000 si es casado y presenta la declaración por separado), menos toda ganancia que espere recibir de algún seguro estatal. 2012 tax return software El monto de la pérdida está sujeto al límite del 2% del ingreso bruto ajustado. 2012 tax return software No puede declarar una pérdida ordinaria si alguna parte de dichos depósitos está asegurada por el gobierno federal. 2012 tax return software Deudas incobrables no relacionadas con los negocios. 2012 tax return software   Si decide no deducir la pérdida como pérdida por hecho fortuito o pérdida ordinaria, tendrá que esperar hasta el año en que se determine la pérdida real y entonces deducirla en ese año como deuda incobrable no relacionada con los negocios. 2012 tax return software Cómo hacer la declaración. 2012 tax return software   El tipo de deducción que escoja para su pérdida de depósitos determinará cómo debe declarar su pérdida. 2012 tax return software Si escoge: Pérdida por hecho fortuito — declárela primero en el Formulario 4684 y luego en el Anexo A del Formulario 1040, ambos en inglés. 2012 tax return software Pérdida ordinaria — declárela en el Anexo A del Formulario 1040 como una deducción miscelánea detallada. 2012 tax return software Deuda incobrable no relacionada con los negocios — declárela primero en el Formulario 8949 y luego en el Anexo D del Formulario 1040, ambos en inglés. 2012 tax return software Información adicional. 2012 tax return software   Para más información, vea la sección titulada Special Treatment for Losses on Deposits in Insolvent or Bankrupt Financial Institutions (Trato especial para pérdidas de depósitos en instituciones financieras insolventes o en quiebra) en las instrucciones del Formulario 4684 o Deposit in Insolvent or Bankrupt Financial Institution (Depósito en una institución financiera insolvente o en quiebra) en la Publicación 550, ambas en inglés. 2012 tax return software Comprobación de las Pérdidas Para poder deducir una pérdida por hecho fortuito o una pérdida por robo, tiene que poder demostrar que dicho hecho fortuito o robo ocurrió. 2012 tax return software También tiene que poder justificar la cantidad que declare como deducción. 2012 tax return software Comprobación de las pérdidas por hecho fortuito. 2012 tax return software   Para deducir una pérdida por hecho fortuito, sus datos deben mostrar todo lo siguiente: El tipo de hecho fortuito (accidente automovilístico, incendio, tormenta, etc. 2012 tax return software ) y la fecha en que ocurrió. 2012 tax return software Que la pérdida ocurrió como resultado directo de dicho hecho fortuito. 2012 tax return software Que usted era dueño de la propiedad o, si la alquilaba de otra persona, que usted tenía la responsabilidad contractual hacia el dueño por los daños. 2012 tax return software Si existe una solicitud de reembolso con expectativas razonables de recibirlo. 2012 tax return software Comprobación de las pérdidas por robo. 2012 tax return software   Para deducir una pérdida por robo, sus datos deben mostrar todo lo siguiente: La fecha en la que descubrió que su propiedad había desaparecido. 2012 tax return software Que su propiedad fue robada. 2012 tax return software Que usted era el dueño de dicha propiedad. 2012 tax return software Si existe una solicitud de reembolso con expectativas razonables de recibirlo. 2012 tax return software Es importante que tenga la documentación necesaria que demuestre el monto de la deducción. 2012 tax return software Si no tiene documentos que corroboran dicha deducción, puede usar otro tipo de pruebas satisfactorias para estos efectos. 2012 tax return software Cómo Calcular una Pérdida Calcule el monto de la pérdida utilizando los pasos siguientes: Determine la base ajustada de la propiedad antes de haber ocurrido el hecho fortuito o robo. 2012 tax return software Determine la baja del valor justo de mercado de la propiedad a causa del hecho fortuito o robo. 2012 tax return software De la cantidad más baja entre las cantidades de los puntos (1) y (2), reste el monto de todo otro seguro o reembolso que haya recibido o espere recibir. 2012 tax return software En el caso de propiedad para uso personal y propiedad utilizada durante la prestación de servicios como empleado, aplique los límites de la deducción que se explican más adelante para calcular la cantidad de pérdida que puede deducir. 2012 tax return software Ganancias por reembolsos. 2012 tax return software   Tiene una ganancia si el reembolso es mayor que la base ajustada de la propiedad. 2012 tax return software Esto ocurre aun cuando la disminución del valor justo de mercado de la propiedad es menor que la base ajustada. 2012 tax return software Si obtiene una ganancia, posiblemente tenga que pagar impuestos sobre esa cantidad o tal vez pueda posponer la declaración de dicha ganancia. 2012 tax return software Vea la Publicación 547(SP) para más información sobre cómo tratar una ganancia proveniente del reembolso de un hecho fortuito o robo. 2012 tax return software Propiedad alquilada. 2012 tax return software   Si es responsable de los daños causados por hecho fortuito a una propiedad que alquila, su pérdida es la cantidad que tiene que pagar para reparar la propiedad menos todo seguro u otro reembolso que reciba o espere recibir. 2012 tax return software Disminución del Valor Justo de Mercado El valor justo de mercado (FMV, por sus siglas en inglés) es el precio por el cual podría vender su propiedad a un comprador dispuesto a comprar cuando ninguno de los dos tiene que vender o comprar y ambos conocen todos los hechos pertinentes. 2012 tax return software La disminución del valor justo de mercado que se utiliza para calcular el monto de la pérdida por hecho fortuito o robo es la diferencia entre el valor justo de mercado de la propiedad inmediatamente antes e inmediatamente después de ocurrir el hecho fortuito o robo. 2012 tax return software Valor justo de mercado de la propiedad robada. 2012 tax return software   El valor justo de mercado de la propiedad inmediatamente después de un robo se considera cero, puesto que usted ya no tiene la propiedad. 2012 tax return software Ejemplo. 2012 tax return software Usted compró dólares de plata por un valor nominal de $150 hace varios años. 2012 tax return software Ésta es la base ajustada de esa propiedad. 2012 tax return software Este año, le robaron los dólares de plata. 2012 tax return software El valor justo de mercado de las monedas era $1,000 justo antes de ser robadas y no las cubría el seguro. 2012 tax return software Su pérdida por robo es $150. 2012 tax return software Propiedad robada recuperada. 2012 tax return software   La propiedad robada recuperada es propiedad suya que le fue robada y posteriormente devuelta a usted. 2012 tax return software Si recupera propiedad después de haber incluido una deducción de pérdida por robo, tiene que volver a calcular la pérdida utilizando la base ajustada más baja de la propiedad (la cual se explica más adelante) o la disminución del valor justo de mercado desde el momento inmediatamente antes de que fuera robada hasta el momento en que se recuperó. 2012 tax return software Use esta cantidad para volver a calcular la pérdida total para el año en el que se dedujo dicha pérdida. 2012 tax return software   Si el monto de la pérdida recalculada es menor que la pérdida que dedujo, generalmente tiene que declarar la diferencia como ingresos en el año en que la recuperó. 2012 tax return software Pero declare la diferencia sólo hasta la cantidad de la pérdida que redujo su impuesto. 2012 tax return software Para obtener más información sobre la cantidad que debe declarar, vea Recuperación de Fondos en el capítulo 12. 2012 tax return software Cómo Calcular la Disminución del Valor Justo de Mercado— Aspectos que se Deben Tener en Cuenta Para calcular la disminución del valor justo de mercado debido a un hecho fortuito o un robo, por lo general, necesita una tasación competente. 2012 tax return software No obstante, también se pueden emplear otras medidas para establecer ciertas disminuciones. 2012 tax return software Tasación. 2012 tax return software   Un tasador competente debe realizar una tasación para determinar la diferencia entre valor justo de mercado de la propiedad inmediatamente antes de ocurrir el hecho fortuito o robo e inmediatamente después. 2012 tax return software El tasador tiene que tener en cuenta los efectos de toda baja general del mercado que pueda ocurrir paralelamente con el hecho fortuito. 2012 tax return software Esta información es necesaria para limitar toda deducción de la pérdida real que se originó por el daño a la propiedad. 2012 tax return software   Existen varios factores importantes para evaluar la exactitud de una tasación, entre ellos: El conocimiento del tasador sobre su propiedad antes y después del hecho fortuito o robo. 2012 tax return software El conocimiento del tasador sobre la venta de propiedades similares en esa zona. 2012 tax return software El conocimiento del tasador sobre las condiciones de la zona donde ocurrió el hecho fortuito. 2012 tax return software El método de tasación que utilice el tasador. 2012 tax return software    Para establecer la cantidad de su pérdida por desastre debido a un desastre declarado como tal por el gobierno federal, quizá podría utilizar una tasación obtenida para un préstamo del gobierno federal (o una garantía de préstamo federal). 2012 tax return software Para obtener más información sobre desastres, vea la sección titulada Pérdidas en Zonas de Desastre en la Publicación 547(SP). 2012 tax return software Costo de limpieza y reparaciones. 2012 tax return software   El costo de reparar propiedad dañada no es parte de la pérdida por hechos fortuitos. 2012 tax return software Tampoco lo es el costo de la limpieza después de un hecho fortuito. 2012 tax return software Pero puede utilizar el costo de la limpieza o de las reparaciones después de un hecho fortuito como una medida de la disminución del valor justo de mercado, si cumple con todas las condiciones siguientes: Las reparaciones de hecho se realizan. 2012 tax return software Las reparaciones son necesarias para que la propiedad vuelva a su condición anterior a que ocurriera el hecho fortuito. 2012 tax return software La cantidad que se gasta en reparaciones no es excesiva. 2012 tax return software Las reparaciones se realizan únicamente para reparar los daños. 2012 tax return software El valor de la propiedad después de efectuadas las reparaciones no es, debido a dichas reparaciones, mayor que el valor de la propiedad antes de ocurrir el hecho fortuito. 2012 tax return software Jardines. 2012 tax return software   El costo de restaurar jardines a su condición original después de un hecho fortuito podría indicar la disminución del valor justo de mercado. 2012 tax return software Es posible que pueda medir la pérdida según lo que gaste en las siguientes actividades: Sacar árboles y arbustos destruidos o dañados, menos el valor de todo artículo salvado que haya recibido. 2012 tax return software Podar y tomar otras medidas a fin de conservar árboles y arbustos dañados. 2012 tax return software Volver a plantar si es necesario para restaurar la propiedad a su valor aproximado antes de ocurrir el hecho fortuito. 2012 tax return software Valor de automóviles. 2012 tax return software    Los libros de diversas organizaciones automovilísticas que incluyan información sobre su automóvil pueden ser útiles para calcular el valor del mismo. 2012 tax return software Puede usar los valores de venta al por menor que aparecen en los libros y modificarlos según factores como el millaje y la condición de su vehículo para calcular el valor. 2012 tax return software Los precios no son oficiales, pero podrían ser útiles para determinar el valor del auto y sugerir precios relativos que sirvan de comparación con las ventas y ofertas actuales de su zona. 2012 tax return software Si su automóvil no aparece en esos libros, determine el valor basándose en otras fuentes. 2012 tax return software La oferta que reciba de un concesionario por su automóvil como parte del pago por uno nuevo normalmente no es un cálculo de su valor real. 2012 tax return software Cómo Calcular la Disminución del Valor Justo de Mercado— Aspectos que no se Deben Tener en Cuenta Por lo general, no se deben tener en cuenta los siguientes puntos al calcular la disminución del valor justo de mercado de su propiedad. 2012 tax return software Costos de protección. 2012 tax return software   El costo de proteger su propiedad contra un hecho fortuito o robo no es parte de las pérdidas por hecho fortuito o robo. 2012 tax return software La suma que gaste para proteger su casa de tormentas, ya sea en seguros o colocando tablones sobre las ventanas, no constituye parte de la pérdida. 2012 tax return software   Si realiza mejoras permanentes en su propiedad para protegerse de un hecho fortuito o robo, agregue el costo de estas mejoras a la base de la propiedad. 2012 tax return software Un ejemplo sería el costo de un dique para prevenir inundaciones. 2012 tax return software Excepción. 2012 tax return software   Los gastos en los que incurrió en relación a pagos calificados de mitigación de desastres no se pueden añadir a la base de la propiedad, ni deducirse como gastos de negocio. 2012 tax return software Vea Pérdidas en Zonas de Desastre en la Publicación 547(SP). 2012 tax return software Gastos imprevistos. 2012 tax return software   Los gastos imprevistos en los que incurra por causa de un hecho fortuito o robo, como por ejemplo los gastos de tratamiento de lesiones personales, gastos de vivienda temporal o de alquilar un automóvil, no constituyen parte de su pérdida por hecho fortuito o robo. 2012 tax return software Costo de reposición. 2012 tax return software   Los costos de reposición de bienes robados o destruidos no son parte de la pérdida por hecho fortuito o robo. 2012 tax return software Valor sentimental. 2012 tax return software   No tenga en cuenta el valor sentimental cuando calcule su pérdida. 2012 tax return software Si un retrato familiar, artículos heredados o recuerdos han sido dañados, destruidos o robados, tiene que basar su pérdida sólo en el valor justo de mercado de estos bienes, limitado por su base ajustada en dichos bienes. 2012 tax return software Disminución del valor de mercado de la propiedad en la zona del hecho fortuito o en sus alrededores. 2012 tax return software   No se puede tener en cuenta la disminución del valor de una propiedad por encontrarse en una zona afectada por un hecho fortuito o en los alrededores de esa zona, o en una zona que podría volver a sufrir un hecho de este tipo. 2012 tax return software Su pérdida es sólo por los daños reales a la propiedad. 2012 tax return software Sin embargo, si su hogar se encuentra en un área declarada zona de desastre por el gobierno federal, vea Pérdidas en Zonas de Desastre en la Publicación 547(SP). 2012 tax return software Costos de fotografías y tasaciones. 2012 tax return software    Las fotografías tomadas después de haber ocurrido el hecho fortuito servirán para establecer la condición y el valor de la propiedad después de los daños. 2012 tax return software También serán útiles las fotografías que muestren la condición de la propiedad después de haber sido reparada, restaurada o repuesta. 2012 tax return software   Se usan tasaciones para calcular la disminución del valor justo de mercado por un hecho fortuito o robo. 2012 tax return software Para obtener información sobre las tasaciones, vea Tasación en la sección anterior titulada Cómo Calcular la Disminución del Valor Justo de Mercado — Aspectos que se Deben Tener en Cuenta. 2012 tax return software   Los costos de fotografías y tasaciones usadas como prueba del valor y condición de la propiedad dañada por causa de un hecho fortuito no son parte de la pérdida. 2012 tax return software Puede declarar estos costos como una deducción miscelánea detallada sujeta al límite del 2% del ingreso bruto ajustado del Anexo A (Formulario 1040). 2012 tax return software Para más información acerca de las deducciones misceláneas, vea el capítulo 28. 2012 tax return software Base Ajustada La base ajustada es el grado de inversión (o base) que usted tiene en los bienes (normalmente el costo) que posee, el cual se ve aumentado o disminuido por varios acontecimientos, como mejoras y pérdidas por hecho fortuito. 2012 tax return software Para más información, vea el cápitulo 13. 2012 tax return software Seguro y Otros Reembolsos Si recibe un pago de un seguro u otro tipo de reembolso, tiene que restar el monto del reembolso cuando calcule su pérdida. 2012 tax return software No tendrá pérdida por hechos fortuitos o por robo en la medida en que se le reembolse. 2012 tax return software Si espera un reembolso parcial o total de la pérdida, tiene que restar el monto del reembolso esperado cuando calcule la pérdida. 2012 tax return software Tiene que reducir la pérdida aun si no recibe el pago hasta un año tributario posterior. 2012 tax return software Vea más adelante la sección titulada Reembolso Recibido Después de la Deducción de una Pérdida . 2012 tax return software En caso de no presentar una reclamación de reembolso. 2012 tax return software   Si su propiedad está asegurada, tiene que presentar oportunamente al seguro una reclamación de reembolso de la pérdida. 2012 tax return software De lo contrario, no puede deducir esta pérdida como hecho fortuito o robo. 2012 tax return software Sin embargo, la porción de la pérdida que no cubre el seguro no está sujeta a esta regla (por ejemplo, un monto deducible). 2012 tax return software Ejemplo. 2012 tax return software Usted tiene una póliza de seguro de automóvil con un deducible de $1,000. 2012 tax return software Como su seguro no cubrió los primeros $1,000 de un choque automovilístico, los $1,000 constituirían una suma deducible (sujeta a los límites de la deducción que se explican más adelante). 2012 tax return software Esto es cierto aun si no presenta una reclamación de reembolso al seguro, ya que su póliza de seguro bajo ninguna circunstancia le hubiera reembolsado la suma deducible. 2012 tax return software Tipos de Reembolsos El tipo de reembolso más común es el pago del seguro por bienes robados o dañados. 2012 tax return software A continuación se examinan otros tipos de reembolsos. 2012 tax return software Vea también las Instrucciones del Formulario 4684, en inglés. 2012 tax return software Fondo de emergencia del empleador en caso de desastre. 2012 tax return software   Si recibe dinero proveniente del fondo de emergencia del empleador en caso de desastre y tiene que utilizar ese dinero para arreglar o reponer bienes sobre los cuales declara una deducción de pérdida por hecho fortuito, tiene que tener en cuenta esa suma cuando calcule dicha deducción. 2012 tax return software Tenga en cuenta sólo la cantidad que utilizó para reponer los bienes destruidos o dañados. 2012 tax return software Ejemplo. 2012 tax return software Su vivienda sufrió daños considerables en un tornado. 2012 tax return software El monto de su pérdida después del reembolso de la compañía de seguros fue de $10,000. 2012 tax return software Su empleador estableció un fondo de ayuda en caso de desastre para los empleados. 2012 tax return software Aquellos empleados que recibieron dinero de ese fondo tuvieron que usarlo para reparar o reponer los bienes que resultaron dañados o destruidos. 2012 tax return software Usted recibió $4,000 como parte de este fondo y gastó toda esa suma haciendo reparaciones a su casa. 2012 tax return software Al calcular su pérdida por hecho fortuito, tiene que restar del total de su pérdida no reembolsada ($10,000) los $4,000 que recibió del fondo de su empleador. 2012 tax return software Por lo tanto, su pérdida por hechos fortuitos antes de aplicar los límites de la deducción (que se examinan más adelante) es de $6,000. 2012 tax return software Regalos en efectivo. 2012 tax return software   Si, como víctima de algún desastre, recibe donaciones excluibles en efectivo, y no existen límites sobre cómo puede usar el dinero, no puede reducir la pérdida por hecho fortuito con este tipo de donaciones. 2012 tax return software Esto es aplicable aun cuando use el dinero para pagar reparaciones de la propiedad dañada en el desastre. 2012 tax return software Ejemplo. 2012 tax return software Su vivienda fue dañada por un huracán. 2012 tax return software Sus familiares y vecinos le dieron donaciones en efectivo excluibles de sus ingresos. 2012 tax return software Usted utilizó parte de esas donaciones para realizar reparaciones en su vivienda. 2012 tax return software No hubo límites ni restricciones sobre cómo debía usar ese dinero en efectivo. 2012 tax return software Como era una donación excluible de su ingreso, el dinero que recibió y usó para pagar esas reparaciones no reduce el monto de la pérdida por hechos fortuitos de su casa dañada. 2012 tax return software Pagos del seguro por gastos de manutención. 2012 tax return software   No reduzca la pérdida por hechos fortuitos con pagos que haya recibido del seguro para cubrir gastos de manutención en cualquiera de las dos situaciones siguientes: Si pierde el uso de su vivienda principal debido a un hecho fortuito. 2012 tax return software Si las autoridades del gobierno no le permiten acceso a su vivienda principal por causa de un hecho fortuito o por amenaza de que éste ocurra. 2012 tax return software Inclusión en los ingresos. 2012 tax return software   Si estos pagos del seguro son mayores al aumento temporal de sus gastos de manutención, tiene que incluir el excedente en sus ingresos. 2012 tax return software Declare esta cantidad en la línea 21 del Formulario 1040. 2012 tax return software Sin embargo, si el hecho fortuito tuvo lugar en una zona de desastre declarada por el gobierno federal, ninguno de los pagos del seguro será tributable. 2012 tax return software Vea Pagos calificados para mitigación de desastres bajo Pérdidas en Zonas de Desastre en la Publicación 547(SP). 2012 tax return software   El aumento temporal de los gastos de manutención es la diferencia entre los gastos de manutención reales en los que su familia y usted han incurrido durante el período en que no pudieron usar su vivienda y los gastos normales de manutención para ese período. 2012 tax return software Los gastos de manutención reales son aquellos gastos razonables y necesarios en los que se ha incurrido debido a la pérdida de su vivienda principal. 2012 tax return software Por lo general, estos gastos incluyen las cantidades pagadas por: Alquiler de una vivienda adecuada. 2012 tax return software Transporte. 2012 tax return software Alimentos. 2012 tax return software Servicios públicos. 2012 tax return software Servicios misceláneos. 2012 tax return software Los gastos normales de manutención son los gastos en los cuales normalmente hubiera incurrido, pero no lo hizo por haber ocurrido un hecho fortuito o por la amenaza de que uno ocurriera. 2012 tax return software Ejemplo. 2012 tax return software Usted tuvo que abandonar su apartamento durante un mes a causa de un incendio y alojarse en un motel. 2012 tax return software Normalmente paga $525 al mes de alquiler, pero no tuvo que pagar durante el mes en que el apartamento estuvo desocupado. 2012 tax return software Este mes pagó $1,200 por alojarse en un motel. 2012 tax return software Normalmente paga $200 al mes en alimentación. 2012 tax return software Sus gastos de alimentación durante este mes fueron de $400. 2012 tax return software Usted recibió $1,100 de su compañía de seguros para cubrir sus gastos de manutención. 2012 tax return software Calcule el pago que tiene que incluir en los ingresos de la siguiente manera: 1) Pagos del seguro para gastos de manutención $1,100 2) Gastos reales durante el mes en que no puede vivir en su casa debido al incendio 1,600   3) Gastos normales de manutención 725   4) Aumento temporal de los gastos de manutención:  Reste la línea 3 de la línea 2 875 5) Cantidad del pago que se puede incluir en el ingreso: Reste la línea 4  de la línea 1 $ 225 Año tributario en el cual se incluye la cantidad. 2012 tax return software   La parte del pago del seguro sujeta a impuestos se incluye como ingreso para el año en que vuelva a hacer uso de su vivienda principal o, si ocurre más adelante, el año en el que reciba la parte tributable del pago del seguro. 2012 tax return software Ejemplo. 2012 tax return software En agosto de 2011, su vivienda principal fue destruida por un tornado. 2012 tax return software En el mes de noviembre de 2012, usted volvió a habitar su vivienda. 2012 tax return software Los pagos que recibió del seguro en los años 2011 y 2012 fueron $1,500 más que el aumento temporal de sus gastos de manutención durante esos 2 años. 2012 tax return software Esta cantidad se incluye como ingresos en el Formulario 1040 de 2012. 2012 tax return software Si durante 2013 recibe pagos adicionales para cubrir los gastos de manutención que tuvo en 2011 y 2012, tiene que incluir esos pagos como ingresos en su Formulario 1040 de 2013. 2012 tax return software Asistencia en caso de desastre. 2012 tax return software   Los alimentos, suministros médicos y otras formas de asistencia que usted reciba no reducen su monto de pérdida por hechos fortuitos, a menos que sean una reposición de bienes perdidos o destruidos. 2012 tax return software Los pagos calificados de asistencia en caso de desastre que reciba por gastos en los que haya incurrido derivados de un desastre declarado por el gobierno federal no son ingresos tributables en su caso. 2012 tax return software Para mayor información, vea Pérdidas en Zonas de Desastre en la Publicación 547(SP). 2012 tax return software Los pagos de ayuda por desempleo en caso de desastre constituyen beneficios tributables por desempleo. 2012 tax return software Por lo general, los subsidios de asistencia en casos de desastre y los pagos para atenuar desastres que reúnen los requisitos y que se reciban conforme a la Robert T. 2012 tax return software Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (Ley Robert T. 2012 tax return software Stafford de Asistencia en Caso de Desastre y de Emergencia) o al National Flood Insurance Act (Ley del Seguro Nacional en caso de Inundaciones) (según vigente el 15 de abril de 2005) no se incluyen en sus ingresos. 2012 tax return software Vea Pérdidas en Zonas de Desastre en la Publicación 547(SP). 2012 tax return software Reembolso Recibido Después de la Deducción de una Pérdida Si calculó su pérdida por hechos fortuitos o robo utilizando la cantidad del reembolso esperado, es posible que tenga que ajustar su declaración de impuestos para el año tributario en el cual reciba su reembolso real. 2012 tax return software Esta sección explica el ajuste que podría verse obligado a hacer. 2012 tax return software Reembolso real menor a la cantidad esperada. 2012 tax return software   Si posteriormente recibe un reembolso menor de lo que esperaba, incluya esa diferencia como pérdida junto con las demás (si las hubiera) en la declaración del año en el cual razonablemente no espere recibir reembolso adicional. 2012 tax return software Ejemplo. 2012 tax return software En el año 2012, su automóvil personal tenía un valor justo de mercado de $2,000 cuando fue destruido en un choque con otro automóvil. 2012 tax return software El accidente se debió a la negligencia del otro conductor. 2012 tax return software Al final del año 2012, existía una posibilidad razonable de que el dueño del otro vehículo le reembolsara la totalidad de los daños. 2012 tax return software Usted no tuvo una pérdida deducible durante el 2012. 2012 tax return software En enero de 2013, los tribunales le adjudicaron $2,000. 2012 tax return software Sin embargo, en el mes de julio se hizo evidente que no podría cobrar cantidad alguna del otro conductor. 2012 tax return software Puede deducir la pérdida en 2013 conforme a los límites explicados más adelante. 2012 tax return software Reembolso real mayor a la cantidad esperada. 2012 tax return software   Si posteriormente recibe un reembolso que resulta ser mayor que la cantidad esperada, tras haber solicitado una deducción por la pérdida, puede que tenga que incluir el monto adicional del reembolso en sus ingresos del año en que lo recibió. 2012 tax return software No obstante, si alguna parte de la deducción original no redujo su impuesto para el año anterior, no incluya esa parte del reembolso en sus ingresos. 2012 tax return software No vuelva a calcular su impuesto para el año en que solicitó la deducción. 2012 tax return software Para más información, vea Recuperación de Fondos en el capítulo 12. 2012 tax return software Si el total de todos los reembolsos que reciba es mayor a la base ajustada de los bienes destruidos o robados, obtendrá una ganancia a partir del hecho fortuito o robo. 2012 tax return software Si ya ha hecho una deducción por una pérdida y recibe ese reembolso posteriormente en otro año, es posible que tenga que incluir la ganancia en sus ingresos por el año posterior. 2012 tax return software Incluya la ganancia como ingreso ordinario hasta el monto de la deducción que redujo sus impuestos el año anterior. 2012 tax return software Vea Cómo Calcular una Ganancia en la Publicación 547(SP) para más información sobre cómo tratar una ganancia proveniente del reembolso de un hecho fortuito o robo. 2012 tax return software Reembolso real por la cantidad esperada. 2012 tax return software   Si recibe un reembolso por la cantidad exacta que esperaba recibir, no tiene que incluir cantidad alguna en sus ingresos y no puede deducir pérdida adicional alguna. 2012 tax return software Ejemplo. 2012 tax return software En diciembre de 2013, usted tuvo un accidente cuando conducía su automóvil personal. 2012 tax return software Las reparaciones de su automóvil costaron $950. 2012 tax return software Usted tenía $100 como deducible de su seguro contra choques. 2012 tax return software Su compañía de seguros aceptó reembolsarle la cantidad correspondiente al resto de los daños. 2012 tax return software Como esperaba un reembolso de la compañía de seguros, en el año 2013 no tuvo una deducción de pérdida por hecho fortuito. 2012 tax return software Debido a la regla de los $100 (tratada más adelante bajo Límites de la Deducción ), no puede deducir los $100 que pagó como suma deducible. 2012 tax return software Cuando reciba los $850 de la compañía de seguros en 2014, no los declare como ingresos. 2012 tax return software Un Solo Hecho Fortuito en Bienes Múltiples Bienes muebles. 2012 tax return software   Los bienes muebles son todos aquéllos que no sean bienes raíces. 2012 tax return software Si le roban bienes muebles, o si un hecho fortuito los daña o los destruye, tendrá que calcular la pérdida de cada artículo por separado. 2012 tax return software Luego combine dichas pérdidas para calcular el total de su pérdida procedente de aquel hecho fortuito o robo. 2012 tax return software Ejemplo. 2012 tax return software Un incendio en su casa destruyó una silla tapizada, una alfombra oriental y una mesa antigua. 2012 tax return software Usted no tenía seguro contra incendio para cubrir su pérdida. 2012 tax return software (Éste fue el único hecho fortuito o robo que sufrió durante el año). 2012 tax return software Pagó $750 por la silla y calculó que la misma tenía un valor justo de mercado de $500 justo antes del incendio. 2012 tax return software La alfombra costó $3,000 y tenía un valor justo de mercado de $2,500 justo antes del incendio. 2012 tax return software Compró la mesa en una subasta a un precio de $100 antes de enterarse de que era una antigüedad. 2012 tax return software La habían tasado en $900 antes del incendio. 2012 tax return software La pérdida de cada uno de esos artículos se calcula de la manera siguiente:     Silla Alfombra Mesa 1) Base (costo) $750 $3,000 $100 2) Valor justo de mercado antes del incendio $500 $2,500 $900 3) Valor justo de mercado después del incendio –0– –0– –0– 4) Disminución del valor justo de mercado $500 $2,500 $900 5) Pérdida (cantidad menor entre la línea (1) o la línea (4)) $500 $2,500 $100           6) Pérdida total     $3,100 Bienes raíces. 2012 tax return software   Para calcular una pérdida de bienes raíces de uso personal, toda la propiedad (incluidas las mejoras como edificios, árboles y arbustos) se considera una sola. 2012 tax return software Calcule la pérdida utilizando la cantidad de la base ajustada o la disminución del valor justo de mercado de toda la propiedad, la que sea menor. 2012 tax return software Ejemplo. 2012 tax return software Usted compró su vivienda hace algunos años. 2012 tax return software En esa época pagó $160,000 ($20,000 por el terreno y $140,000 por la casa). 2012 tax return software También gastó $2,000 por concepto de jardinería ornamental. 2012 tax return software Este año, un incendio destruyó su vivienda. 2012 tax return software El incendio también ocasionó daños a los arbustos y árboles del patio. 2012 tax return software El incendio fue la única pérdida por hecho fortuito o robo que tuvo este año. 2012 tax return software Tasadores competentes valoraron la propiedad completa en $200,000 antes del incendio, pero sólo en $30,000 después de éste. 2012 tax return software (No se incluye la pérdida de enseres domésticos en este ejemplo. 2012 tax return software Ésta se calcularía por separado para cada artículo, como se explica anteriormente bajo Bienes muebles ). 2012 tax return software Poco después del incendio, la compañía de seguros le pagó $155,000 por la pérdida. 2012 tax return software La deducción de la pérdida por hecho fortuito se calcula de la siguiente forma: 1) Base ajustada de la propiedad completa (terreno, edificio y jardinería ornamental) $162,000 2) Valor justo de mercado de toda la propiedad antes del incendio $200,000 3) Valor justo de mercado de toda la propiedad después del incendio 30,000 4) Disminución del valor justo de mercado de toda la propiedad $170,000 5) Pérdida (cantidad menor entre la línea (1) o la línea (4)) $162,000 6) Reste la cantidad del seguro 155,000 7) Pérdida después del reembolso $7,000 Tabla 25-1. 2012 tax return software Cómo Aplicar los Límites de la Deducción por Bienes de Uso Personal   Regla de los $100 Regla del 10% Aplicación General Al calcular su deducción, tiene que restar $100 de cada pérdida por hecho fortuito o robo. 2012 tax return software Aplique esta regla después de haber calculado el monto de su pérdida. 2012 tax return software Tiene que restar el 10% de su ingreso bruto ajustado del total de las pérdidas por hecho fortuito o robo. 2012 tax return software Aplique esta regla después de haber descontado $100 (regla de los $100) de cada pérdida. 2012 tax return software Un Solo Suceso Aplique esta regla sólo una vez, aún cuando se haya visto afectado un gran número de bienes. 2012 tax return software Aplique esta regla sólo una vez, aún cuando se haya visto afectado un gran número de bienes. 2012 tax return software Más de un Suceso Aplique esta regla a la pérdida derivada de cada suceso. 2012 tax return software Aplique esta regla al total de pérdidas derivadas de todos los sucesos. 2012 tax return software Más de una Persona– Con Pérdida del Mismo Suceso (que no sea una pareja casada que presenta una declaración conjunta) Aplique esta regla independientemente a cada persona. 2012 tax return software Aplique esta regla independientemente a cada persona. 2012 tax return software Pareja Casada– con pérdidas a partir del mismo suceso Declaración Conjunta Aplique esta regla como si fueran una sola persona. 2012 tax return software Aplique esta regla como si fueran una sola persona. 2012 tax return software Declaración por Separado Aplique esta regla independientemente a cada cónyuge. 2012 tax return software Aplique esta regla independientemente a cada cónyuge. 2012 tax return software Más de un Dueño  (que no sea una pareja casada  que presenta una declaración conjunta) Aplique esta regla independientemente a cada propietario de una misma propiedad. 2012 tax return software Aplique esta regla independientemente a cada propietario de una misma propiedad. 2012 tax return software Límites de la Deducción Después de calcular la pérdida por hecho fortuito o robo, tiene que calcular cuánta parte de la pérdida puede deducir. 2012 tax return software Si la misma fue una pérdida en bienes de uso personal o de su familia, hay dos límites a la cantidad que puede deducir por el hecho fortuito o robo. 2012 tax return software Tiene que descontar $100 (regla de los $100) de cada pérdida por hecho fortuito o robo. 2012 tax return software Tiene que restar además el 10% de su ingreso bruto ajustado (regla del 10%) del total de sus pérdidas por hecho fortuito o robo. 2012 tax return software Estas reducciones se hacen en el Formulario 4684, en inglés. 2012 tax return software Estas reglas se explican a continuación y la Tabla 25-1 resume cómo aplicar la regla de los $100 y la regla del 10% en varias situaciones. 2012 tax return software Para explicaciones y ejemplos más detallados, vea la Publicación 547(SP). 2012 tax return software Propiedad usada en parte para fines comerciales y en parte para fines personales. 2012 tax return software   Cuando los bienes se utilizan en parte para fines personales y en parte para fines comerciales o de generación de ingresos, la deducción de la pérdida por hechos fortuitos o robo se calcula por separado para la porción de uso personal y para la porción con fines comerciales o de generación de ingresos. 2012 tax return software Es preciso calcular ambas por separado porque la regla de los $100 y la regla del 10% son aplicables únicamente a la pérdida ocasionada en la porción para uso personal de la propiedad. 2012 tax return software Regla de los $100 Después de calcular su pérdida de bienes de uso personal debido a un hecho fortuito o robo, tiene que restar $100 de esa pérdida. 2012 tax return software Esta reducción es aplicable a cada pérdida total por hecho fortuito o robo. 2012 tax return software No importa el número de bienes afectados en un suceso. 2012 tax return software Sólo será aplicable una reducción de $100. 2012 tax return software Ejemplo. 2012 tax return software Una tormenta de granizo causa daños a su casa y a su automóvil. 2012 tax return software Calcule la cantidad de la pérdida, como se explica anteriormente, para cada uno de estos artículos. 2012 tax return software Como las pérdidas se deben a un solo acontecimiento, combine las pérdidas y descuente $100 del monto combinado. 2012 tax return software Un solo suceso. 2012 tax return software   Por lo general, los sucesos que están estrechamente relacionados en cuanto a origen causan un solo hecho fortuito. 2012 tax return software Es un solo hecho fortuito cuando el daño se deriva de dos o más causas estrechamente relacionadas, como por ejemplo, daños por viento e inundaciones provocados por la misma tormenta. 2012 tax return software Regla del 10% Tiene que restar, del total de sus pérdidas por hecho fortuito o robo causadas a bienes de uso personal, un 10% de su ingreso bruto ajustado. 2012 tax return software Aplique esta regla después de haber descontado $100 de cada pérdida. 2012 tax return software Para información adicional, vea las Instrucciones del Formulario 4684, en inglés. 2012 tax return software Si tiene ganancias y pérdidas por hecho fortuito o robo, vea más adelante la sección titulada Ganancias y pérdidas. 2012 tax return software Ejemplo 1. 2012 tax return software En junio, descubrió que robaron en su casa. 2012 tax return software Su pérdida después del reeembolso del seguro fue $2,000. 2012 tax return software Su ingreso bruto ajustado del año en el que descubrió el robo es $29,500. 2012 tax return software Primero se aplica la regla de los $100 y luego la regla del 10%. 2012 tax return software Calcule su deducción por concepto de pérdida por robo como se muestra a continuación: 1) Pérdida después del reembolso del seguro $2,000 2) Reste $100 100 3) Pérdida después de aplicar la regla de los $100 $1,900 4) Reste el 10% de $29,500 de ingreso bruto ajustado 2,950 5) Deducción de pérdida por robo –0–       Usted no tiene una deducción por concepto de pérdida por robo porque su pérdida después de haber aplicado la regla de los $100 ($1,900) es menor del 10% de su ingreso bruto ajustado ($2,950). 2012 tax return software Ejemplo 2. 2012 tax return software En marzo, usted tuvo un accidente automovilístico que destruyó completamente su vehículo. 2012 tax return software No tenía seguro contra accidentes y por lo tanto no recibió reembolso del seguro. 2012 tax return software La pérdida que tuvo en su automóvil fue $1,800. 2012 tax return software En noviembre, un incendio causó daños en el sótano de su casa y destruyó completamente los muebles, la máquina lavadora, la secadora y otros artículos que guardaba allí. 2012 tax return software Su pérdida de los artículos del sótano después del reembolso fue de $2,100. 2012 tax return software Su ingreso bruto ajustado para el año en que ocurrieron el accidente y el incendio es de $25,000. 2012 tax return software Usted calcula su deducción de pérdidas por hechos fortuitos de la siguiente forma:             Vehículo Sótano 1) Pérdida $1,800 $2,100 2) Reste $100 por incidente 100 100 3) Pérdida después de aplicar la regla de los $100 $1,700 $2,000 4) Total de la pérdida $3,700 5) Reste el 10% de $25,000 del ingreso bruto ajustado 2,500 6) Deducción de pérdida por hecho fortuito $1,200 Ganancias y pérdidas. 2012 tax return software   Si tiene tanto ganancias como pérdidas por hechos fortuitos o robo de bienes de uso personal, tiene que comparar el total de ganancias con el total de pérdidas. 2012 tax return software Haga esto luego de haber descontado todo reembolso, y los $100, del monto de cada pérdida, pero antes de haber restado el 10% del ingreso bruto ajustado de las pérdidas. 2012 tax return software Las ganancias por hecho fortuito o robo no incluyen ganancias que usted haya decidido aplazar. 2012 tax return software Vea la Publicación 547(SP) para más información sobre el aplazamiento de la declaración de una ganancia. 2012 tax return software Pérdidas mayores a las ganancias. 2012 tax return software   Si sus pérdidas resultan ser mayores que sus ganancias reconocidas, reste las ganancias de las pérdidas y reste del resultado el 10% de su ingreso bruto ajustado. 2012 tax return software El resto, si lo hubiera, es su pérdida deducible proveniente de bienes de uso personal. 2012 tax return software Ganancias mayores a las pérdidas. 2012 tax return software   Si las ganancias reconocidas son mayores que las pérdidas, reste las pérdidas de las ganancias. 2012 tax return software La diferencia se considera una ganancia de capital y tiene que declararse en el Anexo D (Formulario 1040). 2012 tax return software La regla del 10% no es aplicable a las ganancias. 2012 tax return software Cuándo Declarar Ganancias y Pérdidas Ganancias. 2012 tax return software   Si recibe un reembolso de seguros o de otro tipo que sea mayor a la base ajustada en los bienes que fueron destruidos o robados, tiene una ganancia resultante del hecho fortuito o robo. 2012 tax return software Tiene que incluir esta ganancia en su ingreso en el año en que reciba el reembolso, a menos que escoja aplazar la declaración de la ganancia según lo explicado en la Publicación 547(SP). 2012 tax return software Si tiene una pérdida, vea la Tabla 25-2. 2012 tax return software Tabla 25-2. 2012 tax return software Cuándo Deducir una Pérdida SI tiene una pérdida. 2012 tax return software . 2012 tax return software . 2012 tax return software ENTONCES dedúzcala en el año en el que. 2012 tax return software . 2012 tax return software . 2012 tax return software proveniente de un hecho fortuito, ocurrió la pérdida. 2012 tax return software en una zona de desastre declarada como tal por el gobierno federal, ocurrió el desastre o el año inmediatamente antes del desastre. 2012 tax return software proveniente de un robo, el robo fue descubierto. 2012 tax return software en un depósito tratado como:   • hecho fortuito o cualquier pérdida ordinaria, se puede llegar a un cálculo aproximado razonable. 2012 tax return software • deuda incobrable, los depósitos no tienen ningún valor. 2012 tax return software Pérdidas. 2012 tax return software   Por lo general, puede deducir una pérdida por hecho fortuito no reembolsable sólo en el año tributario en el cual ocurrió el hecho fortuito. 2012 tax return software Esto es aplicable aun cuando no repare o reponga los bienes dañados hasta un año posterior. 2012 tax return software   Puede deducir pérdidas por robo no reembolsables sólo en el año en el que descubrió que los bienes fueron robados. 2012 tax return software   Si no está seguro de si se le va a reembolsar alguna parte de la pérdida por hecho fortuito o robo, no deduzca dicha parte hasta el año tributario en que llegue a ser razonablemente seguro que no se le va a reembolsar. 2012 tax return software Pérdidas de depósitos. 2012 tax return software   Si su pérdida es una pérdida de depósitos hechos en una institución financiera insolvente o en quiebra, vea la sección anterior, Pérdidas de Depósitos . 2012 tax return software Pérdidas en Zonas de Desastre Normalmente, tiene que deducir una pérdida por hecho fortuito en el año en el que aconteció. 2012 tax return software No obstante, si sufre una pérdida por hecho fortuito a causa de un desastre declarado como tal por el gobierno federal que ocurrió en una zona beneficiaria de ayuda pública y/o privada, puede optar por deducir esta pérdida en su declaración o declaración enmendada para cualquiera de los siguientes años: El año en el que aconteció el desastre. 2012 tax return software El año inmediatamente anterior al año cuando aconteció el desastre. 2012 tax return software Ganancias. 2012 tax return software    Hay reglas especiales que corresponden si escoge aplazar la declaración de ganancias sobre bienes dañados o destruidos en una zona de desastre declarada como tal por el gobierno federal. 2012 tax return software Para saber más sobre esas reglas especiales, vea la Publicación 547(SP). 2012 tax return software Plazos tributarios aplazados. 2012 tax return software   El IRS puede aplazar ciertos plazos tributarios hasta 1 año para aquellos contribuyentes que sean afectados por un desastre declarado por el gobierno federal. 2012 tax return software Los plazos tributarios que puede aplazar el IRS incluyen aquéllos para presentar las declaraciones de impuesto sobre el ingreso y el impuesto sobre la nómina, y también puede aplazar los plazos para pagar el impuesto sobre el ingreso y el impuesto sobre la nómina así como para hacer aportaciones a un arreglo IRA tradicional o un arreglo Roth IRA. 2012 tax return software   Si se posterga el plazo tributario, el IRS anunciará este aplazamiento en su zona mediante un comunicado de prensa, una orden reglamentaria sobre impuestos, procedimientos tributarios, avisos, anuncios y a través de otros comunicados del Boletín de Impuestos Internos (IRB, por sus siglas en inglés) que le puedan servir de guía. 2012 tax return software Vaya a www. 2012 tax return software irs. 2012 tax return software gov/Spanish/Alivio-Tributario-en-Situaciones-de-Desastre-para-Personas-y-Negocios para ver si algún plazo tributario ha sido pospuesto en su área y para más información acerca de alivios en situaciones de desastre. 2012 tax return software Quién cumple los requisitos. 2012 tax return software   Si el IRS posterga un plazo tributario, los siguientes contribuyentes reúnen los requisitos para este aplazamiento: Toda persona física cuya vivienda principal está ubicada en una zona de desastre con cobertura (como se define más adelante). 2012 tax return software Toda entidad comercial o empresario por cuenta propia cuyo lugar principal de trabajo se encuentre en una zona de desastre con cobertura. 2012 tax return software Una persona que trabaje en servicios de ayuda y esté afiliada con alguna organización filantrópica o gubernamental y que esté ofreciendo ayuda en una zona de desastre que tenga cobertura. 2012 tax return software Toda persona física, entidad comercial o empresa por cuenta propia cuyos registros se necesiten para cumplir un plazo tributario ya aplazado, siempre que esa documentación se mantenga en una zona de desastre con cobertura. 2012 tax return software No es necesario que la vivienda principal o lugar principal de trabajo esté ubicado en la zona de desastre con cobertura. 2012 tax return software Todo caudal hereditario o fideicomiso que tenga registros tributarios necesarios para cumplir un plazo tributario ya aplazado, siempre que esa documentación se mantenga en una zona de desastre con cobertura. 2012 tax return software El cónyuge que presente una declaración conjunta con un contribuyente que reúna los requisitos para obtener un aplazamiento. 2012 tax return software Toda persona física, entidad comercial o empresa por cuenta propia no ubicada en una zona de desastre con cobertura pero cuyos registros necesarios para cumplir un plazo tributario ya aplazado se mantengan en dicha zona de desastre con cobertura. 2012 tax return software Toda persona física que haya visitado la zona de desastre con cobertura y que haya fallecido o sufrido lesiones por causa del desastre. 2012 tax return software Cualquier otra persona que el IRS determine que ha sido afectada por un desastre declarado como tal por el gobierno federal. 2012 tax return software Zona de desastre con cobertura. 2012 tax return software   Es una zona de desastre declarada como tal por el gobierno federal en la cual el IRS ha decidido postergar los plazos tributarios hasta por un año. 2012 tax return software Reducción de intereses y multas. 2012 tax return software   El IRS puede reducir los intereses y multas por impuestos sobre el ingreso que no hayan sido pagados en su totalidad por la duración del aplazamiento de plazos tributarios. 2012 tax return software Información adicional. 2012 tax return software   Para mayor información, vea Pérdidas en Zonas de Desastre en la Publicación 547(SP). 2012 tax return software Cómo Declarar Ganancias y Pérdidas Use el Formulario 4684, en inglés, para declarar una ganancia o pérdida deducible de un hecho fortuito o robo. 2012 tax return software Si sufre más de un solo hecho fortuito o robo, use un Formulario 4684 distinto para determinar su pérdida o ganancia para cada acontecimiento. 2012 tax return software Combine las ganancias y pérdidas en un solo Formulario 4684. 2012 tax return software Siga las instrucciones del mismo con respecto a qué líneas se han de llenar. 2012 tax return software Además, tiene que usar el anexo correspondiente para declarar una ganancia o pérdida. 2012 tax return software El anexo que debe usar dependerá de si tiene una ganancia o pérdida. 2012 tax return software Si tiene una: Declárela en el: Ganancia Anexo D (Formulario 1040) Pérdida Anexo A (Formulario 1040) Ajustes a la base. 2012 tax return software   Si tiene una pérdida por hecho fortuito o robo, tiene que restar de su base en la propiedad todo seguro u otro reembolso que reciba y toda otra pérdida deducible. 2012 tax return software Las cantidades que gaste en la restauración de su propiedad después de un hecho fortuito aumentan su base ajustada. 2012 tax return software Vea Base Ajustada en el capítulo 13 para más información. 2012 tax return software Pérdida neta de operación (NOL, por sus siglas en inglés). 2012 tax return software   Si su deducción por hechos fortuitos y robo hace que sus deducciones para el año sean mayores que su ingreso anual para el mismo año, es posible que tenga una pérdida neta de operación. 2012 tax return software Puede declarar una pérdida neta de operación para reducir sus impuestos de un año anterior, lo que le permite obtener un reembolso de impuestos que ya ha pagado. 2012 tax return software Otra posibilidad es usarla para reducir sus impuestos durante un año posterior. 2012 tax return software No necesita tener una empresa para tener una pérdida neta de operación debido a hechos fortuitos o robo. 2012 tax return software Para más información, vea la Publicación 536, Net Operating Losses (NOLs) for Individuals, Estates, and Trusts (Pérdidas netas de operación (NOL) para personas físicas, caudales hereditarios y fideicomisos), en inglés. 2012 tax return software Prev  Up  Next   Home   More Online Publications
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Whenever You Take Your Car in for Repairs:

  • Choose a reliable repair shop. Family, friends or an independent consumer rating organization should be able to help you. Look for shops that display various certifications that are current. You should also check out the shop's record with your local consumer protection office or Better Business Bureau.
  • Describe the symptoms. Don't try to diagnose the problem.
  • Make it clear that work cannot begin until you have a written estimate and you give your okay. . Never sign a blank repair order. If the problem can't be diagnosed on the spot, insist that the shop contact you for authorization once the trouble has been found.
  • Ask the shop to keep the old parts for you.
  • If a repair is covered under warranty, follow the warranty instructions..
  • Get all repair warranties in writing.
  • Keep copies of all paperwork.

Some states, cities and counties have special laws that deal with auto repairs. For information on the laws in your state, contact your state or local consumer protection office. In addition, the FTC provides a complete consumer guide to auto repair.

The 2012 Tax Return Software

2012 tax return software Publication 925 - Main Content Table of Contents Passive Activity LimitsWho Must Use These Rules? Passive Activity Loss Passive Activity Credit Publicly Traded Partnership Excess Farm Loss Passive Activities Activities That Are Not Passive Activities Passive Activity Income and Deductions Grouping Your Activities Recharacterization of Passive Income Dispositions How To Report Your Passive Activity Loss Comprehensive ExampleGeneral Information At-Risk LimitsWho Is Affected? Activities Covered by the At-Risk Rules At-Risk Amounts Amounts Not At Risk Reductions of Amounts At Risk Recapture Rule How To Get Tax HelpLow Income Taxpayer Clinics Passive Activity Limits Who Must Use These Rules? The passive activity rules apply to: Individuals, Estates, Trusts (other than grantor trusts), Personal service corporations, and Closely held corporations. 2012 tax return software Even though the rules do not apply to grantor trusts, partnerships, and S corporations directly, they do apply to the owners of these entities. 2012 tax return software For information about personal service corporations and closely held corporations, including definitions and how the passive activity rules apply to these corporations, see Form 8810 and its instructions. 2012 tax return software Before applying the passive activity limits, you must first determine the amount of the deductions disallowed under the basis, excess farm loss, or at-risk rules. 2012 tax return software See Passive Activity Deductions, later. 2012 tax return software Passive Activity Loss Generally, the passive activity loss for the tax year is not allowed. 2012 tax return software However, there is a special allowance under which some or all of your passive activity loss may be allowed. 2012 tax return software See Special $25,000 allowance , later. 2012 tax return software Definition of passive activity loss. 2012 tax return software    Generally, your passive activity loss for the tax year is the excess of your passive activity deductions over your passive activity gross income. 2012 tax return software See Passive Activity Income and Deductions , later. 2012 tax return software   For a closely held corporation, the passive activity loss is the excess of passive activity deductions over the sum of passive activity gross income and net active income. 2012 tax return software For details on net active income, see the Instructions for Form 8810. 2012 tax return software For the definition of passive activity gross income, see Passive Activity Income , later. 2012 tax return software For the definition of passive activity deductions, see Passive Activity Deductions , later. 2012 tax return software Identification of Disallowed Passive Activity Deductions If all or a part of your passive activity loss is disallowed for the tax year, you may need to allocate the disallowed passive activity loss among different passive activities and among different deductions within a passive activity. 2012 tax return software Allocation of disallowed passive activity loss among activities. 2012 tax return software   If all or any part of your passive activity loss is disallowed for the tax year, a ratable portion of the loss (if any) from each of your passive activities is disallowed. 2012 tax return software The ratable portion of a loss from an activity is computed by multiplying the passive activity loss that is disallowed for the tax year by the fraction obtained by dividing: The loss from the activity for the tax year; by The sum of the losses for the tax year from all activities having losses for the tax year. 2012 tax return software Use Worksheet 5 of Form 8582 to figure the ratable portion of the loss from each activity that is disallowed. 2012 tax return software Loss from an activity. 2012 tax return software   The term “loss from an activity” means: The amount by which the passive activity deductions (defined later) from the activity for the tax year exceed the passive activity gross income (defined later) from the activity for the tax year; reduced by Any part of such amount that is allowed under the Special $25,000 Allowance , later. 2012 tax return software   If your passive activity gross income from significant participation passive activities (defined later) for the tax year is more than your passive activity deductions from those activities for the tax year, those activities shall be treated, solely for purposes of figuring your loss from the activity, as a single activity that does not have a loss for such taxable year. 2012 tax return software See Significant Participation Passive Activities , later. 2012 tax return software Example. 2012 tax return software John Pine holds interests in three passive activities, A, B, and C. 2012 tax return software The gross income and deductions from these activities for the taxable year are as follows:   A B C Total Gross income $7,000 $4,000 $12,000 $23,000 Deductions (16,000) (20,000) (8,000) (44,000)           Net income (loss) ($9,000) ($16,000) $4,000 ($21,000)   John Pine’s $21,000 passive activity loss for the taxable year is disallowed. 2012 tax return software Therefore, a ratable portion of the losses from activities A and B is disallowed. 2012 tax return software He figures the disallowed portion of each loss as follows: A: $21,000 x $9,000/$25,000 $7,560 B: $21,000 x $16,000/$25,000 13,440     Total $21,000 Allocation within loss activities. 2012 tax return software   If all or any part of your loss from an activity is disallowed under Allocation of disallowed passive activity loss among activities for the tax year, a ratable portion of each of your passive activity deductions (defined later), other than an excluded deduction (defined below) from such activity is disallowed. 2012 tax return software The ratable portion of a passive activity deduction is the amount of the disallowed portion of the loss from the activity for the tax year multiplied by the fraction obtained by dividing: The amount of such deduction; by The sum of all of your passive activity deductions (other than excluded deductions) from that activity from the tax year. 2012 tax return software Excluded deductions. 2012 tax return software    “Excluded deduction” means any passive activity deduction that is taken into account in computing your net income from an item of property for a taxable year in which an amount of the taxpayer's gross income from such item of property is treated as not from a passive activity. 2012 tax return software See Recharacterization of Passive Income , later. 2012 tax return software Separately identified deductions. 2012 tax return software   In identifying the deductions from an activity that are disallowed, you do not need to account separately for a deduction unless such deduction may, if separately taken into account, result in an income tax liability for any tax year different from that which would result were such deduction not taken into account separately. 2012 tax return software   Use Form 8582, Worksheet 7, for any activity if you have passive activity deductions for that activity that must be separately identified. 2012 tax return software   Deductions that must be accounted for separately include (but are not limited to) the following deductions. 2012 tax return software Deductions that arise in a rental real estate activity in tax years in which you actively participate in such activity. 2012 tax return software See Active participation , later. 2012 tax return software Deductions that arise in a rental real estate activity in tax years in which you do not actively participate in such activity. 2012 tax return software See Active participation , later. 2012 tax return software Losses from sales or exchanges of capital assets. 2012 tax return software Section 1231 losses. 2012 tax return software See Section 1231 Gains and Losses in Publication 544, Sales and Other Disposition of Assets, for more information. 2012 tax return software Carryover of Disallowed Deductions In the case of an activity with respect to which any deductions or credits are disallowed for a taxable year (the loss activity), the disallowed deductions are allocated among your activities for the next tax year in a manner that reasonably reflects the extent to which each activity continues the loss activity. 2012 tax return software The disallowed deductions or credits allocated to an activity under the preceding sentence are treated as deductions or credits from the activity for the next tax year. 2012 tax return software For more information, see Regulations section 1. 2012 tax return software 469-1(f)(4). 2012 tax return software Passive Activity Credit Generally, the passive activity credit for the tax year is disallowed. 2012 tax return software The passive activity credit is the amount by which the sum of all your credits subject to the passive activity rules exceed your regular tax liability allocable to all passive activities for the tax year. 2012 tax return software Credits that are included in figuring the general business credit are subject to the passive activity rules. 2012 tax return software See the Instructions for Form 8582-CR for more information. 2012 tax return software Publicly Traded Partnership You must apply the rules in this part separately to your income or loss from a passive activity held through a publicly traded partnership (PTP). 2012 tax return software You also must apply the limit on passive activity credits separately to your credits from a passive activity held through a PTP. 2012 tax return software You can offset deductions from passive activities of a PTP only against income or gain from passive activities of the same PTP. 2012 tax return software Likewise, you can offset credits from passive activities of a PTP only against the tax on the net passive income from the same PTP. 2012 tax return software This separate treatment rule also applies to a regulated investment company holding an interest in a PTP for the items attributable to that interest. 2012 tax return software For more information on how to apply the passive activity loss rules to PTPs, and on how to apply the limit on passive activity credits to PTPs, see Publicly Traded Partnerships (PTPs) in the Instructions for Forms 8582 and 8582-CR, respectively. 2012 tax return software Excess Farm Loss If you receive an applicable subsidy for any tax year and you have an excess farm loss for the tax year, special rules apply. 2012 tax return software These rules do not apply to C corporations. 2012 tax return software For information, see the Instructions for Schedule F (Form 1040), Profit or Loss From Farming. 2012 tax return software Passive Activities There are two kinds of passive activities. 2012 tax return software Trade or business activities in which you do not materially participate during the year. 2012 tax return software Rental activities, even if you do materially participate in them, unless you are a real estate professional. 2012 tax return software Material participation in a trade or business is discussed later, under Activities That Are Not Passive Activities . 2012 tax return software Treatment of former passive activities. 2012 tax return software   A former passive activity is an activity that was a passive activity in any earlier tax year, but is not a passive activity in the current tax year. 2012 tax return software You can deduct a prior year's unallowed loss from the activity up to the amount of your current year net income from the activity. 2012 tax return software Treat any remaining prior year unallowed loss like you treat any other passive loss. 2012 tax return software   In addition, any prior year unallowed passive activity credits from a former passive activity offset the allocable part of your current year tax liability. 2012 tax return software The allocable part of your current year tax liability is that part of this year's tax liability that is allocable to the current year net income from the former passive activity. 2012 tax return software You figure this after you reduce your net income from the activity by any prior year unallowed loss from that activity (but not below zero). 2012 tax return software Trade or Business Activities A trade or business activity is an activity that: Involves the conduct of a trade or business (that is, deductions would be allowable under section 162 of the Internal Revenue Code if other limitations, such as the passive activity rules, did not apply), Is conducted in anticipation of starting a trade or business, or Involves research or experimental expenditures that are deductible under Internal Revenue Code section 174 (or that would be deductible if you chose to deduct rather than capitalize them). 2012 tax return software A trade or business activity does not include a rental activity or the rental of property that is incidental to an activity of holding the property for investment. 2012 tax return software You generally report trade or business activities on Schedule C, C-EZ, F, or in Part II or III of Schedule E. 2012 tax return software Rental Activities A rental activity is a passive activity even if you materially participated in that activity, unless you materially participated as a real estate professional. 2012 tax return software See Real Estate Professional under Activities That Are Not Passive Activities, later. 2012 tax return software An activity is a rental activity if tangible property (real or personal) is used by customers or held for use by customers, and the gross income (or expected gross income) from the activity represents amounts paid (or to be paid) mainly for the use of the property. 2012 tax return software It does not matter whether the use is under a lease, a service contract, or some other arrangement. 2012 tax return software Exceptions. 2012 tax return software   Your activity is not a rental activity if any of the following apply. 2012 tax return software The average period of customer use of the property is 7 days or less. 2012 tax return software You figure the average period of customer use by dividing the total number of days in all rental periods by the number of rentals during the tax year. 2012 tax return software If the activity involves renting more than one class of property, multiply the average period of customer use of each class by a fraction. 2012 tax return software The numerator of the fraction is the gross rental income from that class of property and the denominator is the activity's total gross rental income. 2012 tax return software The activity's average period of customer use will equal the sum of the amounts for each class. 2012 tax return software The average period of customer use of the property, as figured in (1) above, is 30 days or less and you provide significant personal services with the rentals. 2012 tax return software Significant personal services include only services performed by individuals. 2012 tax return software To determine if personal services are significant, all relevant facts and circumstances are taken into consideration, including the frequency of the services, the type and amount of labor required to perform the services, and the value of the services relative to the amount charged for use of the property. 2012 tax return software Significant personal services do not include the following. 2012 tax return software Services needed to permit the lawful use of the property, Services to repair or improve property that would extend its useful life for a period substantially longer than the average rental, and Services that are similar to those commonly provided with long-term rentals of real estate, such as cleaning and maintenance of common areas or routine repairs. 2012 tax return software You provide extraordinary personal services in making the rental property available for customer use. 2012 tax return software Services are extraordinary personal services if they are performed by individuals and the customers' use of the property is incidental to their receipt of the services. 2012 tax return software The rental is incidental to a nonrental activity. 2012 tax return software The rental of property is incidental to an activity of holding property for investment if the main purpose of holding the property is to realize a gain from its appreciation and the gross rental income from the property is less than 2% of the smaller of the property's unadjusted basis or fair market value. 2012 tax return software The unadjusted basis of property is its cost not reduced by depreciation or any other basis adjustment. 2012 tax return software The rental of property is incidental to a trade or business activity if all of the following apply. 2012 tax return software You own an interest in the trade or business activity during the year. 2012 tax return software The rental property was used mainly in that trade or business activity during the current year, or during at least 2 of the 5 preceding tax years. 2012 tax return software Your gross rental income from the property is less than 2% of the smaller of its unadjusted basis or fair market value. 2012 tax return software Lodging provided to an employee or the employee's spouse or dependents is incidental to the activity or activities in which the employee performs services if the lodging is furnished for the employer's convenience. 2012 tax return software You customarily make the rental property available during defined business hours for nonexclusive use by various customers. 2012 tax return software You provide the property for use in a nonrental activity in your capacity as an owner of an interest in the partnership, S corporation, or joint venture conducting that activity. 2012 tax return software    If you meet any of the exceptions listed above, see the instructions for Form 8582 for information about how to report any income or loss from the activity. 2012 tax return software Special $25,000 allowance. 2012 tax return software   If you or your spouse actively participated in a passive rental real estate activity, the amount of the passive activity loss that is disallowed is decreased and you therefore can deduct up to $25,000 of loss from the activity from your nonpassive income. 2012 tax return software This special allowance is an exception to the general rule disallowing the passive activity loss. 2012 tax return software Similarly, you can offset credits from the activity against the tax on up to $25,000 of nonpassive income after taking into account any losses allowed under this exception. 2012 tax return software   If you are married, filing a separate return, and lived apart from your spouse for the entire tax year, your special allowance cannot be more than $12,500. 2012 tax return software If you lived with your spouse at any time during the year and are filing a separate return, you cannot use the special allowance to reduce your nonpassive income or tax on nonpassive income. 2012 tax return software   The maximum special allowance is reduced if your modified adjusted gross income exceeds certain amounts. 2012 tax return software See Phaseout rule , later. 2012 tax return software Example. 2012 tax return software Kate, a single taxpayer, has $70,000 in wages, $15,000 income from a limited partnership, a $26,000 loss from rental real estate activities in which she actively participated, and is not subject to the modified adjusted gross income phaseout rule. 2012 tax return software She can use $15,000 of her $26,000 loss to offset her $15,000 passive income from the partnership. 2012 tax return software She actively participated in her rental real estate activities, so she can use the remaining $11,000 rental real estate loss to offset $11,000 of her nonpassive income (wages). 2012 tax return software Commercial revitalization deduction (CRD). 2012 tax return software   The special allowance must first be applied to losses from rental real estate activities figured without the CRD. 2012 tax return software Any remaining part of the special allowance is available for the CRD from the rental real estate activities and is not subject to the active participation rules or the phaseout based on modified adjusted gross income. 2012 tax return software You cannot claim a CRD for a building placed in service after December 31, 2009. 2012 tax return software Active participation. 2012 tax return software   Active participation is not the same as material participation (defined later). 2012 tax return software Active participation is a less stringent standard than material participation. 2012 tax return software For example, you may be treated as actively participating if you make management decisions in a significant and bona fide sense. 2012 tax return software Management decisions that count as active participation include approving new tenants, deciding on rental terms, approving expenditures, and similar decisions. 2012 tax return software   Only individuals can actively participate in rental real estate activities. 2012 tax return software However, a decedent's estate is treated as actively participating for its tax years ending less than 2 years after the decedent's death, if the decedent would have satisfied the active participation requirement for the activity for the tax year the decedent died. 2012 tax return software   A decedent's qualified revocable trust can also be treated as actively participating if both the trustee and the executor (if any) of the estate choose to treat the trust as part of the estate. 2012 tax return software The choice applies to tax years ending after the decedent's death and before: 2 years after the decedent's death if no estate tax return is required, or 6 months after the estate tax liability is finally determined if an estate tax return is required. 2012 tax return software   The choice is irrevocable and cannot be made later than the due date for the estate's first income tax return (including any extensions). 2012 tax return software   Limited partners are not treated as actively participating in a partnership's rental real estate activities. 2012 tax return software   You are not treated as actively participating in a rental real estate activity unless your interest in the activity (including your spouse's interest) was at least 10% (by value) of all interests in the activity throughout the year. 2012 tax return software   Active participation is not required to take the low-income housing credit, the rehabilitation investment credit, or CRD from rental real estate activities. 2012 tax return software Example. 2012 tax return software Mike, a single taxpayer, had the following income and loss during the tax year: Salary $42,300 Dividends 300 Interest 1,400 Rental loss (4,000) The rental loss came from a house Mike owned. 2012 tax return software He advertised and rented the house to the current tenant himself. 2012 tax return software He also collected the rents and did the repairs or hired someone to do them. 2012 tax return software Even though the rental loss is a loss from a passive activity, Mike can use the entire $4,000 loss to offset his other income because he actively participated. 2012 tax return software Phaseout rule. 2012 tax return software   The maximum special allowance of $25,000 ($12,500 for married individuals filing separate returns and living apart at all times during the year) is reduced by 50% of the amount of your modified adjusted gross income that is more than $100,000 ($50,000 if you are married filing separately). 2012 tax return software If your modified adjusted gross income is $150,000 or more ($75,000 or more if you are married filing separately), you generally cannot use the special allowance. 2012 tax return software    Modified adjusted gross income for this purpose is your adjusted gross income figured without the following. 2012 tax return software Taxable social security and tier 1 railroad retirement benefits. 2012 tax return software Deductible contributions to individual retirement accounts (IRAs) and section 501(c)(18) pension plans. 2012 tax return software The exclusion from income of interest from qualified U. 2012 tax return software S. 2012 tax return software savings bonds used to pay qualified higher education expenses. 2012 tax return software The exclusion from income of amounts received from an employer's adoption assistance program. 2012 tax return software Passive activity income or loss included on Form 8582. 2012 tax return software Any rental real estate loss allowed because you materially participated in the rental activity as a Real Estate Professional (as discussed later, under Activities That Are Not Passive Activities). 2012 tax return software Any overall loss from a publicly traded partnership (see Publicly Traded Partnerships (PTPs) in the instructions for Form 8582). 2012 tax return software The deduction for the employer-equivalent portion of self-employment tax. 2012 tax return software The deduction for domestic production activities. 2012 tax return software The deduction allowed for interest on student loans. 2012 tax return software The deduction for qualified tuition and related expenses. 2012 tax return software Example. 2012 tax return software During 2013, John was unmarried and was not a real estate professional. 2012 tax return software For 2013, he had $120,000 in salary and a $31,000 loss from his rental real estate activities in which he actively participated. 2012 tax return software His modified adjusted gross income is $120,000. 2012 tax return software When he files his 2013 return, he can deduct only $15,000 of his passive activity loss. 2012 tax return software He must carry over the remaining $16,000 passive activity loss to 2014. 2012 tax return software He figures his deduction and carryover as follows: Adjusted gross income, modified as required $120,000       Minus amount not subject to phaseout 100,000 Amount subject to phaseout rule $20,000 Multiply by 50% × 50% Required reduction to special allowance $10,000 Maximum special allowance $25,000 Minus required reduction (see above) 10,000 Adjusted special allowance $15,000 Passive loss from rental real estate $31,000 Deduction allowable/Adjusted  special allowance (see above) 15,000       Amount that must be carried forward $16,000 Exceptions to the phaseout rules. 2012 tax return software   A higher phaseout range applies to rehabilitation investment credits from rental real estate activities. 2012 tax return software For those credits, the phaseout of the $25,000 special allowance starts when your modified adjusted gross income exceeds $200,000 ($100,000 if you are a married individual filing a separate return and living apart at all times during the year). 2012 tax return software   There is no phaseout of the $25,000 special allowance for low-income housing credits or for the CRD. 2012 tax return software Ordering rules. 2012 tax return software   If you have more than one of the exceptions to the phaseout rules in the same tax year, you must apply the $25,000 phaseout against your passive activity losses and credits in the following order. 2012 tax return software The portion of passive activity losses not attributable to the CRD. 2012 tax return software The portion of passive activity losses attributable to the CRD. 2012 tax return software The portion of passive activity credits attributable to credits other than the rehabilitation and low-income housing credits. 2012 tax return software The portion of passive activity credits attributable to the rehabilitation credit. 2012 tax return software The portion of passive activity credits attributable to the low-income housing credit. 2012 tax return software Activities That Are Not Passive Activities The following are not passive activities. 2012 tax return software Trade or business activities in which you materially participated for the tax year. 2012 tax return software A working interest in an oil or gas well which you hold directly or through an entity that does not limit your liability (such as a general partner interest in a partnership). 2012 tax return software It does not matter whether you materially participated in the activity for the tax year. 2012 tax return software However, if your liability was limited for part of the year (for example, you converted your general partner interest to a limited partner interest during the year) and you had a net loss from the well for the year, some of your income and deductions from the working interest may be treated as passive activity gross income and passive activity deductions. 2012 tax return software  See Temporary Regulations section 1. 2012 tax return software 469-1T(e)(4)(ii). 2012 tax return software The rental of a dwelling unit that you also used for personal purposes during the year for more than the greater of 14 days or 10% of the number of days during the year that the home was rented at a fair rental. 2012 tax return software An activity of trading personal property for the account of those who own interests in the activity. 2012 tax return software See Temporary Regulations section 1. 2012 tax return software 469-1T(e)(6). 2012 tax return software Rental real estate activities in which you materially participated as a real estate professional. 2012 tax return software See Real Estate Professional , later. 2012 tax return software You should not enter income and losses from these activities on Form 8582. 2012 tax return software Instead, enter them on the forms or schedules you would normally use. 2012 tax return software Material Participation A trade or business activity is not a passive activity if you materially participated in the activity. 2012 tax return software Material participation tests. 2012 tax return software    You materially participated in a trade or business activity for a tax year if you satisfy any of the following tests. 2012 tax return software You participated in the activity for more than 500 hours. 2012 tax return software Your participation was substantially all the participation in the activity of all individuals for the tax year, including the participation of individuals who did not own any interest in the activity. 2012 tax return software You participated in the activity for more than 100 hours during the tax year, and you participated at least as much as any other individual (including individuals who did not own any interest in the activity) for the year. 2012 tax return software The activity is a significant participation activity, and you participated in all significant participation activities for more than 500 hours. 2012 tax return software A significant participation activity is any trade or business activity in which you participated for more than 100 hours during the year and in which you did not materially participate under any of the material participation tests, other than this test. 2012 tax return software See Significant Participation Passive Activities , under Recharacterization of Passive Income, later. 2012 tax return software You materially participated in the activity for any 5 (whether or not consecutive) of the 10 immediately preceding tax years. 2012 tax return software The activity is a personal service activity in which you materially participated for any 3 (whether or not consecutive) preceding tax years. 2012 tax return software An activity is a personal service activity if it involves the performance of personal services in the fields of health (including veterinary services), law, engineering, architecture, accounting, actuarial science, performing arts, consulting, or any other trade or business in which capital is not a material income-producing factor. 2012 tax return software Based on all the facts and circumstances, you participated in the activity on a regular, continuous, and substantial basis during the year. 2012 tax return software   You did not materially participate in the activity under test (7) if you participated in the activity for 100 hours or less during the year. 2012 tax return software Your participation in managing the activity does not count in determining whether you materially participated under this test if: Any person other than you received compensation for managing the activity, or Any individual spent more hours during the tax year managing the activity than you did (regardless of whether the individual was compensated for the management services). 2012 tax return software Participation. 2012 tax return software   In general, any work you do in connection with an activity in which you own an interest is treated as participation in the activity. 2012 tax return software Work not usually performed by owners. 2012 tax return software   You do not treat the work you do in connection with an activity as participation in the activity if both of the following are true. 2012 tax return software The work is not work that is customarily done by the owner of that type of activity. 2012 tax return software One of your main reasons for doing the work is to avoid the disallowance of any loss or credit from the activity under the passive activity rules. 2012 tax return software Participation as an investor. 2012 tax return software   You do not treat the work you do in your capacity as an investor in an activity as participation unless you are directly involved in the day-to-day management or operations of the activity. 2012 tax return software Work you do as an investor includes: Studying and reviewing financial statements or reports on operations of the activity, Preparing or compiling summaries or analyses of the finances or operations of the activity for your own use, and Monitoring the finances or operations of the activity in a nonmanagerial capacity. 2012 tax return software Spouse's participation. 2012 tax return software   Your participation in an activity includes your spouse's participation. 2012 tax return software This applies even if your spouse did not own any interest in the activity and you and your spouse do not file a joint return for the year. 2012 tax return software Proof of participation. 2012 tax return software You can use any reasonable method to prove your participation in an activity for the year. 2012 tax return software You do not have to keep contemporaneous daily time reports, logs, or similar documents if you can establish your participation in some other way. 2012 tax return software For example, you can show the services you performed and the approximate number of hours spent by using an appointment book, calendar, or narrative summary. 2012 tax return software Limited partners. 2012 tax return software   If you owned an activity as a limited partner, you generally are not treated as materially participating in the activity. 2012 tax return software However, you are treated as materially participating in the activity if you met test (1), (5), or (6) under Material participation tests , discussed earlier, for the tax year. 2012 tax return software   You are not treated as a limited partner, however, if you also were a general partner in the partnership at all times during the partnership's tax year ending with or within your tax year (or, if shorter, during that part of the partnership's tax year in which you directly or indirectly owned your limited partner interest). 2012 tax return software Retired or disabled farmer and surviving spouse of a farmer. 2012 tax return software   If you are a retired or disabled farmer, you are treated as materially participating in a farming activity if you materially participated for 5 or more of the 8 years before your retirement or disability. 2012 tax return software Similarly, if you are a surviving spouse of a farmer, you are treated as materially participating in a farming activity if the real property used in the activity meets the estate tax rules for special valuation of farm property passed from a qualifying decedent, and you actively manage the farm. 2012 tax return software Corporations. 2012 tax return software   A closely held corporation or a personal service corporation is treated as materially participating in an activity only if one or more shareholders holding more than 50% by value of the outstanding stock of the corporation materially participate in the activity. 2012 tax return software   A closely held corporation can also satisfy the material participation standard by meeting the first two requirements for the qualifying business exception from the at-risk limits. 2012 tax return software See Special exception for qualified corporations under Activities Covered by the At-Risk Rules, later. 2012 tax return software Real Estate Professional Generally, rental activities are passive activities even if you materially participated in them. 2012 tax return software However, if you qualified as a real estate professional, rental real estate activities in which you materially participated are not passive activities. 2012 tax return software For this purpose, each interest you have in a rental real estate activity is a separate activity, unless you choose to treat all interests in rental real estate activities as one activity. 2012 tax return software See the Instructions for Schedule E (Form 1040), Supplemental Income and Loss, for information about making this choice. 2012 tax return software If you qualified as a real estate professional for 2013, report income or losses from rental real estate activities in which you materially participated as nonpassive income or losses, and complete line 43 of Schedule E (Form 1040). 2012 tax return software If you also have an unallowed loss from these activities from an earlier year when you did not qualify, see Treatment of former passive activities under Passive Activities, earlier. 2012 tax return software Qualifications. 2012 tax return software   You qualified as a real estate professional for the year if you met both of the following requirements. 2012 tax return software More than half of the personal services you performed in all trades or businesses during the tax year were performed in real property trades or businesses in which you materially participated. 2012 tax return software You performed more than 750 hours of services during the tax year in real property trades or businesses in which you materially participated. 2012 tax return software   Do not count personal services you performed as an employee in real property trades or businesses unless you were a 5% owner of your employer. 2012 tax return software You were a 5% owner if you owned (or are considered to have owned) more than 5% of your employer's outstanding stock, outstanding voting stock, or capital or profits interest. 2012 tax return software   If you file a joint return, do not count your spouse's personal services to determine whether you met the preceding requirements. 2012 tax return software However, you can count your spouse's participation in an activity in determining if you materially participated. 2012 tax return software Real property trades or businesses. 2012 tax return software   A real property trade or business is a trade or business that does any of the following with real property. 2012 tax return software Develops or redevelops it. 2012 tax return software Constructs or reconstructs it. 2012 tax return software Acquires it. 2012 tax return software Converts it. 2012 tax return software Rents or leases it. 2012 tax return software Operates or manages it. 2012 tax return software Brokers it. 2012 tax return software Closely held corporations. 2012 tax return software   A closely held corporation can qualify as a real estate professional if more than 50% of the gross receipts for its tax year came from real property trades or businesses in which it materially participated. 2012 tax return software Passive Activity Income and Deductions In figuring your net income or loss from a passive activity, take into account only passive activity income and passive activity deductions. 2012 tax return software Self-charged interest. 2012 tax return software   Certain self-charged interest income or deductions may be treated as passive activity gross income or passive activity deductions if the loan proceeds are used in a passive activity. 2012 tax return software   Generally, self-charged interest income and deductions result from loans between you and a partnership or S corporation in which you had a direct or indirect ownership interest. 2012 tax return software This includes both loans you made to the partnership or S corporation and loans the partnership or S corporation made to you. 2012 tax return software   It also includes loans from one partnership or S corporation to another partnership or S corporation if each owner in the borrowing entity has the same proportional ownership interest in the lending entity. 2012 tax return software    Exception. 2012 tax return software The self-charged interest rules do not apply to your interest in a partnership or S corporation if the entity made an election under Regulations section 1. 2012 tax return software 469-7(g) to avoid the application of these rules. 2012 tax return software For more details on the self-charged interest rules, see Regulations section 1. 2012 tax return software 469-7. 2012 tax return software Passive Activity Income Passive activity income includes all income from passive activities and generally includes gain from disposition of an interest in a passive activity or property used in a passive activity. 2012 tax return software Passive activity income does not include the following items. 2012 tax return software Income from an activity that is not a passive activity. 2012 tax return software These activities are discussed under Activities That Are Not Passive Activities , earlier. 2012 tax return software Portfolio income. 2012 tax return software This includes interest, dividends, annuities, and royalties not derived in the ordinary course of a trade or business. 2012 tax return software It includes gain or loss from the disposition of property that produces these types of income or that is held for investment. 2012 tax return software The exclusion for portfolio income does not apply to self-charged interest treated as passive activity income. 2012 tax return software For more information on self-charged interest, see Self-charged interest , earlier. 2012 tax return software Personal service income. 2012 tax return software This includes salaries, wages, commissions, self-employment income from trade or business activities in which you materially participated, deferred compensation, taxable social security and other retirement benefits, and payments from partnerships to partners for personal services. 2012 tax return software Income from positive section 481 adjustments allocated to activities other than passive activities. 2012 tax return software (Section 481 adjustments are adjustments that must be made due to changes in your accounting method. 2012 tax return software ) Income or gain from investments of working capital. 2012 tax return software Income from an oil or gas property if you treated any loss from a working interest in the property for any tax year beginning after 1986 as a nonpassive loss, as discussed in item (2) under Activities That Are Not Passive Activities , earlier. 2012 tax return software This also applies to income from other oil and gas property the basis of which is determined wholly or partly by the basis of the property in the preceding sentence. 2012 tax return software Any income from intangible property, such as a patent, copyright, or literary, musical, or artistic composition, if your personal efforts significantly contributed to the creation of the property. 2012 tax return software Any other income that must be treated as nonpassive income. 2012 tax return software See Recharacterization of Passive Income , later. 2012 tax return software Overall gain from any interest in a publicly traded partnership. 2012 tax return software See Publicly Traded Partnerships (PTPs) in the instructions for Form 8582. 2012 tax return software State, local, and foreign income tax refunds. 2012 tax return software Income from a covenant not to compete. 2012 tax return software Reimbursement of a casualty or theft loss included in gross income to recover all or part of a prior year loss deduction, if the loss deduction was not a passive activity deduction. 2012 tax return software Alaska Permanent Fund dividends. 2012 tax return software Cancellation of debt income, if at the time the debt is discharged the debt is not allocated to passive activities under the interest expense allocation rules. 2012 tax return software See chapter 4 of Publication 535, Business Expenses, for information about the rules for allocating interest. 2012 tax return software Disposition of property interests. 2012 tax return software   Gain on the disposition of an interest in property generally is passive activity income if, at the time of the disposition, the property was used in an activity that was a passive activity in the year of disposition. 2012 tax return software The gain generally is not passive activity income if, at the time of disposition, the property was used in an activity that was not a passive activity in the year of disposition. 2012 tax return software An exception to this general rule may apply if you previously used the property in a different activity. 2012 tax return software Exception for more than one use in the preceding 12 months. 2012 tax return software   If you used the property in more than one activity during the 12-month period before its disposition, you must allocate the gain between the activities on a basis that reasonably reflects the property's use during that period. 2012 tax return software Any gain allocated to a passive activity is passive activity income. 2012 tax return software   For this purpose, an allocation of the gain solely to the activity in which the property was mainly used during that period reasonably reflects the property's use if the fair market value of your interest in the property is not more than the lesser of: $10,000, or 10% of the total of the fair market value of your interest in the property and the fair market value of all other property used in that activity immediately before the disposition. 2012 tax return software Exception for substantially appreciated property. 2012 tax return software   The gain is passive activity income if the fair market value of the property at disposition was more than 120% of its adjusted basis and either of the following conditions applies. 2012 tax return software You used the property in a passive activity for 20% of the time you held your interest in the property. 2012 tax return software You used the property in a passive activity for the entire 24-month period before its disposition. 2012 tax return software If neither condition applies, the gain is not passive activity income. 2012 tax return software However, it is treated as portfolio income only if you held the property for investment for more than half of the time you held it in nonpassive activities. 2012 tax return software   For this purpose, treat property you held through a corporation (other than an S corporation) or other entity whose owners receive only portfolio income as property held in a nonpassive activity and as property held for investment. 2012 tax return software Also, treat the date you agree to transfer your interest for a fixed or determinable amount as the disposition date. 2012 tax return software   If you used the property in more than one activity during the 12-month period before its disposition, this exception applies only to the part of the gain allocated to a passive activity under the rules described in the preceding discussion. 2012 tax return software Disposition of property converted to inventory. 2012 tax return software   If you disposed of property that you had converted to inventory from its use in another activity (for example, you sold condominium units you previously held for use in a rental activity), a special rule may apply. 2012 tax return software Under this rule, you disregard the property's use as inventory and treat it as if it were still used in that other activity at the time of disposition. 2012 tax return software This rule applies only if you meet all of the following conditions. 2012 tax return software At the time of disposition, you held your interest in the property in a dealing activity (an activity that involves holding the property or similar property mainly for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business). 2012 tax return software Your other activities included a nondealing activity (an activity that does not involve holding similar property for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business) in which you used the property for more than 80% of the period you held it. 2012 tax return software You did not acquire or hold your interest in the property for the main purpose of selling it to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business. 2012 tax return software Passive Activity Deductions Generally, a deduction is a passive activity deduction for a taxable year if and only if such deduction either: Arises in connection with the conduct of an activity that is a passive activity for the tax year; or Is treated as a deduction from an activity for the tax year because it was disallowed by the passive activity rules in the preceding year and carried forward to the tax year. 2012 tax return software For purposes of item (1), above, an item of deduction arises in the taxable year in which the item would be allowable as a deduction under the taxpayer's method of accounting if taxable income for all taxable years were determined without regard to the passive activity rules and without regard to the basis, excess farm loss, and at-risk limits. 2012 tax return software See Coordination with other limitations on deductions that apply before the passive activity rules , later. 2012 tax return software Passive activity deductions generally include losses from dispositions of property used in a passive activity at the time of the disposition and losses from a disposition of less than your entire interest in a passive activity. 2012 tax return software Exceptions. 2012 tax return software   Passive activity deductions do not include the following items. 2012 tax return software Deductions for expenses (other than interest expense) that are clearly and directly allocable to portfolio income. 2012 tax return software Qualified home mortgage interest, capitalized interest expenses, and other interest expenses (other than self-charged interest) properly allocable to passive activities. 2012 tax return software For more information on self-charged interest, see Self-charged interest under Passive Activity Income and Deductions, earlier. 2012 tax return software Losses from dispositions of property that produce portfolio income or property held for investment. 2012 tax return software State, local, and foreign income taxes. 2012 tax return software Miscellaneous itemized deductions that may be disallowed because of the 2%-of-adjusted-gross-income limit. 2012 tax return software Charitable contribution deductions. 2012 tax return software Net operating loss deductions. 2012 tax return software Percentage depletion carryovers for oil and gas wells. 2012 tax return software Capital loss carrybacks and carryovers. 2012 tax return software Items of deduction from a passive activity that are disallowed under the limits on deductions that apply before the passive activity rules. 2012 tax return software See Coordination with other limitations on deductions that apply before the passive activity rules , later. 2012 tax return software Deductions and losses that would have been allowed for tax years beginning before 1987 but for basis or at-risk limits. 2012 tax return software Net negative section 481 adjustments allocated to activities other than passive activities. 2012 tax return software (Section 481 adjustments are adjustments required due to changes in accounting methods. 2012 tax return software ) Casualty and theft losses, unless losses similar in cause and severity recur regularly in the activity. 2012 tax return software The deduction for the employer-equivalent portion of self-employment tax. 2012 tax return software Coordination with other limitations on deductions that apply before the passive activity rules. 2012 tax return software   An item of deduction from a passive activity that is disallowed for a tax year under the basis or at-risk limitations is not a passive activity deduction for the tax year. 2012 tax return software The following sections provide rules for figuring the extent to which items of deduction from a passive activity are disallowed for a tax year under the basis or at-risk limitations. 2012 tax return software Proration of deductions disallowed under basis limitations. 2012 tax return software   If any amount of your distributive share of a partnership's loss for the tax year is disallowed under the basis limitation, a ratable portion of your distributive share of each item of deduction or loss of the partnership is disallowed for the tax year. 2012 tax return software For this purpose, the ratable portion of an item of deduction or loss is the amount of such item multiplied by the fraction obtained by dividing: The amount of your distributive share of partnership loss that is disallowed for the taxable year; by The sum of your distributive shares of all items of deduction and loss of the partnership for the tax year. 2012 tax return software   If any amount of your pro rata share of an S corporation's loss for the tax year is disallowed under the basis limitation, a ratable portion of your pro rata share of each item of deduction or loss of the S corporation is disallowed for the tax year. 2012 tax return software For this purpose, the ratable portion of an item of deduction or loss is the amount of such item multiplied by the fraction obtained by dividing: The amount of your share of S corporation loss that is disallowed for the tax year; by The sum of your pro rata shares of all items of deduction and loss of the corporation for the tax year. 2012 tax return software Proration of deductions disallowed under at-risk limitation. 2012 tax return software   If any amount of your loss from an activity (as defined in Activities Covered by the At-Risk Rules , later) is disallowed under the at-risk rules for the tax year, a ratable portion of each item of deduction or loss from the activity is disallowed for the tax year. 2012 tax return software For this purpose, the ratable portion of an item of deduction or loss is the amount of such item multiplied by the fraction obtained by dividing: The amount of the loss from the activity that is disallowed for the tax year; by The sum of all deductions from the activity for the taxable year. 2012 tax return software Coordination of basis and at-risk limitations. 2012 tax return software   The portion of any item of deduction or loss that is disallowed for the tax year under the basis limitations is not taken into account for the taxable year in determining the loss from an activity (as defined in Activities Covered by the At-Risk Rules , later) for purposes of applying the at-risk rules. 2012 tax return software Separately identified items of deduction and loss. 2012 tax return software   In identifying the items of deduction and loss from an activity that are not disallowed under the basis and at-risk limitations (and that therefore may be treated as passive activity deductions), you need not account separately for any item of deduction or loss unless such item may, if separately taken into account, result in an income tax liability different from that which would result were such item of deduction or loss taken into account separately. 2012 tax return software   Items of deduction or loss that must be accounted for separately include (but are not limited to) items of deduction or loss that: Are attributable to separate activities. 2012 tax return software See Grouping Your Activities , later. 2012 tax return software Arise in a rental real estate activity in tax years in which you actively participate in such activity; Arise in a rental real estate activity in taxable years in which you do not actively participate in such activity; Arose in a taxable year beginning before 1987 and were not allowed for such taxable year under the basis or at-risk limitations; Are taken into account under section 613A(d) (relating to limitations on certain depletion deductions); Are taken into account under section 1211 (relating to the limitation on capital losses); Are taken into account under section 1231 (relating to property used in a trade or business and involuntary conversions). 2012 tax return software See Section 1231 Gains and Losses in Publication 544 for more information. 2012 tax return software Are attributable to pre-enactment interests in activities. 2012 tax return software See Regulations section 1. 2012 tax return software 469-11T(c). 2012 tax return software Grouping Your Activities You can treat one or more trade or business activities, or rental activities, as a single activity if those activities form an appropriate economic unit for measuring gain or loss under the passive activity rules. 2012 tax return software Grouping is important for a number of reasons. 2012 tax return software If you group two activities into one larger activity, you need only show material participation in the activity as a whole. 2012 tax return software But if the two activities are separate, you must show material participation in each one. 2012 tax return software On the other hand, if you group two activities into one larger activity and you dispose of one of the two, then you have disposed of only part of your entire interest in the activity. 2012 tax return software But if the two activities are separate and you dispose of one of them, then you have disposed of your entire interest in that activity. 2012 tax return software Grouping can also be important in determining whether you meet the 10% ownership requirement for actively participating in a rental real estate activity. 2012 tax return software Appropriate Economic Units Generally, to determine if activities form an appropriate economic unit, you must consider all the relevant facts and circumstances. 2012 tax return software You can use any reasonable method of applying the relevant facts and circumstances in grouping activities. 2012 tax return software The following factors have the greatest weight in determining whether activities form an appropriate economic unit. 2012 tax return software All of the factors do not have to apply to treat more than one activity as a single activity. 2012 tax return software The factors that you should consider are: The similarities and differences in the types of trades or businesses, The extent of common control, The extent of common ownership, The geographical location, and The interdependencies between or among activities, which may include the extent to which the activities: Buy or sell goods between or among themselves, Involve products or services that are generally provided together, Have the same customers, Have the same employees, or Use a single set of books and records to account for the activities. 2012 tax return software Example 1. 2012 tax return software John Jackson owns a bakery and a movie theater at a shopping mall in Baltimore and a bakery and movie theater in Philadelphia. 2012 tax return software Based on all the relevant facts and circumstances, there may be more than one reasonable method for grouping John's activities. 2012 tax return software For example, John may be able to group the movie theaters and the bakeries into: One activity, A movie theater activity and a bakery activity, A Baltimore activity and a Philadelphia activity, or Four separate activities. 2012 tax return software Example 2. 2012 tax return software Betty is a partner in ABC partnership, which sells nonfood items to grocery stores. 2012 tax return software Betty is also a partner in DEF (a trucking business). 2012 tax return software ABC and DEF are under common control. 2012 tax return software The main part of DEF's business is transporting goods for ABC. 2012 tax return software DEF is the only trucking business in which Betty is involved. 2012 tax return software Based on the rules of this section, Betty treats ABC's wholesale activity and DEF's trucking activity as a single activity. 2012 tax return software Consistency and disclosure requirement. 2012 tax return software   Generally, when you group activities into appropriate economic units, you may not regroup those activities in a later tax year. 2012 tax return software You must meet any disclosure requirements of the IRS when you first group your activities and when you add or dispose of any activities in your groupings. 2012 tax return software   However, if the original grouping is clearly inappropriate or there is a material change in the facts and circumstances that makes the original grouping clearly inappropriate, you must regroup the activities and comply with any disclosure requirements of the IRS. 2012 tax return software   See Disclosure Requirement , later. 2012 tax return software Regrouping by the IRS. 2012 tax return software   If any of the activities resulting from your grouping is not an appropriate economic unit and one of the primary purposes of your grouping (or failure to regroup) is to avoid the passive activity rules, the IRS may regroup your activities. 2012 tax return software Rental activities. 2012 tax return software   In general, you cannot group a rental activity with a trade or business activity. 2012 tax return software However, you can group them together if the activities form an appropriate economic unit and: The rental activity is insubstantial in relation to the trade or business activity, The trade or business activity is insubstantial in relation to the rental activity, or Each owner of the trade or business activity has the same ownership interest in the rental activity, in which case the part of the rental activity that involves the rental of items of property for use in the trade or business activity may be grouped with the trade or business activity. 2012 tax return software Example. 2012 tax return software Herbert and Wilma are married and file a joint return. 2012 tax return software Healthy Food, an S corporation, is a grocery store business. 2012 tax return software Herbert is Healthy Food's only shareholder. 2012 tax return software Plum Tower, an S corporation, owns and rents out the building. 2012 tax return software Wilma is Plum Tower's only shareholder. 2012 tax return software Plum Tower rents part of its building to Healthy Food. 2012 tax return software Plum Tower's grocery store rental business and Healthy Food's grocery business are not insubstantial in relation to each other. 2012 tax return software Herbert and Wilma file a joint return, so they are treated as one taxpayer for purposes of the passive activity rules. 2012 tax return software The same owner (Herbert and Wilma) owns both Healthy Food and Plum Tower with the same ownership interest (100% in each). 2012 tax return software If the grouping forms an appropriate economic unit, as discussed earlier, Herbert and Wilma can group Plum Tower's grocery store rental and Healthy Food's grocery business into a single trade or business activity. 2012 tax return software Grouping of real and personal property rentals. 2012 tax return software   In general, you cannot treat an activity involving the rental of real property and an activity involving the rental of personal property as a single activity. 2012 tax return software However, you can treat them as a single activity if you provide the personal property in connection with the real property or the real property in connection with the personal property. 2012 tax return software Certain activities may not be grouped. 2012 tax return software   In general, if you own an interest as a limited partner or a limited entrepreneur in one of the following activities, you may not group that activity with any other activity in another type of business. 2012 tax return software Holding, producing, or distributing motion picture films or video tapes. 2012 tax return software Farming. 2012 tax return software Leasing any section 1245 property (as defined in section 1245(a)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code). 2012 tax return software For a list of section 1245 property, see Section 1245 property under Activities Covered by the At-Risk Rules , later. 2012 tax return software Exploring for, or exploiting, oil and gas resources. 2012 tax return software Exploring for, or exploiting, geothermal deposits. 2012 tax return software   If you own an interest as a limited partner or a limited entrepreneur in an activity described in the list above, you may group that activity with another activity in the same type of business if the grouping forms an appropriate economic unit as discussed earlier. 2012 tax return software Limited entrepreneur. 2012 tax return software   A limited entrepreneur is a person who: Has an interest in an enterprise other than as a limited partner, and Does not actively participate in the management of the enterprise. 2012 tax return software Activities conducted through another entity. 2012 tax return software   A personal service corporation, closely held corporation, partnership, or S corporation must group its activities using the rules discussed in this section. 2012 tax return software Once the entity groups its activities, you, as the partner or shareholder of the entity, may group those activities (following the rules of this section): With each other, With activities conducted directly by you, or With activities conducted through other entities. 2012 tax return software    You may not treat activities grouped together by the entity as separate activities. 2012 tax return software Personal service and closely held corporations. 2012 tax return software   You may group an activity conducted through a personal service or closely held corporation with your other activities only to determine whether you materially or significantly participated in those other activities. 2012 tax return software See Material Participation , earlier, and Significant Participation Passive Activities , later. 2012 tax return software Publicly traded partnership (PTP). 2012 tax return software   You may not group activities conducted through a PTP with any other activity, including an activity conducted through another PTP. 2012 tax return software Partial dispositions. 2012 tax return software   If you dispose of substantially all of an activity during your tax year, you may treat the part disposed of as a separate activity. 2012 tax return software However, you can do this only if you can show with reasonable certainty: The amount of deductions and credits disallowed in prior years under the passive activity rules that is allocable to the part of the activity disposed of, and The amount of gross income and any other deductions and credits for the current tax year that is allocable to the part of the activity disposed of. 2012 tax return software Disclosure Requirement For tax years beginning after January 24, 2010, the following disclosure requirements for groupings apply. 2012 tax return software You are required to report certain changes to your groupings that occur during the tax year to the IRS. 2012 tax return software If you fail to report these changes, each trade or business activity or rental activity will be treated as a separate activity. 2012 tax return software You will be considered to have made a timely disclosure if you filed all affected income tax returns consistent with the claimed grouping and make the required disclosure on the income tax return for the year in which you first discovered the failure to disclose. 2012 tax return software If the IRS discovered the failure to disclose, you must have reasonable cause for not making the required disclosure. 2012 tax return software New grouping. 2012 tax return software   You must file a written statement with your original income tax return for the first tax year in which two or more activities are originally grouped into a single activity. 2012 tax return software The statement must provide the names, addresses, and employer identification numbers (EINs), if applicable, for the activities being grouped as a single activity. 2012 tax return software In addition, the statement must contain a declaration that the grouped activities make up an appropriate economic unit for the measurement of gain or loss under the passive activity rules. 2012 tax return software Addition to an existing grouping. 2012 tax return software   You must file a written statement with your original income tax return for the tax year in which you add a new activity to an existing group. 2012 tax return software The statement must provide the name, address, and EIN, if applicable, for the activity that is being added and for the activities in the existing group. 2012 tax return software In addition, the statement must contain a declaration that the activities make up an appropriate economic unit for the measurement of gain or loss under the passive activity rules. 2012 tax return software Regrouping. 2012 tax return software   You must file a written statement with your original income tax return for the tax year in which you regroup the activities. 2012 tax return software The statement must provide the names, addresses, and EINs, if applicable, for the activities that are being regrouped. 2012 tax return software If two or more activities are being regrouped into a single activity, the statement must contain a declaration that the regrouped activities make up an appropriate economic unit for the measurement of gain or loss under the passive activity rules. 2012 tax return software In addition, the statement must contain an explanation of the material change in the facts and circumstances that made the original grouping clearly inappropriate. 2012 tax return software Groupings by partnerships and S corporations. 2012 tax return software   Partnerships and S corporations are not subject to the rules for new grouping, addition to an existing grouping, or regrouping. 2012 tax return software Instead, they must comply with the disclosure instructions for grouping activities provided in their Form 1065, U. 2012 tax return software S. 2012 tax return software Return of Partnership Income, or Form 1120S, U. 2012 tax return software S. 2012 tax return software Income Tax Return for an S Corporation, whichever is applicable. 2012 tax return software   The partner or shareholder is not required to make a separate disclosure of the groupings disclosed by the entity unless the partner or shareholder: Groups together any of the activities that the entity does not group together, Groups the entity's activities with activities conducted directly by the partner or shareholder, or Groups an entity's activities with activities conducted through another entity. 2012 tax return software   A partner or shareholder may not treat activities grouped together by the entity as separate activities. 2012 tax return software Recharacterization of Passive Income Net income from the following passive activities may have to be recharacterized and excluded from passive activity income. 2012 tax return software Significant participation passive activities, Rental of property when less than 30% of the unadjusted basis of the property is subject to depreciation, Equity-financed lending activities, Rental of property incidental to development activities, Rental of property to nonpassive activities, and Licensing of intangible property by  pass-through entities. 2012 tax return software If you are engaged in or have an interest in one of these activities during the tax year (either directly or through a partnership or an S corporation), combine the income and losses from the activity to determine if you have a net loss or net income from that activity. 2012 tax return software If the result is a net loss, treat the income and losses the same as any other income or losses from that type of passive activity (trade or business activity or rental activity). 2012 tax return software If the result is net income, do not enter any of the income or losses from the activity or property on Form 8582 or its worksheets. 2012 tax return software Instead, enter income or losses on the form and schedules you normally use. 2012 tax return software However, see Significant Participation Passive Activities , later, if the activity is a significant participation passive activity and you also have a net loss from a different significant participation passive activity. 2012 tax return software Limit on recharacterized passive income. 2012 tax return software   The total amount that you treat as nonpassive income under the rules described later in this discussion for significant participation passive activities, rental of nondepreciable property, and equity-financed lending activities cannot exceed the greatest amount that you treat as nonpassive income under any one of these rules. 2012 tax return software Investment income and investment expense. 2012 tax return software   To figure your investment interest expense limitation on Form 4952, treat as investment income any net passive income recharacterized as nonpassive income from rental of nondepreciable property, equity-financed lending activity, or licensing of intangible property by a pass-through entity. 2012 tax return software Significant Participation Passive Activities A significant participation passive activity is any trade or business activity in which you participated for more than 100 hours during the tax year but did not materially participate. 2012 tax return software If your gross income from all significant participation passive activities is more than your deductions from those activities, a part of your net income from each significant participation passive activity is treated as nonpassive income. 2012 tax return software Corporations. 2012 tax return software   An activity of a personal service corporation or closely held corporation is a significant participation passive activity if both of the following statements are true. 2012 tax return software The corporation is not treated as materially participating in the activity for the year. 2012 tax return software One or more individuals, each of whom is treated as significantly participating in the activity, directly or indirectly hold (in total) more than 50% (by value) of the corporation's outstanding stock. 2012 tax return software Worksheet A. 2012 tax return software   Complete Worksheet A. 2012 tax return software Significant Participation Passive Activities , below, if you have income or losses from any significant participation activity. 2012 tax return software Begin by entering the name of each activity in the left column. 2012 tax return software Column (a). 2012 tax return software   Enter the number of hours you participated in each activity and total the column. 2012 tax return software   If the total is more than 500, do not complete Worksheet A or B. 2012 tax return software None of the activities are passive activities because you satisfy test 4 for material participation. 2012 tax return software (See Material participation tests , earlier. 2012 tax return software ) Report all the income and losses from these activities on the forms and schedules you normally use. 2012 tax return software Do not include the income and losses on Form 8582. 2012 tax return software Column (b). 2012 tax return software   Enter the net loss, if any, from the activity. 2012 tax return software Net loss from an activity means either: The activity's current year net loss (if any) plus prior year unallowed losses (if any), or The excess of prior year unallowed losses over the current year net income (if any). 2012 tax return software Enter -0- here if the prior year unallowed loss is the same as the current year net income. 2012 tax return software Column (c). 2012 tax return software   Enter net income (if any) from the activity. 2012 tax return software Net income means the excess of the current year's net income from the activity over any prior year unallowed losses from the activity. 2012 tax return software Column (d). 2012 tax return software   Combine amounts in the Totals row for columns (b) and (c) and enter the total net income or net loss in the Totals row of column (d). 2012 tax return software If column (d) is a net loss, skip Worksheet B, Significant Participation Activities With Net Income. 2012 tax return software Include the income and losses in Worksheet 3 of Form 8582 (or Worksheet 2 in the Form 88