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Amend taxes 3. Amend taxes   Unrelated Trade or Business Table of Contents Selling of products of exempt functions. Amend taxes Dual use of assets or facilities. Amend taxes Exploitation of exempt functions. Amend taxes ExamplesExceptions. Amend taxes Excluded Trade or Business ActivitiesQualified sponsorship payment. Amend taxes Advertising. Amend taxes Exception for contingent payments. Amend taxes Exception for periodicals. Amend taxes Exception for conventions and trade shows. Amend taxes Legal definition. Amend taxes Legal where played. Amend taxes No for-profit games where played. Amend taxes Unrelated business income. Amend taxes   Unrelated business income is the income from a trade or business regularly conducted by an exempt organization and not substantially related to the performance by the organization of its exempt purpose or function, except that the organization uses the profits derived from this activity. Amend taxes   Certain trade or business activities are not treated as an unrelated trade or business. Amend taxes See Excluded Trade or Business Activities, later. Amend taxes Trade or business. Amend taxes   The term “trade or business” generally includes any activity conducted for the production of income from selling goods or performing services. Amend taxes An activity does not lose its identity as a trade or business merely because it is conducted within a larger group of similar activities that may or may not be related to the exempt purposes of the organization. Amend taxes   For example, the regular sale of pharmaceutical supplies to the general public by a hospital pharmacy does not lose its identity as a trade or business, even though the pharmacy also furnishes supplies to the hospital and patients of the hospital in accordance with its exempt purpose. Amend taxes Similarly, soliciting, selling, and publishing commercial advertising is a trade or business even though the advertising is published in an exempt organization's periodical that contains editorial matter related to the organization's exempt purpose. Amend taxes Regularly conducted. Amend taxes   Business activities of an exempt organization ordinarily are considered regularly conducted if they show a frequency and continuity, and are pursued in a manner similar to comparable commercial activities of nonexempt organizations. Amend taxes   For example, a hospital auxiliary's operation of a sandwich stand for 2 weeks at a state fair would not be the regular conduct of a trade or business. Amend taxes The stand would not compete with similar facilities that a nonexempt organization would ordinarily operate year-round. Amend taxes However, operating a commercial parking lot every Saturday, year-round, would be the regular conduct of a trade or business. Amend taxes Not substantially related. Amend taxes    A business activity is not substantially related to an organization's exempt purpose if it does not contribute importantly to accomplishing that purpose (other than through the production of funds). Amend taxes Whether an activity contributes importantly depends in each case on the facts involved. Amend taxes   In determining whether activities contribute importantly to the accomplishment of an exempt purpose, the size and extent of the activities involved must be considered in relation to the nature and extent of the exempt function that they intend to serve. Amend taxes For example, to the extent an activity is conducted on a scale larger than is reasonably necessary to perform an exempt purpose, it does not contribute importantly to the accomplishment of the exempt purpose. Amend taxes The part of the activity that is more than needed to accomplish the exempt purpose is an unrelated trade or business. Amend taxes   Also in determining whether activities contribute importantly to the accomplishment of an exempt purpose, the following principles apply. Amend taxes Selling of products of exempt functions. Amend taxes   Ordinarily, selling products that result from the performance of exempt functions is not an unrelated trade or business if the product is sold in substantially the same state it is in when the exempt functions are completed. Amend taxes Thus, for an exempt organization engaged in rehabilitating handicapped persons (its exempt function), selling articles made by these persons as part of their rehabilitation training is not an unrelated trade or business. Amend taxes   However, if a completed product resulting from an exempt function is used or exploited in further business activity beyond what is reasonably appropriate or necessary to dispose of it as is, the activity is an unrelated trade or business. Amend taxes For example, if an exempt organization maintains an experimental dairy herd for scientific purposes, the sale of milk and cream produced in the ordinary course of operation of the project is not an unrelated trade or business. Amend taxes But if the organization uses the milk and cream in the further manufacture of food items such as ice cream, pastries, etc. Amend taxes , the sale of these products is an unrelated trade or business unless the manufacturing activities themselves contribute importantly to the accomplishment of an exempt purpose of the organization. Amend taxes Dual use of assets or facilities. Amend taxes   If an asset or facility necessary to the conduct of exempt functions is also used in commercial activities, its use for exempt functions does not, by itself, make the commercial activities a related trade or business. Amend taxes The test, as discussed earlier, is whether the activities contribute importantly to the accomplishment of exempt purposes. Amend taxes   For example, a museum has a theater auditorium designed for showing educational films in connection with its program of public education in the arts and sciences. Amend taxes The theater is a principal feature of the museum and operates continuously while the museum is open to the public. Amend taxes If the organization also operates the theater as a motion picture theater for the public when the museum is closed, the activity is an unrelated trade or business. Amend taxes   For information on allocating expenses for the dual use of assets or facilities, see Deductions in chapter 4. Amend taxes Exploitation of exempt functions. Amend taxes   Exempt activities sometimes create goodwill or other intangibles that can be exploited in a commercial way. Amend taxes When an organization exploits such an intangible in commercial activities, the fact that the income depends in part upon an exempt function of the organization does not make the commercial activities a related trade or business. Amend taxes Unless the commercial exploitation contributes importantly to the accomplishment of the exempt purpose, the commercial activities are an unrelated trade or business. Amend taxes   For the treatment of expenses attributable to the exploitation of exempt activities, see Deductions in chapter 4. Amend taxes Examples The following are examples of activities that were determined to be (or not to be) unrelated trades or businesses using the definitions and principles just discussed. Amend taxes Sales commissions. Amend taxes   An agricultural organization, whose exempt purposes are to promote better conditions for cattle breeders and to improve the breed generally, engages in an unrelated trade or business when it regularly sells cattle for its members on a commission basis. Amend taxes Artists' facilities. Amend taxes   An organization whose exempt purpose is to stimulate and foster public interest in the fine arts by promoting art exhibits, sponsoring cultural events, and furnishing information about fine arts leases studio apartments to artist tenants and operates a dining hall primarily for these tenants. Amend taxes These two activities do not contribute importantly to accomplishing the organization's exempt purpose. Amend taxes Therefore, they are unrelated trades or businesses. Amend taxes Membership list sales. Amend taxes   An exempt educational organization regularly sells membership mailing lists to business firms. Amend taxes This activity does not contribute importantly to the accomplishment of the organization's exempt purpose and therefore is an unrelated trade or business. Amend taxes Also see Exchange or rental of member lists under Excluded Trade or Business Activities, later. Amend taxes Hospital facilities. Amend taxes   An exempt hospital leases its adjacent office building and furnishes certain office services to a hospital-based medical group for a fee. Amend taxes The group provides all diagnostic and therapeutic procedures to the hospital's patients and operates the hospital's emergency room on a 24-hour basis. Amend taxes The leasing activity is substantially related to the hospital's exempt purpose and is not an unrelated trade or business. Amend taxes   The hospital also operates a gift shop patronized by patients, visitors making purchases for patients, and employees; a cafeteria and coffee shop primarily for employees and medical staff; and a parking lot for patients and visitors only. Amend taxes These activities are also substantially related to the hospital's exempt purpose and do not constitute unrelated trades or businesses. Amend taxes Book publishing. Amend taxes   An exempt organization engages primarily in activities that further its exempt purposes. Amend taxes It also owns the publication rights to a book that does not relate to any of its exempt purposes. Amend taxes The organization exploits the book in a commercial manner by arranging for printing, distribution, publicity, and advertising in connection with the sale of the book. Amend taxes These activities constitute a trade or business regularly conducted. Amend taxes Because exploiting the book is unrelated to the organization's exempt purposes (except for the use of the book's profits), the income is unrelated business income. Amend taxes   However, if the organization transfers publication rights to a commercial publisher in return for royalties, the royalty income received will not be unrelated business income. Amend taxes See Royalties under Exclusions in chapter 4. Amend taxes School handicraft shop. Amend taxes   An exempt vocational school operates a handicraft shop that sells articles made by students in their regular courses of instruction. Amend taxes The students are paid a percentage of the sales price. Amend taxes In addition, the shop sells products made by local residents who make articles at home according to the shop's specifications. Amend taxes The shop manager periodically inspects the articles during their manufacture to ensure that they meet desired standards of style and quality. Amend taxes Although many local participants are former students of the school, any qualified person may participate in the program. Amend taxes The sale of articles made by students does not constitute an unrelated trade or business, but the sale of products made by local residents is an unrelated trade or business and is subject to unrelated business income tax. Amend taxes School facilities. Amend taxes   An exempt school has tennis courts and dressing rooms that it uses during the regular school year in its educational program. Amend taxes During the summer, the school operates a tennis club open to the general public. Amend taxes Employees of the school run the club, including collecting membership fees and scheduling court time. Amend taxes   Another exempt school leases the same type of facilities to an unrelated individual who runs a tennis club for the summer. Amend taxes The lease is for a fixed fee that does not depend on the income or profits derived from the leased property. Amend taxes   In both situations, the exempt purpose is the advancement of education. Amend taxes Furnishing tennis facilities in the manner described does not further that exempt purpose. Amend taxes These activities are unrelated trades or businesses. Amend taxes However, in the second situation the income derived from the leasing of the property is excluded from unrelated business taxable income as rent from real property. Amend taxes See Rents under Exclusions in chapter 4. Amend taxes Services provided with lease. Amend taxes   An exempt university leases its football stadium during several months of the year to a professional football team for a fixed fee. Amend taxes Under the lease agreement, the university furnishes heat, light, and water and is responsible for all ground maintenance. Amend taxes It also provides dressing room, linen, and stadium security services for the professional team. Amend taxes   Leasing of the stadium is an unrelated trade or business. Amend taxes In addition, the substantial services furnished for the convenience of the lessee go beyond those usually provided with the rental of space for occupancy only. Amend taxes Therefore, the income from this lease is rent from real property and unrelated business taxable income. Amend taxes Broadcasting rights. Amend taxes   An exempt collegiate athletic conference conducts an annual competitive athletic game between its conference champion and another collegiate team. Amend taxes Income is derived from admission charges and the sale of exclusive broadcasting rights to a national radio and television network. Amend taxes An athletic program is considered an integral part of the educational process of a university. Amend taxes   The educational purposes served by intercollegiate athletics are identical whether conducted directly by individual universities or by their regional athletic conference. Amend taxes Also, the educational purposes served by exhibiting a game before an audience that is physically present and exhibiting the game on television or radio before a much larger audience are substantially similar. Amend taxes Therefore, the sale of the broadcasting rights contributes importantly to the accomplishment of the organization's exempt purpose and is not an unrelated trade or business. Amend taxes   In a similar situation, an exempt organization was created as a national governing body for amateur athletes to foster interest in amateur sports and to encourage widespread public participation. Amend taxes The organization receives income each year from the sale of exclusive broadcasting rights to an independent producer, who contracts with a commercial network to broadcast many of the athletic events sponsored, supervised, and regulated by the organization. Amend taxes   The broadcasting of these events promotes the various amateur sports, fosters widespread public interest in the benefits of the organization's nationwide amateur program, and encourages public participation. Amend taxes The sale of the rights and the broadcasting of the events contribute importantly to the organization's exempt purpose. Amend taxes Therefore, the sale of the exclusive broadcasting rights is not an unrelated trade or business. Amend taxes Yearbook advertising. Amend taxes   An exempt organization receives income from the sale of advertising in its annual yearbook. Amend taxes The organization hires an independent commercial firm, under a contract covering a full calendar year, to conduct an intensive advertising solicitation campaign in the organization's name. Amend taxes This firm is paid a percentage of the gross advertising receipts for selling the advertising, collecting from advertisers, and printing the yearbook. Amend taxes This advertising activity is an unrelated trade or business. Amend taxes Pet boarding and grooming services. Amend taxes   An exempt organization, organized and operated for the prevention of cruelty to animals, receives unrelated business income from providing pet boarding and grooming services for the general public. Amend taxes These activities do not contribute importantly to its purpose of preventing cruelty to animals. Amend taxes Museum eating facilities. Amend taxes   An exempt art museum operates a dining room, a cafeteria, and a snack bar for use by the museum staff, employees, and visitors. Amend taxes Eating facilities in the museum help to attract visitors and allow them to spend more time viewing the museum's exhibits without having to seek outside restaurants at mealtime. Amend taxes The eating facilities also allow the museum staff and employees to remain in the museum throughout the day. Amend taxes Thus, the museum's operation of the eating facilities contributes importantly to the accomplishment of its exempt purposes and is not unrelated trade or business. Amend taxes Halfway house workshop. Amend taxes   A halfway house organized to provide room, board, therapy, and counseling for persons discharged from alcoholic treatment centers also operates a furniture shop to provide full-time employment for its residents. Amend taxes The profits are applied to the operating costs of the halfway house. Amend taxes The income from this venture is not unrelated trade or business income because the furniture shop contributes importantly to the organization's purpose of aiding its residents' transition from treatment to a normal and productive life. Amend taxes Travel tour programs. Amend taxes   Travel tour activities that are a trade or business are an unrelated trade or business if the activities are not substantially related to the purpose for which tax exemption was granted to the organization. Amend taxes Example 1. Amend taxes A tax-exempt university alumni association provides a travel tour program for its members and their families. Amend taxes The organization works with various travel agencies and schedules approximately ten tours a year to various places around the world. Amend taxes It mails out promotional material and accepts reservations for fees paid by the travel agencies on a per-person basis. Amend taxes The organization provides an employee for each tour as a tour leader. Amend taxes There is no formal educational program conducted with these tours, and they do not differ from regular commercially operated tours. Amend taxes By providing travel tours to its members, the organization is engaging in a regularly conducted trade or business. Amend taxes Even if the tours it offers support the university, financially and otherwise, and encourage alumni to do the same, they do not contribute importantly to the organization's exempt purpose of promoting education. Amend taxes Therefore, the sale of the travel tours is an unrelated trade or business. Amend taxes Example 2. Amend taxes A tax-exempt organization formed for the purpose of educating individuals about the geography and the culture of the United States provides study tours to national parks and other locations within the United States. Amend taxes These tours are conducted by teachers and others certified by the state board of education. Amend taxes The tours are primarily designed for students enrolled in degree programs at state educational institutions but are open to all who agree to participate in the required study program associated with the tour taken. Amend taxes A tour's study program consists of instruction on subjects related to the location being visited on the tour. Amend taxes Each tour group brings along a library of material related to the subjects being studied on the tour. Amend taxes During the tour, 5 or 6 hours per day are devoted to organized study, preparation of reports, lectures, instruction, and recitation by the students. Amend taxes Examinations are given at the end of each tour. Amend taxes The state board of education awards academic credit for tour participation. Amend taxes Because these tours are substantially related to the organization's exempt purpose, they are not an unrelated trade or business. Amend taxes Insurance programs. Amend taxes   An organization that acts as a group insurance policyholder for its members and collects a fee for performing administrative services is normally carrying on an unrelated trade or business. Amend taxes Exceptions. Amend taxes   Organizations whose exempt activities may include the provision of insurance benefits, such as fraternal beneficiary societies, voluntary employees beneficiary associations, and labor organizations, are generally exceptions to this rule. Amend taxes Magazine publishing. Amend taxes   An association of credit unions with tax-exempt status as a business league publishes a consumer-oriented magazine four times a year and makes it available to member credit unions for purchase. Amend taxes   By selling a magazine to its members as a promotional device, the organization furnishes its members with a regular commercial service they can use in their own operations. Amend taxes This service does not promote the improvement of business conditions of one or more lines of business, which is the exempt purpose of a business league. Amend taxes   Since the activity does not contribute importantly to the organization's exempt function, it is an unrelated trade or business. Amend taxes Directory of members. Amend taxes   A business league publishes an annual directory that contains a list of all its members, their addresses, and their area of expertise. Amend taxes Each member has the same amount of space in the directory, and its format does not emphasize the relative importance or reputation of any member. Amend taxes The directory contains no commercial advertisement and is sold only to the organization's members. Amend taxes   The directory facilitates communication among the members and encourages the exchange of ideas and expertise. Amend taxes Because the directory lists the members in a similar noncommercial format without advertising and is not distributed to the public, its sale does not confer private commercial benefits on the members. Amend taxes The sale of the directory does contribute importantly to the organization's exempt purpose and is not an unrelated trade or business. Amend taxes This directory differs from the publication discussed next because of its noncommercial characteristics. Amend taxes Sales of advertising space. Amend taxes   A national association of law enforcement officials publishes a monthly journal that contains articles and other editorial material of professional interest to its members. Amend taxes The journal is distributed without charge, mainly to the organization's members. Amend taxes   The organization sells advertising space in the journal either for conventional advertising or to merely identify the purchaser without a commercial message. Amend taxes Some of the noncommercial advertising identifies the purchaser in a separate space, and some consists of listings of 60 or more purchasers per page. Amend taxes A business firm identified in a separate space is further identified in an Index of Advertisers. Amend taxes   The organization solicits advertising by personal contacts. Amend taxes Advertising from large firms is solicited by contacting their chief executive officer or community relations officer rather than their advertising manager. Amend taxes The organization also solicits advertising in form letters appealing for corporate and personal contributions. Amend taxes   An exempt organization's sale of advertising placed for the purchaser's commercial benefit is a commercial activity. Amend taxes Goodwill derived by the purchaser from being identified as a patron of the organization is usually considered a form of commercial benefit. Amend taxes Therefore, advertising in an exempt organization's publication is generally presumed to be placed for the purchaser's commercial benefit, even if it has no commercial message. Amend taxes However, this presumption is not conclusive if the purchaser's patronage would be difficult to justify commercially in view of the facts and circumstances. Amend taxes In that case, other factors should also be considered in determining whether a commercial benefit can be expected. Amend taxes Those other factors include: The normal manner in which the publication is circulated; The territorial scope of the circulation; The extent to which its readers, promoters, or the like could reasonably be expected to further, either directly or indirectly, the commercial interest of the advertisers; The eligibility of the publishing organization to receive tax-deductible contributions; and The commercial or noncommercial methods used to solicit the advertisers. Amend taxes   In this situation, the purchaser of a separate advertising space without a commercial message can nevertheless expect a commercial benefit from the goodwill derived from being identified in that manner as a patron of the organization. Amend taxes However, the purchaser of a listing cannot expect more than an inconsequential benefit. Amend taxes Therefore, the sale of separate spaces, but not the listings, is an unrelated trade or business. Amend taxes Publishing legal notices. Amend taxes   A bar association publishes a legal journal containing opinions of the county court, articles of professional interest to lawyers, advertisements for products and services used by the legal profession, and legal notices. Amend taxes The legal notices are published to satisfy state laws requiring publication of notices in connection with legal proceedings, such as the administration of estates and actions to quiet title to real property. Amend taxes The state designated the bar association's journal as the place to publish the required notices. Amend taxes   The publication of ordinary commercial advertising does not advance the exempt purposes of the association even when published in a periodical that contains material related to exempt purposes. Amend taxes Although the advertising is directed specifically to members of the legal profession, it is still commercial in nature and does not contribute importantly to the exempt purposes of the association. Amend taxes Therefore, the advertising income is unrelated trade or business income. Amend taxes   On the other hand, the publication of legal notices is distinguishable from ordinary commercial advertising in that its purpose is to inform the general public of significant legal events rather than to stimulate demand for the products or services of an advertiser. Amend taxes This promotes the common interests of the legal profession and contributes importantly to the association's exempt purposes. Amend taxes Therefore, the publishing of legal notices does not constitute an unrelated trade or business. Amend taxes Museum greeting card sales. Amend taxes    An art museum that exhibits modern art sells greeting cards that display printed reproductions of selected works from other art collections. Amend taxes Each card is imprinted with the name of the artist, the title or subject matter of the work, the date or period of its creation, if known, and the museum's name. Amend taxes The cards contain appropriate greetings and are personalized on request. Amend taxes   The organization sells the cards in the shop it operates in the museum and sells them at quantity discounts to retail stores. Amend taxes It also sells them by mail order through a catalog that is advertised in magazines and other publications throughout the year. Amend taxes As a result, a large number of cards are sold at a significant profit. Amend taxes   The museum is exempt as an educational organization on the basis of its ownership, maintenance, and exhibition for public viewing of works of art. Amend taxes The sale of greeting cards with printed reproductions of artworks contributes importantly to the achievement of the museum's exempt educational purposes by enhancing public awareness, interest, and appreciation of art. Amend taxes The cards may encourage more people to visit the museum itself to share in its educational programs. Amend taxes The fact that the cards are promoted and sold in a commercial manner at a profit and in competition with commercial greeting card publishers does not alter the fact that the activity is related to the museum's exempt purpose. Amend taxes Therefore, these sales activities are not an unrelated trade or business. Amend taxes Museum shop. Amend taxes   An art museum maintained and operated for the exhibition of American folk art operates a shop in the museum that sells: Reproductions of works in the museum's own collection and reproductions of artistic works from the collections of other art museums (prints suitable for framing, postcards, greeting cards, and slides); Metal, wood, and ceramic copies of American folk art objects from its own collection and similar copies of art objects from other collections of artworks; Instructional literature and scientific books and souvenir items concerning the history and development of art and, in particular, of American folk art; and Scientific books and souvenir items of the city in which the museum is located. Amend taxes   The shop also rents originals or reproductions of paintings contained in its collection. Amend taxes All of its reproductions are imprinted with the name of the artist, the title or subject matter of the work from which it is reproduced, and the museum's name. Amend taxes   Each line of merchandise must be considered separately to determine if sales are related to the exempt purpose. Amend taxes   The sale and rental of reproductions and copies of works from the museum's own collection and reproductions of artistic works not owned by the museum contribute importantly to the achievement of the museum's exempt educational purpose by making works of art familiar to a broader segment of the public, thereby enhancing the public's understanding and appreciation of art. Amend taxes The same is true for the sale of literature relating to art. Amend taxes Therefore, these sales activities are not an unrelated trade or business. Amend taxes   On the other hand, the sale of scientific books and souvenir items of the city where the museum is located has no causal relationship to art or to artistic endeavor and, therefore, does not contribute importantly to the accomplishment of the museum's exempt educational purposes. Amend taxes The fact that selling some of these items could, under different circumstances, be held related to the exempt educational purpose of some other exempt educational organization does not change this conclusion. Amend taxes Additionally, the sale of these items does not lose its identity as a trade or business merely because the museum also sells articles which do contribute importantly to the accomplishment of its exempt function. Amend taxes Therefore, these sales are an unrelated trade or business. Amend taxes Business league's parking and bus services. Amend taxes   A business league, whose purpose is to retain and stimulate trade in a downtown area that has inadequate parking facilities, operates a fringe parking lot and shuttle bus service. Amend taxes It also operates, as an insubstantial part of its activities, a park and shop plan. Amend taxes   The fringe parking lot and shuttle bus service operate in a manner that does not favor any individual or group of downtown merchants. Amend taxes The merchants cannot offer free or discount parking or bus fares to their customers. Amend taxes   The park and shop plan allows customers of particular merchants to park free at certain parking lots in the area. Amend taxes Merchants participating in this plan buy parking stamps, which they distribute to their customers to use to pay for parking. Amend taxes   Operating the fringe parking lot and shuttle bus service provides easy and convenient access to the downtown area and, therefore, stimulates and improves business conditions in the downtown area generally. Amend taxes That activity contributes importantly to the organization's accomplishing its exempt purpose and is not an unrelated trade or business. Amend taxes   The park and shop plan encourages customers to use a limited number of participating member merchants in order to obtain free parking. Amend taxes This provides a particular service to individual members of the organization and does not further its exempt purpose. Amend taxes Therefore, operating the park and shop plan is an unrelated trade or business. Amend taxes Youth residence. Amend taxes   An exempt organization, whose purpose is to provide for the welfare of young people, rents rooms primarily to people under age 25. Amend taxes The residence units are operated on, and as a part of, the premises in which the organization carries on the social, recreational, and guidance programs for which it was recognized as exempt. Amend taxes The facilities are under the management and supervision of trained career professionals who provide residents with personal counseling, physical education programs, and group recreational activities. Amend taxes The rentals are not an unrelated trade or business because renting the rooms is substantially related to the organization's exempt purpose. Amend taxes Health club program. Amend taxes   An exempt charitable organization's purpose is to provide for the welfare of young people. Amend taxes The organization conducts charitable activities and maintains facilities that will contribute to the physical, social, mental, and spiritual health of young people at minimum or no cost to them. Amend taxes Nominal annual dues are charged for membership in the organization and use of the facilities. Amend taxes   In addition, the organization organized a health club program that its members could join for an annual fee in addition to the annual dues. Amend taxes The annual fee is comparable to fees charged by similar local commercial health clubs and is sufficiently high to restrict participation in the program to a limited number of members of the community. Amend taxes   The health club program is in addition to the general physical fitness program of the organization. Amend taxes Operating this program does not contribute importantly to the organization's accomplishing its exempt purpose and, therefore, is an unrelated trade or business. Amend taxes Miniature golf course. Amend taxes   An exempt youth welfare organization operates a miniature golf course that is open to the general public. Amend taxes The course, which is managed by salaried employees, is substantially similar to commercial courses. Amend taxes The admission fees charged are comparable to fees of commercial facilities and are designed to return a profit. Amend taxes   The operation of the miniature golf course in a commercial manner does not contribute importantly to the accomplishment of the organization's exempt purpose and, therefore, is an unrelated trade or business. Amend taxes Sales of hearing aids. Amend taxes   A tax-exempt hospital, whose primary activity is rehabilitation, sells hearing aids to patients. Amend taxes This activity is an essential part of the hospital's program to test and evaluate patients with hearing deficiencies and contributes importantly to its exempt purpose. Amend taxes It is not an unrelated trade or business. Amend taxes Nonpatient laboratory testing. Amend taxes   Nonpatient laboratory testing performed by a tax-exempt teaching hospital on specimens needed for the conduct of its teaching activities is not an unrelated trade or business. Amend taxes However, laboratory testing performed by a tax-exempt non-teaching hospital on referred specimens from private office patients of staff physicians is an unrelated trade or business if these services are otherwise available in the community. Amend taxes Selling endorsements. Amend taxes   An exempt scientific organization enjoys an excellent reputation in the field of biological research. Amend taxes It exploits this reputation regularly by selling endorsements of laboratory equipment to manufacturers. Amend taxes Endorsing laboratory equipment does not contribute importantly to the accomplishment of any purpose for which exemption is granted to the organization. Amend taxes Accordingly, the sale of endorsements is an unrelated trade or business. Amend taxes Sponsoring entertainment events. Amend taxes   An exempt university has a regular faculty and a regularly enrolled student body. Amend taxes During the school year, the university sponsors the appearance of professional theater companies and symphony orchestras that present drama and musical performances for the students and faculty members. Amend taxes Members of the general public also are admitted. Amend taxes The university advertises these performances and supervises advance ticket sales at various places, including such university facilities as the cafeteria and the university bookstore. Amend taxes Although the presentation of the performances makes use of an intangible generated by the university's exempt educational functions—the presence of the student body and faculty—such drama and music events contribute importantly to the overall educational and cultural functions of the university. Amend taxes Therefore, the activity is not an unrelated trade or business. Amend taxes Excluded Trade or Business Activities The following activities are specifically excluded from the definition of unrelated trade or business. Amend taxes Volunteer workforce. Amend taxes   Any trade or business in which substantially all the work is performed for the organization without compensation is not an unrelated trade or business. Amend taxes Example 1. Amend taxes A retail store operated by an exempt orphanage where unpaid volunteers perform substantially all the work in carrying on the business is not an unrelated trade or business. Amend taxes Example 2. Amend taxes A volunteer fire company conducts weekly public dances. Amend taxes Holding public dances and charging admission on a regular basis may, given the facts and circumstances of a particular case, be considered an unrelated trade or business. Amend taxes However, because the work at the dances is performed by unpaid volunteers, the activity is not an unrelated trade or business. Amend taxes Convenience of members. Amend taxes   A trade or business conducted by a 501(c)(3) organization or by a governmental college or university primarily for the convenience of its members, students, patients, officers, or employees is not an unrelated trade or business. Amend taxes For example, a laundry operated by a college for the purpose of laundering dormitory linens and students' clothing is not an unrelated trade or business. Amend taxes Qualified sponsorship activities. Amend taxes   Soliciting and receiving qualified sponsorship payments is not an unrelated trade or business, and the payments are not subject to unrelated business income tax. Amend taxes Qualified sponsorship payment. Amend taxes   This is any payment made by a person engaged in a trade or business for which the person will receive no substantial benefit other than the use or acknowledgment of the business name, logo, or product lines in connection with the organization's activities. Amend taxes “Use or acknowledgment” does not include advertising the sponsor's products or services. Amend taxes The organization's activities include all its activities, whether or not related to its exempt purposes. Amend taxes   For example, if, in return for receiving a sponsorship payment, an organization promises to use the sponsor's name or logo in acknowledging the sponsor's support for an educational or fundraising event, the payment is a qualified sponsorship payment and is not subject to the unrelated business income tax. Amend taxes   Providing facilities, services, or other privileges (for example, complimentary tickets, pro-am playing spots in golf tournaments, or receptions for major donors) to a sponsor or the sponsor's designees in connection with a sponsorship payment does not affect whether the payment is a qualified sponsorship payment. Amend taxes Instead, providing these goods or services is treated as a separate transaction in determining whether the organization has unrelated business income from the event. Amend taxes Generally, if the services or facilities are not a substantial benefit or if providing them is a related business activity, the payments will not be subject to the unrelated business income tax. Amend taxes   Similarly, the sponsor's receipt of a license to use an intangible asset (for example, a trademark, logo, or designation) of the organization is treated as separate from the qualified sponsorship transaction in determining whether the organization has unrelated business taxable income. Amend taxes   If part of a payment would be a qualified sponsorship payment if paid separately, that part is treated as a separate payment. Amend taxes For example, if a sponsorship payment entitles the sponsor to both product advertising and the use or acknowledgment of the sponsor's name or logo by the organization, then the unrelated business income tax does not apply to the part of the payment that is more than the fair market value of the product advertising. Amend taxes Advertising. Amend taxes   A payment is not a qualified sponsorship payment if, in return, the organization advertises the sponsor's products or services. Amend taxes For information on the treatment of payments for advertising, see Exploitation of Exempt Activity—Advertising Sales in chapter 4. Amend taxes   Advertising includes: Messages containing qualitative or comparative language, price information, or other indications of savings or value; Endorsements; and Inducements to purchase, sell, or use the products or services. Amend taxes   The use of promotional logos or slogans that are an established part of the sponsor's identity is not, by itself, advertising. Amend taxes In addition, mere distribution or display of a sponsor's product by the organization to the public at a sponsored event, whether for free or for remuneration, is considered use or acknowledgment of the product rather than advertising. Amend taxes Exception for contingent payments. Amend taxes   A payment is not a qualified sponsorship payment if its amount is contingent, by contract or otherwise, upon the level of attendance at one or more events, broadcast ratings, or other factors indicating the degree of public exposure to one or more events. Amend taxes However, the fact that a sponsorship payment is contingent upon an event actually taking place or being broadcast does not, by itself, affect whether a payment qualifies. Amend taxes Exception for periodicals. Amend taxes   A payment is not a qualified sponsorship payment if it entitles the payer to the use or acknowledgment of the business name, logo, or product lines in the organization's periodical. Amend taxes For this purpose, a periodical is any regularly scheduled and printed material (for example, a monthly journal) published by or on behalf of the organization. Amend taxes It does not include material that is related to and primarily distributed in connection with a specific event conducted by the organization (for example, a program or brochure distributed at a sponsored event). Amend taxes   The treatment of payments that entitle the payer to the depiction of the payer's name, logo, or products lines in an organization's periodical is determined under the rules that apply to advertising activities. Amend taxes See Sales of advertising space under Examples, earlier in this chapter. Amend taxes Also see Exploitation of Exempt Activity—Advertising Sales in chapter 4. Amend taxes Exception for conventions and trade shows. Amend taxes   A payment is not a qualified sponsorship payment if it is made in connection with any qualified convention or trade show activity. Amend taxes The exclusion of qualified convention or trade show activities from the definition of unrelated trade or business is explained later under Convention or trade show activity. Amend taxes Selling donated merchandise. Amend taxes   A trade or business that consists of selling merchandise, substantially all of which the organization received as gifts or contributions, is not an unrelated trade or business. Amend taxes For example, a thrift shop operated by a tax-exempt organization that sells donated clothes and books to the general public, with the proceeds going to the exempt organization, is not an unrelated trade or business. Amend taxes Employee association sales. Amend taxes   The sale of certain items by a local association of employees described in section 501(c)(4), organized before May 17, 1969, is not an unrelated trade or business if the items are sold for the convenience of the association's members at their usual place of employment. Amend taxes This exclusion applies only to the sale of work-related clothes and equipment and items normally sold through vending machines, food dispensing facilities, or by snack bars. Amend taxes Bingo games. Amend taxes   Certain bingo games are not included in the term “unrelated trade or business. Amend taxes ” To qualify for this exclusion, the bingo game must meet the following requirements. Amend taxes It meets the legal definition of bingo. Amend taxes It is legal where it is played. Amend taxes It is played in a jurisdiction where bingo games are not regularly conducted by for-profit organizations. Amend taxes Legal definition. Amend taxes   For a game to meet the legal definition of bingo, wagers must be placed, winners must be determined, and prizes or other property must be distributed in the presence of all persons placing wagers in that game. Amend taxes   A wagering game that does not meet the legal definition of bingo does not qualify for the exclusion, regardless of its name. Amend taxes For example, “instant bingo,” in which a player buys a pre-packaged bingo card with pull-tabs that the player removes to determine if he or she is a winner, does not qualify. Amend taxes Legal where played. Amend taxes   This exclusion applies only if bingo is legal under the laws of the jurisdiction where it is conducted. Amend taxes The fact that a jurisdiction's law that prohibits bingo is rarely enforced or is widely disregarded does not make the conduct of bingo legal for this purpose. Amend taxes No for-profit games where played. Amend taxes   This exclusion applies only if for-profit organizations cannot regularly conduct bingo games in any part of the same jurisdiction. Amend taxes Jurisdiction is normally the entire state; however, in certain situations, local jurisdiction will control. Amend taxes Example. Amend taxes Tax-exempt organizations X and Y are organized under the laws of state N, which has a law that permits exempt organizations to conduct bingo games. Amend taxes In addition, for-profit organizations are permitted to conduct bingo games in city S, a resort community located in county R. Amend taxes Several for-profit organizations conduct nightly games. Amend taxes Y conducts weekly bingo games in city S, while X conducts weekly games in county R. Amend taxes Since state law confines the for-profit organizations to city S, local jurisdiction controls. Amend taxes Y's bingo games conducted in city S are an unrelated trade or business. Amend taxes However, X's bingo games conducted in county R outside of city S are not an unrelated trade or business. Amend taxes Gambling activities other than bingo. Amend taxes   Any game of chance conducted by an exempt organization in North Dakota is not an unrelated trade or business if conducting the game does not violate any state or local law. Amend taxes Pole rentals. Amend taxes   The term unrelated trade or business does not include qualified pole rentals by a mutual or cooperative telephone or electric company described in section 501(c)(12). Amend taxes A qualified pole rental is the rental of a pole (or other structure used to support wires) if the pole (or other structure) is used: By the telephone or electric company to support one or more wires that the company uses in providing telephone or electric services to its members, and According to the rental, to support one or more wires (in addition to the wires described in 1 ) for use in connection with the transmission by wire of electricity or of telephone or other communications. Amend taxes For this purpose, the term rental includes any sale of the right to use the pole (or other structure). Amend taxes Distribution of low cost articles. Amend taxes   The term unrelated trade or business does not include activities relating to the distribution of low cost articles incidental to soliciting charitable contributions. Amend taxes This applies to organizations described in section 501 that are eligible to receive charitable contributions. Amend taxes   A distribution is considered incidental to the solicitation of a charitable contribution if: The recipient did not request the distribution, The distribution is made without the express consent of the recipient, and The article is accompanied by a request for a charitable contribution to the organization and a statement that the recipient may keep the low cost article regardless of whether a contribution is made. Amend taxes   An article is considered low cost if the cost of an item (or the aggregate costs if more than one item) distributed to a single recipient in a tax year is not more than $5, indexed annually for inflation. Amend taxes The maximum cost of a low cost article is $9. Amend taxes 70 for 2011. Amend taxes The cost of an article is the cost to the organization that distributes the item or on whose behalf it is distributed. Amend taxes Exchange or rental of member lists. Amend taxes   The exchange or rental of member or donor lists between organizations described in section 501 that are eligible to receive charitable contributions is not included in the term unrelated trade or business. Amend taxes Hospital services. Amend taxes   The providing of certain services at or below cost by an exempt hospital to other exempt hospitals that have facilities for 100 or fewer inpatients is not an unrelated trade or business. Amend taxes This exclusion applies only to services described in section 501(e)(1)(A). Amend taxes Public entertainment activity. Amend taxes   An unrelated trade or business does not include a qualified public entertainment activity. Amend taxes A public entertainment activity is one traditionally conducted at a fair or exposition promoting agriculture and education, including any activity whose purpose is designed to attract the public to fairs or expositions or to promote the breeding of animals or the development of products or equipment. Amend taxes   A qualified public entertainment activity is one conducted by a qualifying organization: In conjunction with an international, national, state, regional, or local fair or exposition; In accordance with state law that permits the activity to be operated or conducted solely by such an organization or by an agency, instrumentality, or political subdivision of the state; or In accordance with state law that permits an organization to be granted a license to conduct an activity for not more than 20 days on paying the state a lower percentage of the revenue from the activity than the state charges nonqualifying organizations that hold similar activities. Amend taxes   For these purposes, a qualifying organization is an organization described in section 501(c)(3), 501(c)(4), or 501(c)(5) that regularly conducts an agricultural and educational fair or exposition as one of its substantial exempt purposes. Amend taxes Its conducting qualified public entertainment activities will not affect determination of its exempt status. Amend taxes Convention or trade show activity. Amend taxes   An unrelated trade or business does not include qualified convention or trade show activities conducted at a convention, annual meeting, or trade show. Amend taxes   A qualified convention or trade show activity is any activity of a kind traditionally conducted by a qualifying organization in conjunction with an international, national, state, regional, or local convention, annual meeting, or show if: One of the purposes of the organization in sponsoring the activity is promoting and stimulating interest in, and demand for, the products and services of that industry or educating the persons in attendance regarding new products and services or new rules and regulations affecting the industry; and The show is designed to achieve its purpose through the character of the exhibits and the extent of the industry products that are displayed. Amend taxes   For these purposes, a qualifying organization is one described in section 501(c)(3), 501(c)(4), 501(c)(5), or 501(c)(6). Amend taxes The organization must regularly conduct, as one of its substantial exempt purposes, a qualified convention or trade show activity. Amend taxes   The rental of display space to exhibitors (including exhibitors who are suppliers) at a qualified convention or trade show is not an unrelated trade or business even if the exhibitors who rent the space are permitted to sell or solicit orders. Amend taxes For this purpose, a supplier's exhibit is one in which the exhibitor displays goods or services that are supplied to, rather than by, members of the qualifying organization in the conduct of these members' own trades or businesses. Amend taxes    Certain Internet activities conducted by a trade association described in section 501(c)(6) will be considered qualified convention and trade show activity if conducted on a special supplementary section of the association's website in conjunction with a trade show conducted by the association. Amend taxes The trade show itself must be a qualified convention and trade show activity. Amend taxes The supplementary section of the website must be ancillary to, and serve to augment and enhance, the trade show, as when it makes available the same information available at the trade show and is available only during a time period that coincides with the time period that the trade show is in operation. Amend taxes Conversely, Internet activities that are not conducted in conjunction with a qualified convention and trade show activity and that do not augment and enhance the trade show cannot themselves be qualified convention and trade show activity. Amend taxes Prev  Up  Next   Home   More Online Publications
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Contact My Local Office in Oregon

Face-to-face Tax Help

IRS Taxpayer Assistance Centers (TACs) are your source for personal tax help when you believe your tax issue can only be handled face-to-face. No appointment is necessary.

Keep in mind, many questions can be resolved online without waiting in line. Through IRS.gov you can:
• Set up a payment plan.
• Get a transcript of your tax return.
• Make a payment.
• Check on your refund.
• Find answers to many of your tax questions.

We are now referring all requests for tax return preparation services to other available resources. You can take advantage of free tax preparation through Free File, Free File Fillable Forms or through a volunteer site in your community. To find the nearest volunteer site location or to get more information about Free File, go to the top of the page and enter “Free Tax Help” in the Search box.

If you have a tax account issues and feel that it requires talking with someone face-to-face, visit your local TAC.

Caution:  Many of our offices are located in Federal Office Buildings. These buildings may not allow visitors to bring in cell phones with camera capabilities.

Multilingual assistance is available in every office. Hours of operation are subject to change.

Before visiting your local office click on "Services Provided" in the chart below to see what services are available. Services are limited and not all services are available at every TAC office and may vary from site to site. You can get these services on a walk-in basis.

City  Street Address  Days/Hours of Service  Telephone* 
Bend 

250 NW Franklin Ave.
Bend, OR  97701

Monday-Friday 8:30 a.m.- 4:30 p.m.
(Closed for lunch 12:30 p.m. - 1:30 p.m.)

 

Services Provided

(541) 706-5732
Eugene 211 E 7th           
Eugene, OR 97401

Monday-Friday 8:30 a.m.- 4:30 p.m.

 

Services Provided

(541) 342-8766
Medford 960 Ellendale Dr.
Medford, OR 97504

Monday-Friday 8:30 a.m.- 4:30 p.m.
(Closed for lunch 12:00 noon - 1:30 p.m.)

 

Services Provided

(541) 282-1350
Portland 1220 SW Third Ave.
Portland, OR  97204
 

Monday-Friday 8:30 a.m.- 4:30 p.m.

 

Services Provided

(503) 265-3501
Salem

1660 Oak St. S.E.
Salem, OR  97301

Monday-Friday 8:30 a.m.- 4:30 p.m.

 

Services Provided

(503) 587-3101

* Note: The phone numbers in the chart above are not toll-free for all locations. When you call, you will reach a recorded business message with information about office hours, locations and services provided in that office. If face-to-face assistance is not a priority for you, you may also get help with IRS letters or resolve tax account issues by phone, toll free at 1-800-829-1040 (individuals) or 1-800-829-4933 (businesses). 

For information on where to file your tax return please see Where to File Addresses

The Taxpayer Advocate Service: Call (503) 265-3591 in the Portland area or 1-877-777-4778 elsewhere, or see  Publication 1546, The Taxpayer Advocate Service of the IRS. For further information, see  Tax Topic 104.

Partnerships

IRS and organizations all over the country are partnering to assist taxpayers. Through these partnerships, organizations are also achieving their own goals. These mutually beneficial partnerships are strengthening outreach efforts and bringing education and assistance to millions.

For more information about these programs for individuals and families, contact the Stakeholder Partnerships, Education and Communication Office at:

Internal Revenue Service
100 SW Main Street, MS 0180
Portland, OR 97204

For more information about these programs for businesses, your local Stakeholder Liaison office establishes relationships with organizations representing small business and self-employed taxpayers. They provide information about the policies, practices and procedures the IRS uses to ensure compliance with the tax laws. To establish a relationship with us, use this list to find a contact in your state:

Stakeholder Liaison (SL) Phone Numbers for Organizations Representing Small Businesses and Self-employed Taxpayers.

Page Last Reviewed or Updated: 28-Mar-2014

The Amend Taxes

Amend taxes Index A Accounting methods Accrual method, Accrual Method Cash method, Cash Method Change in, Change in Accounting Method Methods you can use, Methods you can use. Amend taxes Accounting periods 52-53 week tax year, 52-53-Week Tax Year Business purpose tax year, Business Purpose Tax Year Calendar year, Calendar Year Improper tax year, Improper Tax Year Partnerships, Partnership Accrual method Expenses, Expenses Income, Income Advance payments, Advance Payment for Services Sales, Advance Payment for Sales Services, Advance Payment for Services Assistance (see Tax help) B Business purpose tax year, Business Purpose Tax Year C Calendar year, Calendar Year Cash method, Income Expenses, Expenses Income, Income Change, accounting method, Change to accrual method. Amend taxes , Change in Accounting Method Comments on publication, Comments and suggestions. Amend taxes Constructive receipt of income, Constructive receipt. Amend taxes Corporation tax periods, Corporations (Other Than S Corporations and PSCs) Cost identification, Identifying Cost D Death of individual, short period return, Death of individual. Amend taxes E Economic performance, Economic Performance Excluded entities, cash method, Excluded Entities F Fiscal year, Fiscal Year Form 1128, Improper Tax Year, Change in Tax Year 8716, Making the election. Amend taxes , Making back-up election. Amend taxes 8752, Required payment for partnership or S corporation. Amend taxes , Activating election. Amend taxes 970, Adopting LIFO method. Amend taxes Free tax services, How To Get Tax Help H Help (see Tax help) I Inventories Cost identification, Identifying Cost FIFO, FIFO Method LIFO, LIFO Method Lower of cost or market, Lower of Cost or Market Method Perpetual or book, Perpetual or Book Inventory Retail method, Retail Method Specific identification, Specific Identification Method Uniform capitalization rules, Inventories. Amend taxes Valuing, Valuing Inventory M More information (see Tax help) P Partnerships, Partnership Personal service corporation, Partnerships, S Corporations, and Personal Service Corporations (PSCs) Limit, use of cash method, Qualified PSC. Amend taxes Required tax year, Partnerships, S Corporations, and Personal Service Corporations (PSCs), Personal Service Corporation (PSC) Publications (see Tax help) R Related persons, Related Persons S S corporations, S Corporation Section 444 election, Section 444 Election Short period return, Short period return. Amend taxes Short tax year, Short Tax Year Suggestions for publication, Comments and suggestions. Amend taxes T Tax help, How To Get Tax Help Tax year Change in, Change in Tax Year Corporations, Corporations (Other Than S Corporations and PSCs) Fiscal year, Fiscal Year Personal service corporation, Personal Service Corporation (PSC) S corporations, S Corporation Section 444 election, Section 444 Election Short tax year, Short Tax Year Taxpayer Advocate, Taxpayer Advocate Service. Amend taxes TTY/TDD information, How To Get Tax Help U Uniform capitalization rules Exceptions, Exceptions. Amend taxes General rules, Uniform Capitalization Rules Prev  Up     Home   More Online Publications