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Amended Tax Returns More:label_amended_20tax_20returns More:taxes

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Amended Tax Returns More:label_amended_20tax_20returns More:taxes

Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes 8. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Dividendos y Otras Distribuciones Table of Contents Recordatorio Introduction Useful Items - You may want to see: Información GeneralDividendos no declarados en el Formulario 1099-DIV. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Cómo se le informa del impuesto retenido. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Nominatarios. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Dividendos OrdinariosDividendos Calificados Dividendos Utilizados para la Compra de más Acciones Fondos de Inversión del Mercado Monetario Distribuciones de Ganancias de CapitalAjuste a la base. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Distribuciones que no son DividendosDistribuciones de Liquidación Distribuciones de Acciones y Derechos a Acciones Otras DistribucionesRequisito de declarar ciertos datos. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Tratamiento del impuesto mínimo alternativo. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Cómo Declarar el Ingreso de DividendosDeducción de los intereses de inversiones. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Recordatorio Ingresos de fuentes en el extranjero. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes  Si es ciudadano de los Estados Unidos con ingresos por concepto de dividendos de fuentes fuera de los Estados Unidos (ingresos del extranjero), tiene que declarar todos estos ingresos en la declaración de impuestos a menos que sean ingresos exentos por las leyes de los EE. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes UU. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Esto es cierto independientemente de si reside dentro o fuera de los EE. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes UU. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes y si recibe o no el Formulario 1099 de un pagador extranjero. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Introduction Este capítulo explica el trato tributario que se le da a: Dividendos ordinarios, Distribuciones de ganancias de capital, Distribuciones que no sean dividendos y Otras distribuciones que pueda recibir de una sociedad anónima o de un fondo mutuo. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Este capítulo también explica cómo se declara el ingreso de dividendos en su declaración de impuestos. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Los dividendos son distribuciones de dinero, acciones u otras clases de bienes que le paga a usted una sociedad anónima o fondo mutuo. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Puede recibir también dividendos a través de una sociedad colectiva, un caudal hereditario, un fideicomiso o una asociación a la que se le gravan impuestos como a una sociedad anónima. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Sin embargo, algunas cantidades recibidas por usted y denominadas dividendos, son de hecho ingresos de intereses. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Vea Dividendos que en realidad son intereses , bajo Intereses Sujetos a Impuestos, en el capítulo 7. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes La mayoría de las distribuciones se pagan en efectivo (o con cheque). Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes No obstante, las distribuciones pueden consistir en más acciones, derechos de suscripción de acciones u otros bienes o servicios adicionales. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Useful Items - You may want to see: Publicación 514 Foreign Tax Credit for Individuals (Crédito por impuestos del extranjero para personas físicas), en inglés 550 Investment Income and Expenses (Ingresos y gastos de inversiones), en inglés Formulario (e Instrucciones) Anexo B (Formulario 1040A o 1040) Interest and Ordinary Dividends (Intereses y dividendos ordinarios), en inglés Información General Esta sección explica las reglas generales sobre ingresos de dividendos. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Impuesto sobre ingresos no derivados del trabajo de determinados hijos. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   El impuesto sobre una parte del ingreso no derivado del trabajo recibido por un hijo en 2013 puede ser tributado a la tasa impositiva correspondiente de los padres. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Si es así, tiene que completar el Formulario 8615, Tax for Certain Children Who Have Unearned Income (Impuestos para determinados hijos que tienen ingresos no derivados del trabajo), en inglés, y adjuntarlo a la declaración de impuestos del hijo. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Si no es así, no se requiere el Formulario 8615 y los ingresos del menor están sujetos a la tasa impositiva que le corresponde. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes       Algunos padres o madres pueden optar por incluir los intereses y dividendos del hijo en la declaración de impuestos del padre o la madre si se cumplen ciertos requisitos. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Si puede, utilice el Formulario 8814, Parents' Election To Report Child's Interest and Dividends (Elección del padre o de la madre de declarar los intereses y dividendos de un hijo), en inglés, para este propósito. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Si desea obtener más información sobre el impuesto sobre los ingresos no derivados del trabajo de un hijo y la elección de los padres, vea el capítulo 31. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Beneficiario de un caudal hereditario o fideicomiso. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes    Los dividendos y otras distribuciones que reciba como beneficiario de un caudal hereditario o de un fideicomiso por lo general se consideran ingresos tributables. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes El fiduciario debería enviarle un Anexo K-1 (Formulario 1041), Beneficiary's Share of Income, Deductions, Credits, etc. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes (Parte del ingreso, deducciones, créditos, etc. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes , de un beneficiario), en inglés. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Su copia del Anexo K-1 (Formulario 1041) e instrucciones le indicarán dónde debe declarar los ingresos en el Formulario 1040. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Número de Seguro Social (SSN, por sus siglas en inglés) o número de identificación de contribuyente individual (ITIN por sus siglas en inglés). Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes    Tiene que darle su nombre y número de Seguro Social (o su número de identificación de contribuyente individual (ITIN, por sus siglas en inglés)) a toda persona que esté obligada por la ley federal de impuestos a expedir una declaración, un informe u otro documento relacionado con usted. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Esto incluye las entidades que pagan dividendos. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Es posible que tenga que pagar una multa si no le proporciona su número de Seguro Social o su número de identificación de contribuyente individual (ITIN) a la entidad que paga los dividendos. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Para obtener más información sobre los números de Seguro Social y los números de identificación de contribuyente individual, vea Número de Seguro Social en el capítulo 1. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Retención adicional. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   El ingreso de dividendos por lo general no está sujeto a la retención normal. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Sin embargo, podría estar sujeto a la retención adicional de impuestos para asegurar que el impuesto sobre el ingreso sea recaudado sobre ese ingreso. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Conforme a la retención adicional de impuestos, la entidad que paga los dividendos tiene que retener impuestos sobre los ingresos de la cantidad que le paga a usted, aplicándo la tasa de retención correspondiente. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   También puede requerirse una retención adicional de impuestos si el IRS ha determinado que usted ha declarado una cantidad inferior de ingresos de intereses o dividendos de lo que dn verdad recibió. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Para más información, vea Retención Adicional , en el capítulo 4. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Certificado de acciones a nombre de dos o más personas. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Si dos o más personas tienen acciones de propiedad conjunta, propiedad en tenencia conyugal o propiedad en tenencia común, la parte de los dividendos de las acciones que le corresponde a cada persona está determinada por las leyes locales. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Formulario 1099-DIV. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   La mayoría de las sociedades anónimas y fondos mutuos usan el Formulario 1099-DIV, Dividends and Distributions (Dividendos y distribuciones), en inglés, para informarle de las distribuciones que recibió de ellas durante el año. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Guarde este formulario con su documentación. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes No tiene que adjuntar el formulario a su declaración de impuestos. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Dividendos no declarados en el Formulario 1099-DIV. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Aun si no recibe el Formulario 1099-DIV, tendrá que declarar todos sus ingresos de dividendos sujetos a impuestos. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Por ejemplo, podría recibir acciones repartidas de dividendos de sociedades colectivas o de sociedades anónimas de tipo S. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes A usted se le informa de dichos dividendos en el Anexo K-1 (del Formulario 1065), Partner's Share of Income, Deductions, Credits, etc. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes (Parte de los ingresos, deducciones, créditos, etc. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes , correspondiente al socio), en inglés, y en el Anexo K-1 (del Formulario 1120S), Shareholder's Share of Income, Deductions, Credits, etc. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes (Parte de los ingresos, deducciones, créditos, etc. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes , correspondiente al accionista), en inglés. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Cómo se le informa del impuesto retenido. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Si se le retienen impuestos sobre su ingreso de dividendos, el pagador tiene que darle un Formulario 1099-DIV que indica la cantidad retenida. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Nominatarios. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Si alguien recibe distribuciones como nominatario suyo, esa persona le dará un Formulario 1099-DIV que indicará las distribuciones recibidas en nombre de usted. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Formulario 1099-MISC. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   A usted se le tiene que informar de ciertos pagos sustitutivos en lugar de dividendos o intereses exentos de impuestos que recibe de un agente corredor bursátil en su nombre en el Formulario 1099-MISC, Miscellaneous Income (Ingresos misceláneos), en inglés, o en un documento similar. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Vea Reporting Substitute Payments (Cómo informar de pagos sustitutivos), bajo Short Sales (Ventas a corto al descubierto), en el capítulo 4 de la Publicación 550, en inglés, para más información sobre cómo informar de estos pagos. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Cantidad incorrecta que aparece en un Formulario 1099. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Si recibe un Formulario 1099 que indica una cantidad incorrecta (u otra información incorrecta), debe pedirle a la persona que le dio el formulario que le envíe otro formulario corregido. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes En el nuevo Formulario 1099 que recibirá aparecerá la palabra “ Corrected ” (Corregido). Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Dividendos de acciones vendidas. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Si se venden o intercambian acciones, o si se enajenan de otra manera después de que se declare un dividendo pero antes de ser pagado, el dueño oficial (usualmente la persona a quien se le expide el cheque de dividendos) tiene que incluir el dividendo en sus ingresos. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Dividendos recibidos en enero. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   A usted se le considera que ha recibido un dividendo el 31 de diciembre si un fondo mutuo (u otra compañía de inversiones reglamentada) o una sociedad de inversión inmobiliaria (REIT, por sus siglas en inglés) declara un dividendo (incluyendo todo dividendo que produzca intereses exentos o una distribución de ganancias de capital) en octubre, noviembre o diciembre, pagadero a los accionistas oficiales en una fecha de uno de estos meses, pero que realmente paga el dividendo durante enero del próximo año calendario. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Usted tiene que declarar el dividendo en el año en que fue declarado. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Dividendos Ordinarios Los dividendos ordinarios (sujetos a impuestos) son la distribución más común hecha por una sociedad anónima o un fondo mutuo. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Se pagan usando ingresos y ganancias y son considerados ingresos ordinarios para usted. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Esto significa que no son ganancias de capital. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Puede suponer que todo dividendo que reciba de acciones comunes o preferentes es un dividendo ordinario a menos que la sociedad anónima o el fondo mutuo que efectúa el pago le indique lo contrario. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Los dividendos ordinarios se muestran en el recuadro 1a del Formulario 1099-DIV que usted reciba. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Dividendos Calificados Los dividendos calificados son los dividendos ordinarios sujetos a la misma tasa impositiva máxima del 0%, 15% o 20% que corresponde a las ganancias netas de capital. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Deben indicarse en el recuadro 1b del Formulario 1099-DIV que reciba. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes La tasa máxima del impuesto sobre los dividendos calificados es: 0% sobre toda cantidad que de otro modo se le impondrían impuestos a una tasa del 10% o del 15%. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes 15% sobre toda cantidad que de otro modo se le impondrían impuestos a tasas mayores de 15%, pero menores de 39. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes 6%. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes 20% sobre toda cantidad que de otro modo se le impondrían impuestos a una tasa de 39. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes 6%. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Para tener derecho a la tasa impositiva máxima, todos los requisitos siguientes tienen que cumplirse: Los dividendos tienen que haber sido pagados por una sociedad anónima estadounidense o una sociedad anónima extranjera calificada. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Vea Sociedad anónima extranjera calificada , más adelante. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Los dividendos no tienen la misma clasificación que aquéllos incluidos más adelante bajo Dividendos que no son dividendos calificados . Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Usted cumple el período de tenencia (tema que se explica a continuación). Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Período de tenencia. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Usted tiene que haber tenido las acciones por más de 60 días durante el período de 121 días que comienza 60 días antes de la fecha del ex dividendo. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes La fecha del ex dividendo es la primera fecha que sigue a la declaración del dividendo en la cual el comprador de las acciones no tiene derecho a recibir el siguiente pago de dividendos. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes En su lugar, el vendedor recibirá el dividendo. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Cuando cuente el número de días que tuvo las acciones, incluya el día en que enajenó las acciones, pero no el día en que las adquirió. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Vea los ejemplos más adelante. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Excepción para acciones preferentes. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   En el caso de acciones preferentes, tiene que haber tenido las acciones por más de 90 días durante el período de 181 días que comienza 90 días antes de la fecha del ex dividendo, si los dividendos se deben a períodos cuyo total es más de 366 días. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Si los dividendos preferentes se deben a períodos cuyo total es menos de 367 días, les corresponde el período de tenencia del párrafo anterior. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Ejemplo 1. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Usted compró 5,000 acciones ordinarias de la Compañía XYZ el 9 de julio de 2013. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes La Compañía XYZ pagó un dividendo en efectivo de 10 centavos por cada acción. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes La fecha del ex dividendo fue el 16 de julio de 2013. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes El Formulario 1099-DIV de la Compañía XYZ muestra $500 en el recuadro 1a (dividendos ordinarios) y en el recuadro 1b (dividendos calificados). Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes No obstante, usted vendió las 5,000 acciones el 12 de agosto de 2013. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Tuvo las acciones de la Compañía XYZ por sólo 34 días del período de 121 días (desde el 10 de julio de 2013 hasta el 12 de agosto de 2013). Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes El período de 121 días comenzó el 17 de mayo de 2013 (60 días antes de la fecha del ex dividendo) y terminó el 14 de septiembre de 2013. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Usted no tiene dividendos calificados de la Compañía XYZ porque tuvo las acciones de la compañía por menos de 61 días. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Ejemplo 2. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Suponga que los hechos son los mismos que en el Ejemplo 1, excepto que compró las acciones el 15 de julio de 2013 (el día antes de la fecha del ex dividendo) y vendió las acciones el 16 de septiembre de 2013. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Usted tuvo las acciones por 63 días (desde el 16 de julio de 2013 hasta el 16 de septiembre de 2013). Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Los $500 de dividendos calificados mostrados en el recuadro 1b del Formulario 1099-DIV son en su totalidad dividendos calificados porque tuvo las acciones por 61 días del período de 121 días (desde el 16 de julio de 2013 hasta el 14 de septiembre de 2013). Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Ejemplo 3. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Usted compró 10,000 acciones ordinarias del Fondo Mutuo ABC el 9 de julio de 2013. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes El Fondo Mutuo ABC pagó un dividendo en efectivo de 10 centavos por cada acción. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes La fecha del ex dividendo fue el 16 de julio de 2013. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes El Fondo Mutuo ABC le informa que la parte del dividendo que puede ser tratada como dividendos calificados equivale a 2 centavos por cada acción. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes El Formulario 1099-DIV del Fondo Mutuo ABC muestra dividendos ordinarios de $1,000 y dividendos calificados de $200. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Sin embargo, usted vendió las 10,000 acciones el 12 de agosto de 2013. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes No tiene dividendos calificados del Fondo Mutuo ABC porque tuvo las acciones del Fondo Mutuo ABC menos de 61 días. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Reducción del período de tenencia cuando disminuya el riesgo de pérdida. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Al determinar si usted cumplió el período mínimo de tenencia del que se habló anteriormente, no puede contar ningún día durante el cual se cumpliera alguna de las situaciones siguientes: Tuvo una opción para vender, estaba bajo obligación por contrato de venta o había hecho (pero no cerrado) una venta al descubierto de acciones o valores sustancialmente iguales. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Era el otorgante (girador) de una opción de compra de acciones o valores bursátiles sustancialmente iguales. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Su riesgo de pérdida disminuye por tener una o más posiciones en bienes sustancialmente iguales o afines. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Para información sobre cómo aplicar la condición (3), vea la sección 1. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes 246-5 de los Reglamentos. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Sociedad anónima extranjera calificada. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Una sociedad anónima extranjera es una compañía extranjera calificada si cumple alguna de las siguientes condiciones: La sociedad anónima está incorporada (constituida legalmente) en un territorio de los Estados Unidos. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes La sociedad anónima reúne los requisitos para recibir los beneficios de un tratado amplio de impuestos sobre el ingreso con los Estados Unidos que el Departamento del Tesoro considere satisfactorio para este propósito y que incluya un programa de intercambio de información. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Para una lista de estos tratados, vea la Tabla 8-1. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes La sociedad anónima no cumple las condiciones (1) o (2) anteriores, pero las acciones por las cuales se paga el dividendo son comercializables en un mercado de valores bursátiles establecido en los Estados Unidos. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Vea Acciones comercializables listadas , más adelante. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Excepción. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Una sociedad anónima no es una sociedad anónima extranjera calificada si es una compañía extranjera de inversiones pasivas durante el año tributario en el cual se pagan los dividendos o durante el año tributario anterior. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Acciones comercializables listadas. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Todas las acciones (tales como acciones comunes, ordinarias o preferentes) o recibos de depósito estadounidenses respecto a esas acciones, satisfacen el requisito (3), mencionado anteriormente bajo Sociedad anónima extranjera calificada , si se listan (cotizan) en una bolsa de valores nacional que está inscrita conforme a la sección 6 de la Securities Exchange Act (Ley de la Bolsa de Valores) de 1934 o en el Mercado de Valores Nasdaq. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Si desea ver una lista de las bolsas que reúnen estos requisitos, vea www. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes sec. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes gov/divisions/marketreg/mrexchanges. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes shtml, en inglés. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Dividendos que no son dividendos calificados. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Los dividendos enumerados a continuación no son dividendos calificados. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes No son dividendos calificados aunque se encuentren indicados en el recuadro 1b del Formulario 1099-DIV. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Distribuciones de ganancias de capital. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Dividendos pagados sobre depósitos en cajas mutuas de ahorros, bancos cooperativos, cooperativas de crédito, asociaciones de crédito a la construcción estadounidenses, asociaciones de préstamo y ahorro estadounidenses, asociaciones federales de préstamo y ahorro e instituciones financieras similares. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Declare estos ingresos como ingreso de intereses. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Dividendos de una sociedad anónima que es una organización exenta de impuestos o una cooperativa agrícola durante el año tributario de la sociedad anónima en el cual se pagaron los dividendos o durante el año tributable anterior de la sociedad anónima. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Dividendos pagados por una sociedad anónima sobre valores bursátiles del empleador tenidos en la fecha de registro por un plan de compra de acciones para empleados (ESOP, por sus siglas en inglés) mantenido por esa sociedad anónima. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Dividendos sobre acciones hasta el punto que usted esté obligado (ya sea por venta al descubierto o de otra manera) a hacer pagos afines por posiciones en bienes sustancialmente similares o relacionados. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Pagos en lugar de dividendos, pero sólo si usted sabe o tiene razón de saber que los pagos no son dividendos calificados. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Pagos mostrados en el recuadro 1b del Formulario 1099-DIV, provenientes de una sociedad anónima extranjera hasta el punto que usted sepa o tenga razón de saber que los pagos no son dividendos calificados. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Tabla 8-1. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Tratados de Impuestos sobre los Ingresos Los tratados de impuestos sobre los ingresos que los Estados Unidos tiene con los siguientes países cumplen la condición (2) bajo Sociedad anónima extranjera calificada. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes       Australia India Reino Austria Indonesia Unido Alemania Irlanda República Bangladesh Islandia Checa Barbados Israel República Bélgica Italia Eslovaca Bulgaria Jamaica Rumania Canadá Japón Sri Lanka China Kazajstán Suecia Chipre Letonia Suiza Corea Lituania Sudáfrica Dinamarca Luxemburgo Tailandia Egipto Malta Trinidad y Eslovenia Marruecos Tobago España México Túnez Estonia Noruega Turquía Federación Nueva Ucrania Rusa Zelandia Venezuela Filipinas Países Bajos (Holanda)   Finlandia Paquistán   Francia Polonia   Grecia Portugal   Hungría       Dividendos Utilizados para la Compra de más Acciones La sociedad anónima en la cual usted tiene acciones podría tener un plan para la reinversión de dividendos. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Tales planes le permiten optar por el uso de sus dividendos para comprar (por medio de un agente) más acciones en la sociedad anónima en vez de recibir los dividendos en efectivo. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes La mayoría de los fondos de inversión también permiten a los accionistas reinvertir automáticamente las distribuciones para comprar más acciones en el fondo en lugar de recibir dinero en efectivo. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Si utiliza los dividendos para comprar más acciones al precio justo de mercado, todavía tiene que declarar los dividendos como ingreso. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Si es miembro de un plan de reinversión de dividendos que le permite comprar más acciones a un precio menor del precio justo de mercado, tiene que declarar como ingreso de dividendos el valor justo de mercado de las acciones adicionales el día del pago de los dividendos. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes También tiene que declarar como ingreso de dividendos todos los cargos por servicios restados de sus dividendos en efectivo antes de que los dividendos sean utilizados para comprar acciones adicionales. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Pero tal vez pueda deducir el cargo por servicios. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Vea el capítulo 28 para más información sobre la deducción de gastos relativos a la producción de ingresos. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes En algunos planes de reinversión de dividendos, se puede invertir más efectivo para comprar acciones a un precio menor del valor justo de mercado. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Si elige hacer esto, tiene que declarar como ingreso de dividendos la diferencia entre el efectivo que invierte y el valor justo de mercado de las acciones que compra. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Al calcular esta cantidad, utilice el valor justo de mercado de las acciones el día del pago del dividendo. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Fondos de Inversión del Mercado Monetario Declare las cantidades que reciba de fondos de inversión del mercado monetario como ingreso de dividendos. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Los fondos de inversión del mercado monetario son una clase de fondo mutuo y no deben ser confundidos con cuentas bancarias del mercado monetario que pagan intereses. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Distribuciones de Ganancias de Capital Las distribuciones de ganancias de capital (se denominan también dividendos de ganancias de capital) le son pagadas a usted o acreditadas a su cuenta por fondos mutuos (u otras sociedades inversionistas reglamentadas) y sociedades de inversión inmobiliaria (REIT, por sus siglas en inglés). Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Estas distribuciones se mostrarán en el recuadro 2a del Formulario 1099-DIV que recibe del fondo mutuo o de la sociedad de inversión inmobiliaria. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Declare las distribuciones de ganancias de capital como ganancias de capital a largo plazo independientemente de cuánto tiempo usted haya tenido las acciones en el fondo mutuo o en la sociedad de inversión inmobiliaria. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Ganancias de capital no distribuidas provenientes de fondos mutuos y sociedades de inversión inmobiliaria. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes    Algunos fondos mutuos y sociedades de inversión inmobiliaria retienen sus ganancias de capital a largo plazo y pagan impuesto sobre ellas. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Tiene que tratar su parte de estas ganancias como distribuciones, aunque en realidad no las reciba. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Sin embargo, éstas no se incluyen en el Formulario 1099-DIV. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes En lugar de esto, a usted se le informa de dichas ganancias en el recuadro 1a del Formulario 2439 (en inglés). Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Declare las ganancias de capital no distribuidas (recuadro 1a del Formulario 2439) como ganancias de capital a largo plazo en la columna (h) en la línea 11 del Anexo D (Formulario 1040). Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Los impuestos pagados sobre estas ganancias por el fondo mutuo o la sociedad de inversión inmobiliaria se pueden ver en el recuadro 2 del Formulario 2439. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Para que el pago de dichos impuestos se le acredite a usted, anótelos en la línea 71 del Formulario 1040 y marque el recuadro “ a ” en esa línea. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Adjunte la Copia B del Formulario 2439 a su declaración y mantenga la Copia C para sus archivos. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Ajuste a la base. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Aumente la base del fondo mutuo o sus intereses en una sociedad de inversión inmobiliaria por la diferencia entre la ganancia que declare y la cantidad de impuesto pagado que se le acredite a usted. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Información adicional. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Para más información sobre el trato dado a las distribuciones de fondos mutuos, vea la Publicación 550, en inglés. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Distribuciones que no son Dividendos Una distribución que no sea en forma de dividendo es una distribución que no se paga de los ingresos y ganancias de una sociedad anónima o un fondo mutuo. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Usted debe recibir un Formulario 1099-DIV u otro estado de cuentas mostrándole la distribución que no sea en forma de dividendo. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes En el Formulario 1099-DIV, una distribución que no sea en forma de dividendo se mostrará en el recuadro 3. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Si no recibe tal estado de cuentas, declare la distribución como un dividendo ordinario. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Ajuste a la base. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Una distribución que no sea en forma de dividendo reduce la base de sus acciones. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes No se le gravan impuestos hasta que su base en las acciones se recupere por completo. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Esta parte no sujeta a impuestos también se denomina rendimiento de capital. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Es un rendimiento de la inversión en las acciones de la empresa. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Si compra acciones de una sociedad anónima en lotes diferentes y en diferentes ocasiones y no puede identificar definitivamente las acciones sujetas a las distribuciones que no sean en forma de dividendos, reduzca la base de las acciones que compró primero. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Cuando la base de las acciones haya sido reducida a cero, declare como una ganancia de capital toda distribución adicional que reciba que no sea en forma de dividendos. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Dependiendo de cuánto tiempo haya tenido las acciones, las declara como una ganancia de capital a largo plazo o como una ganancia de capital a corto plazo. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Vea el tema titulado Período de Tenencia , en el capítulo 14. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Ejemplo. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Usted compró acciones en el año 2000 por $100. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes En el año 2003, recibió una distribución que no es dividendo de $80. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes No incluyó esta cantidad en su ingreso, pero redujo la base de las acciones a $20. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Recibió una distribución que no es dividendo de $30 en el año 2013. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Los primeros $20 de esta cantidad redujeron su base a cero. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Usted declara los otros $10 como ganancia de capital a largo plazo para el año 2013. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Debe declarar como ganancia de capital a largo plazo toda distribución sobre estas acciones que no sea en forma de dividendo que reciba en los siguientes años. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Distribuciones de Liquidación Las distribuciones de liquidación, a veces conocidas como dividendos de liquidación, son distribuciones que se reciben durante una liquidación parcial o completa de una sociedad anónima. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Estas distribuciones son, por lo menos en parte, un tipo de rendimiento del capital. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Pueden pagarse en uno o más plazos. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Usted recibirá un Formulario 1099-DIV de la sociedad anónima mostrándole la cantidad de una distribución de liquidación en el recuadro 8 ó 9. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Para más información sobre las distribuciones de liquidación, vea el capítulo 1 de la Publicación 550, en inglés. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Distribuciones de Acciones y Derechos a Acciones Las distribuciones hechas por una sociedad anónima de sus propias acciones son comúnmente conocidas como dividendos de acciones. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Los derechos a acciones (también conocidos como “opción de compra de acciones”) son distribuciones hechas por una sociedad anónima de derechos para adquirir acciones de la misma. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Por lo general, los dividendos de acciones y los derechos a acciones no están sujetos a impuestos para usted y no los declara en la declaración de impuestos. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Dividendos de acciones y derechos a acciones sujetos a impuestos. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Las distribuciones de dividendos de acciones y de derechos a acciones están sujetas a impuestos en su caso si se cumple alguna de las siguientes condiciones: Usted o algún otro accionista tiene la opción de recibir dinero en efectivo u otros bienes en vez de recibir acciones o derechos a acciones. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes La distribución les da dinero en efectivo u otra propiedad a algunos accionistas y un aumento en el porcentaje de intereses en los bienes o ingresos y ganancias de la sociedad anónima a otros accionistas. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes La distribución se puede convertir en acciones preferentes y tiene el mismo resultado que en el punto (2). Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes La distribución les da acciones preferentes a algunos accionistas dueños de acciones comunes y les da acciones comunes a otros accionistas dueños de acciones comunes. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes La distribución es sobre acciones prefe- rentes. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Sin embargo, la distribución no está sujeta a impuestos si es un aumento en la proporción de conversión de las acciones preferentes convertibles hecho solamente para tener en cuenta un dividendo de acciones, un cambio proporcional en la cantidad de acciones de una sociedad anónima o un suceso similar que de otra manera resultaría en la reducción del derecho de conversión. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   El término “acciones” incluye el derecho de adquirir acciones y el término “accionista” incluye al tenedor de derechos o de valores bursátiles convertibles. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Si usted recibe dividendos de acciones o derechos a acciones sujetos a impuesto, incluya en sus ingresos el valor justo de mercado en la fecha de distribución. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Acciones preferentes rescatables por una prima. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Si tiene acciones preferentes a un precio de rescate más alto que su precio de emisión, la diferencia (la prima de rescate) generalmente está sujeta a impuestos por concepto de una distribución implícita de acciones adicionales sobre acciones preferentes. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Para más información, vea el capítulo 1 de la Publicación 550, en inglés. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Base. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   La base en acciones o derechos a acciones recibidas en una distribución tributable es el valor justo de mercado en el momento que fueron distribuidas. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Si recibe acciones o derechos a acciones que no son tributables a usted, vea el tema titulado Stocks and Bonds (Acciones y bonos) bajo Basis of Investment Property (Base de bienes de inversión), en el capítulo 4 de la Publicación 550, en inglés, para más información sobre cómo calcular la base. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Acciones fraccionarias. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes    Es posible que no posea suficientes acciones en una sociedad anónima para recibir una participación completa de las acciones si la sociedad anónima declara un dividendo de acciones. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Sin embargo, con la aprobación de los accionistas, la sociedad anónima podría establecer un plan mediante el cual las acciones fraccionarias no sean emitidas sino que sean vendidas y las ganancias en efectivo se entreguen a los accionistas. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Todo efectivo que reciba por acciones fraccionarias bajo tal clase de plan se considera una cantidad realizada en la venta de las acciones fraccionarias. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Declare esta transacción en el Formulario 8949, Sales and Other Dispositions of Capital Assets (Ventas y otras enajenaciones de bienes de capital), en inglés. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Anote su ganancia o pérdida, la diferencia entre el efectivo que usted recibe y la base de las acciones fraccionarias vendidas en la columna (h) del Anexo D (Formulario 1040) en la Parte I o Parte II, la que corresponda. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes    Declare esta transacción en el Formulario 8949 marcando el recuadro correcto. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Para más información sobre el Formulario 8949 y el Anexo D (Formulario 1040), vea el capítulo 4 de la Publicación 550. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes También vea las instrucciones para el Formulario 8949 y las instruccinoes para el Anexo D (Formulario 1040). Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Ejemplo. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Usted es dueño de una acción común que compró el 3 de enero de 2004 por $100. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes La sociedad anónima declaró un dividendo de acciones comunes del 5% el 29 de junio de 2013. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes El valor justo de mercado de las acciones en el momento en que se declaró el dividendo de acciones era $200. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes A usted le pagaron $10 por el dividendo de acciones fraccionarias bajo un plan descrito en la sección titulada Acciones fraccionarias. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Usted calcula su ganancia o pérdida de la manera siguiente: Valor justo de mercado de las acciones antiguas $200. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes 00 Valor justo de mercado del dividendo de acciones (efectivo recibido) +10. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes 00 Valor justo de mercado de las acciones antiguas y del dividendo de acciones $210. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes 00 Base (costo) de las acciones antiguas después del dividendo de acciones (($200 ÷ $210) × $100) $95. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes 24 Base (costo) del dividendo de acciones (($10 ÷ $210) × $100) + 4. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes 76 Total $100. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes 00 Efectivo recibido $10. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes 00 Base (costo) del dividendo de acciones − 4. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes 76 Ganancia $5. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes 24 Debido a que había tenido la acción por más de 1 año en el momento en que se declaró el dividendo de acciones, su ganancia en el dividendo de acciones es una ganancia de capital a largo plazo. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Certificado de dividendo diferido. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Una sociedad anónima que declara un dividendo de acciones podría emitirle a usted un certificado de dividendo de acciones diferido que le da el derecho a acciones fraccionarias. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes El certificado no suele estar sujeto a impuestos cuando usted lo recibe. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Si elige que la sociedad anónima venda el certificado por usted y le entregue las ganancias, su ganancia o pérdida es la diferencia entre las ganancias y la parte de su base en las acciones de la sociedad anónima asignada en el certificado. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   No obstante, si recibe un certificado de dividendo de acciones diferido y puede optar por rescatarlo por efectivo en vez de acciones, el certificado está sujeto a impuestos cuando lo reciba. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Tiene que incluir en sus ingresos el valor justo de mercado del certificado en la fecha en que lo recibió. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Otras Distribuciones Usted podría recibir alguna de las siguientes distribuciones durante el año. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Dividendos con intereses exentos. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Los dividendos que producen intereses exentos de impuestos que recibe de un fondo mutuo u otra compañía de inversiones reglamentada, incluyendo aquellos recibidos de un fondo calificado en cualquier año tributario que comience después del 22 de diciembre del 2010, no se incluyen en los ingresos sujetos a impuestos. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Los dividendos con intereses exentos deben aparecer en el recuadro 10 del Formulario 1099-DIV. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Requisito de declarar ciertos datos. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Aunque los dividendos con intereses exentos no están sujetos a impuestos, tiene que informar de los mismos en la declaración de impuestos si tiene que presentar una declaración. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Esto es un requisito de declarar datos y no hace que dichos dividendos con intereses exentos se cambien a ingresos sujetos a impuestos. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Tratamiento del impuesto mínimo alternativo. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Los dividendos que produzcan intereses exentos y que se hayan pagado de bonos de actividad privada especificados podrían estar sujetos al impuesto mínimo alternativo. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Vea el tema titulado Impuesto Mínimo Alternativo (AMT) en el capítulo 30 para más información. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Dividendos de pólizas de seguro. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes    Los dividendos de pólizas de seguro que el asegurador retiene y utiliza para pagar sus primas no están sujetos a impuestos. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes No obstante, tiene que declarar como ingreso de intereses sujeto a impuestos los intereses que se paguen o acrediten sobre los dividendos dejados con la compañía de seguros. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes    Si los dividendos de un contrato de seguros (que no sea un contrato de seguro dotal modificado) le son distribuidos a usted, éstos son una devolución parcial de las primas que usted pagó. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes No los incluya en su ingreso bruto hasta que sean mayores al total de todas las primas netas que usted pagó por el contrato. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Declare todas las distribuciones sujetas a impuestos de pólizas de seguro en la línea 21 del Formulario 1040. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Dividendos del seguro para veteranos. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Los dividendos que reciba de pólizas de seguro para veteranos no están sujetos a impuestos. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Además, los intereses de dividendos dejados en depósito con el Department of Veterans Affairs (Departamento de Asuntos de Veteranos) no están sujetos a impuestos. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Dividendos de patrocinio. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Generalmente, los dividendos de patrocinio que reciba en dinero de una organización cooperativa están incluidos en sus ingresos. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   No incluya en sus ingresos dividendos de patrocinio que reciba por: Propiedad comprada para uso personal o Bienes de capital o propiedad depreciable comprados para uso en su negocio. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Pero tiene que reducir la base (costo) de los artículos comprados. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Si el dividendo es mayor a la base ajustada de los bienes, deberá declarar el exceso como ingreso. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Estas reglas son las mismas independientemente de si la cooperativa que paga el dividendo es una cooperativa sujeta a impuestos o no. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Dividendos del Alaska Permanent Fund (Fondo Permanente de Alaska). Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes    No declare las cantidades que reciba del Alaska Permanent Fund como dividendos. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Declare estas cantidades en la línea 21 del Formulario 1040, la línea 13 del Formulario 1040A o la línea 3 del Formulario 1040EZ. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Cómo Declarar el Ingreso de Dividendos Por lo general, se puede utilizar el Formulario 1040 o el Formulario 1040A para declarar el ingreso de dividendos. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Declare el total de sus dividendos ordinarios en la línea 9a del Formulario 1040 o del Formulario 1040A. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Declare los dividendos calificados en la línea 9b del Formulario 1040 o el Formulario 1040A. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Si recibe una distribución de ganancias de capital, quizás pueda utilizar el Formulario 1040A o quizás tenga que utilizar el Formulario 1040. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Vea Excepciones a la presentación del Formulario 8949 y el Anexo D (Formulario 1040) , en el capítulo 16. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Si recibe distribuciones que no son dividendos pero que deben declararse como ganancias de capital, tendrá que utilizar el Formulario 1040. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes No puede utilizar el Formulario 1040EZ si recibe ingresos de dividendos. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Formulario 1099-DIV. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Si era dueño de acciones por las cuales ha recibido $10 o más por concepto de dividendos y otras distribuciones, deberá recibir un Formulario 1099-DIV. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Aun si no recibe un Formulario 1099-DIV, tiene que declarar todo su ingreso de dividendos. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Vea el Formulario 1099-DIV para más información sobre cómo declarar el ingreso de dividendos. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Formulario 1040A o 1040. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes    Tiene que completar la Parte II del Anexo B (Formulario 1040A o 1040) y adjuntarlo al Formulario 1040A o 1040, si: Sus dividendos ordinarios (el recuadro 1a del Formulario 1099-DIV) son mayores de $1,500 o Recibió, como nominatario, dividendos que en realidad le pertenecen a otra persona. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Si sus dividendos ordinarios son mayores de $1,500, usted también tiene que completar la Parte III del Anexo B (Formulario 1040 o 1040A). Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Escriba en la línea 5, Parte II del Anexo B, el nombre de cada pagador y los dividendos ordinarios que usted recibió. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Si sus valores bursátiles están a nombre de una empresa de corretaje (conocido en inglés como “ street name ”), escriba el nombre de la empresa de corretaje mostrado en el Formulario 1099-DIV como pagador. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Si sus acciones están a nombre de un nominatario que es el titular registrado, y el nominatario es el que le acredita o paga a usted los dividendos de las acciones, escriba el nombre del nominatario y los dividendos que recibió o que le fueron acreditados. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Anote en la línea 6 el total de las cantidades que aparecen en la línea 5. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Anote también este total en la línea 9a del Formulario 1040 o del Formulario 1040A. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Dividendos calificados. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Declare los dividendos calificados (el recuadro 1b del Formulario 1099-DIV) en la línea 9b del Formulario 1040 o del Formulario 1040A. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes La cantidad del recuadro 1b ya se incluye en el recuadro 1a. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes No añada ni reste la cantidad del recuadro 1b a la cantidad del recuadro 1a. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes    No incluya ninguno de los siguientes en la línea 9b: Dividendos calificados que recibió como nominatario. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Vea el tema titulado Nominees (Nominatarios), bajo How to Report Dividend Income (Cómo se declara el ingreso de dividendos), en el capítulo 1 de la Publicación 550, en inglés. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Dividendos de acciones por las cuales usted no cumplió el período de tenencia. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Vea el tema titulado Período de tenencia , anteriormente, bajo la sección titulada Dividendos Calificados. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Dividendos sobre todas las acciones hasta el punto que usted esté obligado (ya sea por venta al descubierto o de otra manera) a hacer pagos afines por posiciones en bienes sustancialmente similares o relacionados. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Pagos en lugar de dividendos, pero sólo si usted sabe o tiene razón de saber que los pagos no son dividendos calificados. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Pagos mostrados en el recuadro 1b del Formulario 1099-DIV de una sociedad anónima extranjera hasta el punto donde sepa o tenga razón de saber que los pagos no son dividendos calificados. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Si tiene dividendos calificados, tiene que calcular el impuesto completando la hoja Qualified Dividends and Capital Gain Tax Worksheet (Hoja de trabajo de impuestos sobre dividendos calificados y ganancias de capital) de las Instrucciones para el Formulario 1040 o el Formulario 1040A, o Schedule D Tax Worksheet (Hoja de trabajo de impuestos del Anexo D) de las Instrucciones del Anexo D del Formulario 1040, en inglés, según corresponda. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Anote los dividendos calificados en la línea 2 de la hoja de trabajo. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Deducción de los intereses de inversiones. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Si declara una deducción por intereses de inversiones, quizás tenga que reducir sus dividendos que cumplan los requisitos de la tasa impositiva del 0%, 15% o 20%. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Redúzcala por la cantidad de dividendos calificados que elija incluir en el ingreso de inversiones al calcular el límite de la deducción de los intereses de inversiones. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Esto se hace en la hoja Qualified Dividends and Capital Gain Tax Worksheet (Hoja de trabajo de impuestos sobre dividendos calificados y ganancias de capital) o en la hoja Schedule D Tax Worksheet (Hoja de trabajo de impuestos del Anexo D). Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Para más información sobre el límite de intereses de inversión, vea Gastos de inversión en el capítulo 23. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Gastos relacionados con el ingreso de dividendos. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Es posible que pueda deducir los gastos relacionados con el ingreso de dividendos si detalla sus deducciones en el Anexo A (Formulario 1040). Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Vea el capítulo 28 para obtener información general sobre la deducción de gastos relativos a la producción de ingresos. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Más información. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes    Para más información sobre cómo declarar el ingreso de dividendos, vea el capítulo 1 de la Publicación 550, en inglés, o las instrucciones para el formulario que tiene que presentar. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Prev  Up  Next   Home   More Online Publications
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The Amended Tax Returns More:label_amended_20tax_20returns More:taxes

Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes 4. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Transportation Table of Contents Parking fees. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Advertising display on car. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Car pools. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Hauling tools or instruments. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Union members' trips from a union hall. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Car ExpensesStandard Mileage Rate Actual Car Expenses Leasing a Car Disposition of a Car This chapter discusses expenses you can deduct for business transportation when you are not traveling away from home as defined in chapter 1. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes These expenses include the cost of transportation by air, rail, bus, taxi, etc. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes , and the cost of driving and maintaining your car. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Transportation expenses include the ordinary and necessary costs of all of the following. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Getting from one workplace to another in the course of your business or profession when you are traveling within the city or general area that is your tax home. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Tax home is defined in chapter 1. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Visiting clients or customers. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Going to a business meeting away from your regular workplace. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Getting from your home to a temporary workplace when you have one or more regular places of work. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes These temporary workplaces can be either within the area of your tax home or outside that area. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Transportation expenses do not include expenses you have while traveling away from home overnight. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Those expenses are travel expenses discussed in chapter 1 . Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes However, if you use your car while traveling away from home overnight, use the rules in this chapter to figure your car expense deduction. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes See Car Expenses , later. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Daily transportation expenses you incur while traveling from home to one or more regular places of business are generally nondeductible commuting expenses. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes However, there may be exceptions to this general rule. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You can deduct daily transportation expenses incurred going between your residence and a temporary work station outside the metropolitan area where you live. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Also, daily transportation expenses can be deducted if: (1) you have one or more regular work locations away from your residence or (2) your residence is your principal place of business and you incur expenses going between the residence and another work location in the same trade or business, regardless of whether the work is temporary or permanent and regardless of the distance. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Illustration of transportation expenses. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes    Figure B , earlier, illustrates the rules that apply for deducting transportation expenses when you have a regular or main job away from your home. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You may want to refer to it when deciding whether you can deduct your transportation expenses. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Temporary work location. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   If you have one or more regular work locations away from your home and you commute to a temporary work location in the same trade or business, you can deduct the expenses of the daily round-trip transportation between your home and the temporary location, regardless of distance. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   If your employment at a work location is realistically expected to last (and does in fact last) for 1 year or less, the employment is temporary unless there are facts and circumstances that would indicate otherwise. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   If your employment at a work location is realistically expected to last for more than 1 year or if there is no realistic expectation that the employment will last for 1 year or less, the employment is not temporary, regardless of whether it actually lasts for more than 1 year. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   If employment at a work location initially is realistically expected to last for 1 year or less, but at some later date the employment is realistically expected to last more than 1 year, that employment will be treated as temporary (unless there are facts and circumstances that would indicate otherwise) until your expectation changes. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes It will not be treated as temporary after the date you determine it will last more than 1 year. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   If the temporary work location is beyond the general area of your regular place of work and you stay overnight, you are traveling away from home. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You may have deductible travel expenses as discussed in chapter 1 . Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes No regular place of work. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   If you have no regular place of work but ordinarily work in the metropolitan area where you live, you can deduct daily transportation costs between home and a temporary work site outside that metropolitan area. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Generally, a metropolitan area includes the area within the city limits and the suburbs that are considered part of that metropolitan area. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   You cannot deduct daily transportation costs between your home and temporary work sites within your metropolitan area. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes These are nondeductible commuting expenses. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Two places of work. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   If you work at two places in one day, whether or not for the same employer, you can deduct the expense of getting from one workplace to the other. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes However, if for some personal reason you do not go directly from one location to the other, you cannot deduct more than the amount it would have cost you to go directly from the first location to the second. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Transportation expenses you have in going between home and a part-time job on a day off from your main job are commuting expenses. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You cannot deduct them. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Armed Forces reservists. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   A meeting of an Armed Forces reserve unit is a second place of business if the meeting is held on a day on which you work at your regular job. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You can deduct the expense of getting from one workplace to the other as just discussed under Two places of work . Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   You usually cannot deduct the expense if the reserve meeting is held on a day on which you do not work at your regular job. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes In this case, your transportation generally is a nondeductible commuting expense. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes However, you can deduct your transportation expenses if the location of the meeting is temporary and you have one or more regular places of work. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   If you ordinarily work in a particular metropolitan area but not at any specific location and the reserve meeting is held at a temporary location outside that metropolitan area, you can deduct your transportation expenses. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   If you travel away from home overnight to attend a guard or reserve meeting, you can deduct your travel expenses. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes These expenses are discussed in chapter 1 . Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   If you travel more than 100 miles away from home in connection with your performance of services as a member of the reserves, you may be able to deduct some of your reserve-related travel costs as an adjustment to gross income rather than as an itemized deduction. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes For more information, see Armed Forces Reservists Traveling More Than 100 Miles From Home under Special Rules, in chapter 6. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Commuting expenses. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   You cannot deduct the costs of taking a bus, trolley, subway, or taxi, or of driving a car between your home and your main or regular place of work. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes These costs are personal commuting expenses. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You cannot deduct commuting expenses no matter how far your home is from your regular place of work. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You cannot deduct commuting expenses even if you work during the commuting trip. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Example. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You sometimes use your cell phone to make business calls while commuting to and from work. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Sometimes business associates ride with you to and from work, and you have a business discussion in the car. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes These activities do not change the trip from personal to business. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You cannot deduct your commuting expenses. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Parking fees. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes    Fees you pay to park your car at your place of business are nondeductible commuting expenses. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You can, however, deduct business-related parking fees when visiting a customer or client. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Advertising display on car. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Putting display material that advertises your business on your car does not change the use of your car from personal use to business use. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes If you use this car for commuting or other personal uses, you still cannot deduct your expenses for those uses. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Car pools. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   You cannot deduct the cost of using your car in a nonprofit car pool. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Do not include payments you receive from the passengers in your income. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes These payments are considered reimbursements of your expenses. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes However, if you operate a car pool for a profit, you must include payments from passengers in your income. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You can then deduct your car expenses (using the rules in this publication). Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Hauling tools or instruments. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Hauling tools or instruments in your car while commuting to and from work does not make your car expenses deductible. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes However, you can deduct any additional costs you have for hauling tools or instruments (such as for renting a trailer you tow with your car). Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Union members' trips from a union hall. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   If you get your work assignments at a union hall and then go to your place of work, the costs of getting from the union hall to your place of work are nondeductible commuting expenses. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Although you need the union to get your work assignments, you are employed where you work, not where the union hall is located. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Office in the home. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   If you have an office in your home that qualifies as a principal place of business, you can deduct your daily transportation costs between your home and another work location in the same trade or business. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes (See Publication 587, Business Use of Your Home, for information on determining if your home office qualifies as a principal place of business. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes ) Examples of deductible transportation. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   The following examples show when you can deduct transportation expenses based on the location of your work and your home. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Example 1. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You regularly work in an office in the city where you live. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Your employer sends you to a 1-week training session at a different office in the same city. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You travel directly from your home to the training location and return each day. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You can deduct the cost of your daily round-trip transportation between your home and the training location. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Example 2. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Your principal place of business is in your home. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You can deduct the cost of round-trip transportation between your qualifying home office and your client's or customer's place of business. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Example 3. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You have no regular office, and you do not have an office in your home. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes In this case, the location of your first business contact inside the metropolitan area is considered your office. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Transportation expenses between your home and this first contact are nondeductible commuting expenses. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Transportation expenses between your last business contact and your home are also nondeductible commuting expenses. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes While you cannot deduct the costs of these trips, you can deduct the costs of going from one client or customer to another. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Car Expenses If you use your car for business purposes, you ordinarily can deduct car expenses. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You generally can use one of the two following methods to figure your deductible expenses. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Standard mileage rate. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Actual car expenses. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes If you use actual expenses to figure your deduction for a car you lease, there are rules that affect the amount of your lease payments you can deduct. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes See Leasing a Car , later. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes In this publication, “car” includes a van, pickup, or panel truck. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes For the definition of “car” for depreciation purposes, see Car defined under Actual Car Expenses, later. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Rural mail carriers. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   If you are a rural mail carrier, you may be able to treat the qualified reimbursement you received as your allowable expense. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Because the qualified reimbursement is treated as paid under an accountable plan, your employer should not include the reimbursement in your income. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   If your vehicle expenses are more than the amount of your reimbursement, you can deduct the unreimbursed expenses as an itemized deduction on Schedule A (Form 1040). Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You must complete Form 2106 and attach it to your Form 1040, U. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes S. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Individual Income Tax Return. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   A “qualified reimbursement” is the reimbursement you receive that meets both of the following conditions. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes It is given as an equipment maintenance allowance (EMA) to employees of the U. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes S. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Postal Service. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes It is at the rate contained in the 1991 collective bargaining agreement. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Any later agreement cannot increase the qualified reimbursement amount by more than the rate of inflation. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes See your employer for information on your reimbursement. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes    If you are a rural mail carrier and received a qualified reimbursement, you cannot use the standard mileage rate. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Standard Mileage Rate You may be able to use the standard mileage rate to figure the deductible costs of operating your car for business purposes. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes For 2013, the standard mileage rate for the cost of operating your car for business use is 56½ cents per mile. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes If you use the standard mileage rate for a year, you cannot deduct your actual car expenses for that year. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You cannot deduct depreciation, lease payments, maintenance and repairs, gasoline (including gasoline taxes), oil, insurance, or vehicle registration fees. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes See Choosing the standard mileage rate and Standard mileage rate not allowed, later. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You generally can use the standard mileage rate whether or not you are reimbursed and whether or not any reimbursement is more or less than the amount figured using the standard mileage rate. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes See chapter 6 for more information on reimbursements . Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Choosing the standard mileage rate. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   If you want to use the standard mileage rate for a car you own, you must choose to use it in the first year the car is available for use in your business. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Then, in later years, you can choose to use either the standard mileage rate or actual expenses. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   If you want to use the standard mileage rate for a car you lease, you must use it for the entire lease period. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes For leases that began on or before December 31, 1997, the standard mileage rate must be used for the entire portion of the lease period (including renewals) that is after 1997. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   You must make the choice to use the standard mileage rate by the due date (including extensions) of your return. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You cannot revoke the choice. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes However, in later years, you can switch from the standard mileage rate to the actual expenses method. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes If you change to the actual expenses method in a later year, but before your car is fully depreciated, you have to estimate the remaining useful life of the car and use straight line depreciation. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Example. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Larry is an employee who occasionally uses his own car for business purposes. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes He purchased the car in 2011, but he did not claim any unreimbursed employee expenses on his 2011 tax return. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Because Larry did not use the standard mileage rate the first year the car was available for business use, he cannot use the standard mileage rate in 2013 to claim unreimbursed employee business expenses. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   For more information about depreciation included in the standard mileage rate, see Exception under Methods of depreciation, later. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Standard mileage rate not allowed. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   You cannot use the standard mileage rate if you: Use five or more cars at the same time (such as in fleet operations), Claimed a depreciation deduction for the car using any method other than straight line, for example, MACRS (as discussed later under Depreciation Deduction), Claimed a section 179 deduction (discussed later) on the car, Claimed the special depreciation allowance on the car, Claimed actual car expenses after 1997 for a car you leased, or Are a rural mail carrier who received a qualified reimbursement. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes (See Rural mail carriers , earlier. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes ) Note. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You can elect to use the standard mileage rate if you used a car for hire (such as a taxi) unless the standard mileage rate is otherwise not allowed, as discussed above. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Five or more cars. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   If you own or lease five or more cars that are used for business at the same time, you cannot use the standard mileage rate for the business use of any car. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes However, you may be able to deduct your actual expenses for operating each of the cars in your business. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes See Actual Car Expenses , later, for information on how to figure your deduction. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   You are not using five or more cars for business at the same time if you alternate using (use at different times) the cars for business. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   The following examples illustrate the rules for when you can and cannot use the standard mileage rate for five or more cars. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Example 1. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Marcia, a salesperson, owns three cars and two vans that she alternates using for calling on her customers. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes She can use the standard mileage rate for the business mileage of the three cars and the two vans because she does not use them at the same time. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Example 2. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Tony and his employees use his four pickup trucks in his landscaping business. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes During the year, he traded in two of his old trucks for two newer ones. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Tony can use the standard mileage rate for the business mileage of all six of the trucks he owned during the year. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Example 3. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Chris owns a repair shop and an insurance business. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes He and his employees use his two pickup trucks and van for the repair shop. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Chris alternates using his two cars for the insurance business. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes No one else uses the cars for business purposes. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Chris can use the standard mileage rate for the business use of the pickup trucks, van, and the cars because he never has more than four vehicles used for business at the same time. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Example 4. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Maureen owns a car and four vans that are used in her housecleaning business. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Her employees use the vans, and she uses the car to travel to various customers. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Maureen cannot use the standard mileage rate for the car or the vans. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes This is because all five vehicles are used in Maureen's business at the same time. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes She must use actual expenses for all vehicles. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Interest. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   If you are an employee, you cannot deduct any interest paid on a car loan. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes This applies even if you use the car 100% for business as an employee. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   However, if you are self-employed and use your car in your business, you can deduct that part of the interest expense that represents your business use of the car. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes For example, if you use your car 60% for business, you can deduct 60% of the interest on Schedule C (Form 1040). Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You cannot deduct the part of the interest expense that represents your personal use of the car. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes    If you use a home equity loan to purchase your car, you may be able to deduct the interest. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes See Publication 936, Home Mortgage Interest Deduction, for more information. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Personal property taxes. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   If you itemize your deductions on Schedule A (Form 1040), you can deduct on line 7 state and local personal property taxes on motor vehicles. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You can take this deduction even if you use the standard mileage rate or if you do not use the car for business. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   If you are self-employed and use your car in your business, you can deduct the business part of state and local personal property taxes on motor vehicles on Schedule C (Form 1040), Schedule C-EZ (Form 1040), or Schedule F (Form 1040). Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes If you itemize your deductions, you can include the remainder of your state and local personal property taxes on the car on Schedule A (Form 1040). Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Parking fees and tolls. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   In addition to using the standard mileage rate, you can deduct any business-related parking fees and tolls. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes (Parking fees you pay to park your car at your place of work are nondeductible commuting expenses. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes ) Sale, trade-in, or other disposition. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   If you sell, trade in, or otherwise dispose of your car, you may have a gain or loss on the transaction or an adjustment to the basis of your new car. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes See Disposition of a Car , later. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Actual Car Expenses If you do not use the standard mileage rate, you may be able to deduct your actual car expenses. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes If you qualify to use both methods, you may want to figure your deduction both ways to see which gives you a larger deduction. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Actual car expenses include: Depreciation Licenses Lease  payments Registration  fees Gas Insurance Repairs Oil Garage rent Tires Tolls Parking fees   If you have fully depreciated a car that you still use in your business, you can continue to claim your other actual car expenses. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Continue to keep records, as explained later in chapter 5 . Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Business and personal use. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   If you use your car for both business and personal purposes, you must divide your expenses between business and personal use. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You can divide your expense based on the miles driven for each purpose. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Example. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You are a sales representative for a clothing firm and drive your car 20,000 miles during the year: 12,000 miles for business and 8,000 miles for personal use. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You can claim only 60% (12,000 ÷ 20,000) of the cost of operating your car as a business expense. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Employer-provided vehicle. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   If you use a vehicle provided by your employer for business purposes, you can deduct your actual unreimbursed car expenses. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You cannot use the standard mileage rate. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes See Vehicle Provided by Your Employer in chapter 6. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Interest on car loans. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   If you are an employee, you cannot deduct any interest paid on a car loan. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes This interest is treated as personal interest and is not deductible. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes If you are self-employed and use your car in that business, see Interest , earlier, under Standard Mileage Rate. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Taxes paid on your car. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   If you are an employee, you can deduct personal property taxes paid on your car if you itemize deductions. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Enter the amount paid on line 7 of Schedule A (Form 1040). Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Sales taxes. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Generally, sales taxes on your car are part of your car's basis and are recovered through depreciation, discussed later. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Fines and collateral. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   You cannot deduct fines you pay or collateral you forfeit for traffic violations. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Casualty and theft losses. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   If your car is damaged, destroyed, or stolen, you may be able to deduct part of the loss not covered by insurance. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes See Publication 547, Casualties, Disasters, and Thefts, for information on deducting a loss on your car. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Depreciation and section 179 deductions. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Generally, the cost of a car, plus sales tax and improvements, is a capital expense. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Because the benefits last longer than 1 year, you generally cannot deduct a capital expense. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes However, you can recover this cost through the section 179 deduction (the deduction allowed by section 179 of the Internal Revenue Code), special depreciation allowance, and depreciation deductions. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Depreciation allows you to recover the cost over more than 1 year by deducting part of it each year. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes The section 179 deduction , special depreciation allowance , and depreciation deductions are discussed later. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Generally, there are limits on these deductions. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Special rules apply if you use your car 50% or less in your work or business. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   You can claim a section 179 deduction and use a depreciation method other than straight line only if you do not use the standard mileage rate to figure your business-related car expenses in the year you first place a car in service. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   If, in the year you first place a car in service, you claim either a section 179 deduction or use a depreciation method other than straight line for its estimated useful life, you cannot use the standard mileage rate on that car in any future year. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Car defined. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   For depreciation purposes, a car is any four-wheeled vehicle (including a truck or van) made primarily for use on public streets, roads, and highways. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Its unloaded gross vehicle weight must not be more than 6,000 pounds. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes A car includes any part, component, or other item physically attached to it or usually included in the purchase price. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   A car does not include: An ambulance, hearse, or combination ambulance-hearse used directly in a business, A vehicle used directly in the business of transporting persons or property for pay or hire, or A truck or van that is a qualified nonpersonal use vehicle. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Qualified nonpersonal use vehicles. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   These are vehicles that by their nature are not likely to be used more than a minimal amount for personal purposes. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes They include trucks and vans that have been specially modified so that they are not likely to be used more than a minimal amount for personal purposes, such as by installation of permanent shelving and painting the vehicle to display advertising or the company's name. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Delivery trucks with seating only for the driver, or only for the driver plus a folding jump seat, are qualified nonpersonal use vehicles. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes More information. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   See Depreciation Deduction , later, for more information on how to depreciate your vehicle. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Section 179 Deduction The section 179 deduction allows you to treat a portion or all of the cost of a car as a current expense. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes If you choose to deduct all or part of the cost as a current expense, you must reduce your depreciable basis in the car by the amount of the section 179 deduction. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes There is a limit on the total section 179 deduction, special depreciation allowance, and depreciation deduction for cars, trucks, and vans that may reduce or eliminate any benefit from claiming the section 179 deduction. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes See Depreciation Limits, later. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You can claim the section 179 deduction only in the year you place the car in service. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes For this purpose, a car is placed in service when it is ready and available for a specifically assigned use, whether in a trade or business, a tax-exempt activity, a personal activity, or for the production of income. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Even if you are not using the property, it is in service when it is ready and available for its specifically assigned use. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes A car first used for personal purposes cannot qualify for the deduction in a later year when its use changes to business. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Example. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes In 2012, you bought a new car and used it for personal purposes. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes In 2013, you began to use it for business. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Changing its use to business use does not qualify the cost of your car for a section 179 deduction in 2013. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes However, you can claim a depreciation deduction for the business use of the car starting in 2013. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes See Depreciation Deduction , later. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes More than 50% business use requirement. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   You must use the property more than 50% for business to claim any section 179 deduction. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes If you used the property more than 50% for business, multiply the cost of the property by the percentage of business use. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes The result is the cost of the property that can qualify for the section 179 deduction. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Example. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Peter purchased a car in April 2013 for $24,500 and used it 60% for business. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Based on his business usage, the total cost of Peter's car that qualifies for the section 179 deduction is $14,700 ($24,500 cost × 60% business use). Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes But see Limit on total section 179, special depreciation allowance, and depreciation deduction , discussed later. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Limits. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   There are limits on: The amount of the section 179 deduction, The section 179 deduction for sport utility and certain other vehicles, and The total amount of the section 179 deduction, special depreciation allowance, and depreciation deduction (discussed later ) you can claim for a qualified property. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Limit on the amount of the section 179 deduction. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   For 2013, the total amount you can choose to deduct under section 179 generally cannot be more than $500,000. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   If the cost of your section 179 property placed in service in 2013 is over $2,000,000, you must reduce the $500,000 dollar limit (but not below zero) by the amount of cost over $2,000,000. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes If the cost of your section 179 property placed in service during 2013 is $2,500,000 or more, you cannot take a section 179 deduction. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   The total amount you can deduct under section 179 each year after you apply the limits listed above cannot be more than the taxable income from the active conduct of any trade or business during the year. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   If you are married and file a joint return, you and your spouse are treated as one taxpayer in determining any reduction to the dollar limit, regardless of which of you purchased the property or placed it in service. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   If you and your spouse file separate returns, you are treated as one taxpayer for the dollar limit. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You must allocate the dollar limit (after any reduction) between you. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   For more information on the above section 179 deduction limits, see Publication 946. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Limit for sport utility and certain other vehicles. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   For sport utility and certain other vehicles placed in service in 2013, the portion of the vehicle's cost taken into account in figuring your section 179 deduction is limited to $25,000. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes This rule applies to any four-wheeled vehicle primarily designed or used to carry passengers over public streets, roads, or highways, that is not subject to any of the passenger automobile limits explained under Depreciation Limits , later, and that is rated at no more than 14,000 pounds gross vehicle weight. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes However, the $25,000 limit does not apply to any vehicle: Designed to have a seating capacity of more than nine persons behind the driver's seat, Equipped with a cargo area of at least 6 feet in interior length that is an open area or is designed for use as an open area but is enclosed by a cap and is not readily accessible directly from the passenger compartment, or That has an integral enclosure, fully enclosing the driver compartment and load carrying device, does not have seating rearward of the driver's seat, and has no body section protruding more than 30 inches ahead of the leading edge of the windshield. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes    Limit on total section 179, special depreciation allowance, and depreciation deduction. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Generally, the total amount of section 179, special depreciation allowance, and depreciation deduction you can claim for a car that is qualified property and that you placed in service in 2013 is $11,160. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes The limit is reduced if your business use of the car is less than 100%. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes See Depreciation Limits , later, for more information. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Example. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes In the earlier example under More than 50% business use requirement, Peter had a car with a cost (for purposes of the section 179 deduction) of $14,700. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes However, based on Peter's business usage of his car, the total of his section 179, special depreciation allowance, and depreciation deductions is limited to $6,696 ($11,160 limit x 60% business use). Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Cost of car. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   For purposes of the section 179 deduction, the cost of the car does not include any amount figured by reference to any other property held by you at any time. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes For example, if you buy (for cash and a trade-in) a new car to use in your business, your cost for purposes of the section 179 deduction does not include your adjusted basis in the car you trade in for the new car. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Your cost includes only the cash you paid. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Basis of car for depreciation. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   The amount of the section 179 deduction reduces your basis in your car. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes If you choose the section 179 deduction, you must subtract the amount of the deduction from the cost of your car. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes The resulting amount is the basis in your car you use to figure your depreciation deduction. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes When to choose. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   If you want to take the section 179 deduction, you must make the choice in the tax year you place the car in service for business or work. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes How to choose. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes    Employees use Form 2106 to make this choice and report the section 179 deduction. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes All others use Form 4562. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   File the appropriate form with either of the following. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Your original tax return filed for the year the property was placed in service (whether or not you file it timely). Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes An amended return filed within the time prescribed by law. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes An election made on an amended return must specify the item of section 179 property to which the election applies and the part of the cost of each such item to be taken into account. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes The amended return must also include any resulting adjustments to taxable income. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes    You must keep records that show the specific identification of each piece of qualifying section 179 property. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes These records must show how you acquired the property, the person you acquired it from, and when you placed it in service. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Revoking an election. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   An election (or any specification made in the election) to take a section 179 deduction for 2013 can only be revoked with the Commissioner's approval. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Recapture of section 179 deduction. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   To be eligible to claim the section 179 deduction, you must use your car more than 50% for business or work in the year you acquired it. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes If your business use of the car is 50% or less in a later tax year during the recovery period, you have to recapture (include in income) in that later year any excess depreciation. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Any section 179 deduction claimed on the car is included in calculating the excess depreciation. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes For information on this calculation, see Excess depreciation , later in this chapter under Car Used 50% or Less for Business. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Dispositions. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   If you dispose of a car on which you had claimed the section 179 deduction, the amount of that deduction is treated as a depreciation deduction for recapture purposes. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You treat any gain on the disposition of the property as ordinary income up to the amount of the section 179 deduction and any allowable depreciation (unless you establish the amount actually allowed). Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes For information on the disposition of a car, see Disposition of a Car , later. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Special Depreciation Allowance You may be able to claim the special depreciation allowance for your car, truck, or van, if it is qualified property and was placed in service in 2013. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes The allowance is an additional depreciation deduction of 50% of the car's depreciable basis (after any section 179 deduction, but before figuring your regular depreciation deduction under MACRS). Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes The special depreciation allowance applies only for the first year the car is placed in service. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes To qualify for the allowance more than 50% of the use of the car must be in a qualified business use (as defined under Depreciation Deduction, later). Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Combined depreciation. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Your combined section 179 deduction, special depreciation allowance, and regular MACRS depreciation deduction is limited to the maximum allowable depreciation deduction for cars of $11,160 ($3,160 if you elect not to claim the special depreciation allowance). Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes For trucks and vans, the first-year limit remains at $11,360 ($3,360 if you elect not to claim the special depreciation allowance). Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes See Depreciation Limits , later in this chapter. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Qualified car. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   To be a qualified car (including trucks and vans), the car must meet all of the following tests. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You purchased the car new on or after January 1, 2008, but only if no binding written contract to acquire the car existed before January 1, 2008, You placed the car in service in your trade or business before January 1, 2014, You used the car more than 50% in a qualified business use. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Election not to claim the special depreciation allowance. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   You can elect not to claim the special depreciation allowance for your car, truck, or van, that is qualified property. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes If you make this election, it applies to all 5-year property placed in service during the year. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   To make the election, attach a statement to your timely filed return (including extensions) indicating the class of property (5-year for cars) for which you are making the election and that you are electing not to claim the special depreciation allowance for qualified property acquired on or after January 1, 2008. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes    Unless you elect not to claim the special depreciation allowance, you must reduce the car's adjusted basis by the amount of the allowance, even if the allowance was not claimed. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Depreciation Deduction If you use actual car expenses to figure your deduction for a car you own and use in your business, you can claim a depreciation deduction. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes This means you can deduct a certain amount each year as a recovery of your cost or other basis in your car. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You generally need to know the following things about the car you intend to depreciate. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Your basis in the car. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes The date you place the car in service. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes The method of depreciation and recovery period you will use. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Basis. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Your basis in a car for figuring depreciation is generally its cost. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes This includes any amount you borrow or pay in cash, other property, or services. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Generally, you figure depreciation on your car, truck, or van using your unadjusted basis (see Unadjusted basis , later). Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes However, in some situations you will use your adjusted basis (your basis reduced by depreciation allowed or allowable in earlier years). Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes For one of these situations see Exception under Methods of depreciation, later. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   If you change the use of a car from personal to business, your basis for depreciation is the lesser of the fair market value or your adjusted basis in the car on the date of conversion. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Additional rules concerning basis are discussed later in this chapter under Unadjusted basis . Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Placed in service. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   You generally place a car in service when it is available for use in your work or business, in an income-producing activity, or in a personal activity. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Depreciation begins when the car is placed in service for use in your work or business or for the production of income. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   For purposes of computing depreciation, if you first start using the car only for personal use and later convert it to business use, you place the car in service on the date of conversion. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Car placed in service and disposed of in the same year. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   If you place a car in service and dispose of it in the same tax year, you cannot claim any depreciation deduction for that car. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Methods of depreciation. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Generally, you figure depreciation on cars using the Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS). Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes MACRS is discussed later in this chapter. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Exception. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   If you used the standard mileage rate in the first year of business use and change to the actual expenses method in a later year, you cannot depreciate your car under the MACRS rules. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You must use straight line depreciation over the estimated remaining useful life of the car. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   To figure depreciation under the straight line method, you must reduce your basis in the car (but not below zero) by a set rate per mile for all miles for which you used the standard mileage rate. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes The rate per mile varies depending on the year(s) you used the standard mileage rate. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes For the rate(s) to use, see Depreciation adjustment when you used the standard mileage rate under Disposition of a Car, later. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   This reduction of basis is in addition to those basis adjustments described later under Unadjusted basis . Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You must use your adjusted basis in your car to figure your depreciation deduction. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes For additional information on the straight line method of depreciation, see Publication 946. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes More-than-50%-use test. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Generally, you must use your car more than 50% for qualified business use (defined next) during the year to use MACRS. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You must meet this more-than-50%-use test each year of the recovery period (6 years under MACRS) for your car. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   If your business use is 50% or less, you must use the straight line method to depreciate your car. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes This is explained later under Car Used 50% or Less for Business . Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Qualified business use. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   A qualified business use is any use in your trade or business. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes It does not include use for the production of income (investment use). Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes However, you do combine your business and investment use to compute your depreciation deduction for the tax year. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Use of your car by another person. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Do not treat any use of your car by another person as use in your trade or business unless that use meets one of the following conditions. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes It is directly connected with your business. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes It is properly reported by you as income to the other person (and, if you have to, you withhold tax on the income). Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes It results in a payment of fair market rent. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes This includes any payment to you for the use of your car. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Business use changes. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   If you used your car more than 50% in qualified business use in the year you placed it in service, but 50% or less in a later year (including the year of disposition), you have to change to the straight line method of depreciation. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes See Qualified business use 50% or less in a later year under Car Used 50% or Less for Business, later. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes    Property does not cease to be used more than 50% in qualified business use by reason of a transfer at death. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Use for more than one purpose. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   If you use your car for more than one purpose during the tax year, you must allocate the use to the various purposes. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You do this on the basis of mileage. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Figure the percentage of qualified business use by dividing the number of miles you drive your car for business purposes during the year by the total number of miles you drive the car during the year for any purpose. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Change from personal to business use. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   If you change the use of a car from 100% personal use to business use during the tax year, you may not have mileage records for the time before the change to business use. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes In this case, you figure the percentage of business use for the year as follows. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Determine the percentage of business use for the period following the change. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Do this by dividing business miles by total miles driven during that period. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Multiply the percentage in (1) by a fraction. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes The numerator (top number) is the number of months the car is used for business and the denominator (bottom number) is 12. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Example. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You use a car only for personal purposes during the first 6 months of the year. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes During the last 6 months of the year, you drive the car a total of 15,000 miles of which 12,000 miles are for business. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes This gives you a business use percentage of 80% (12,000 ÷ 15,000) for that period. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Your business use for the year is 40% (80% × 6/12). Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Limits. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   The amount you can claim for section 179, special depreciation allowance, and depreciation deductions may be limited. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes The maximum amount you can claim depends on the year in which you placed your car in service. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You have to reduce the maximum amount if you did not use the car exclusively for business. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes See Depreciation Limits , later. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Unadjusted basis. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   You use your unadjusted basis (often referred to as your basis or your basis for depreciation) to figure your depreciation using the MACRS depreciation chart, explained later under Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) . Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Your unadjusted basis for figuring depreciation is your original basis increased or decreased by certain amounts. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   To figure your unadjusted basis, begin with your car's original basis, which generally is its cost. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Cost includes sales taxes (see Sales taxes , earlier), destination charges, and dealer preparation. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Increase your basis by any substantial improvements you make to your car, such as adding air conditioning or a new engine. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Decrease your basis by any section 179 deduction, special depreciation allowance, gas guzzler tax, clean-fuel vehicle deduction (for vehicles placed in service before Jan. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes 1, 2006), and alternative motor vehicle credit. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   See Form 8910 for information on the alternative motor vehicle credit. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes If your business use later falls to 50% or less, you may have to recapture (include in your income) any excess depreciation. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes See Car Used 50% or Less for Business, later, for more information. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes If you acquired the car by gift or inheritance, see Publication 551, Basis of Assets, for information on your basis in the car. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Improvements. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   A major improvement to a car is treated as a new item of 5-year recovery property. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes It is treated as placed in service in the year the improvement is made. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes It does not matter how old the car is when the improvement is added. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Follow the same steps for depreciating the improvement as you would for depreciating the original cost of the car. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes However, you must treat the improvement and the car as a whole when applying the limits on the depreciation deductions. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Your car's depreciation deduction for the year (plus any section 179 deduction, special depreciation allowance, and depreciation on any improvements) cannot be more than the depreciation limit that applies for that year. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes See Depreciation Limits , later. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Car trade-in. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   If you traded one car (the “old car”) for another car (the “new car”) in 2013, there are two ways you can treat the transaction. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You can elect to treat the transaction as a tax-free disposition of the old car and the purchase of the new car. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes If you make this election, you treat the old car as disposed of at the time of the trade-in. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes The depreciable basis of the new car is the adjusted basis of the old car (figured as if 100% of the car's use had been for business purposes) plus any additional amount you paid for the new car. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You then figure your depreciation deduction for the new car beginning with the date you placed it in service. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You make this election by completing Form 2106, Part II, Section D. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes This method is explained later, beginning at Effect of trade-in on basis . Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes If you do not make the election described in (1), you must figure depreciation separately for the remaining basis of the old car and for any additional amount you paid for the new car. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You must apply two depreciation limits (see Depreciation Limits , later). Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes The limit that applies to the remaining basis of the old car generally is the amount that would have been allowed had you not traded in the old car. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes The limit that applies to the additional amount you paid for the new car generally is the limit that applies for the tax year, reduced by the depreciation allowance for the remaining basis of the old car. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You must use Form 4562 to compute your depreciation deduction. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You cannot use Form 2106, Part II, Section D. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes This method is explained in Publication 946. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   If you elect to use the method described in (1), you must do so on a timely filed tax return (including extensions). Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Otherwise, you must use the method described in (2). Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Effect of trade-in on basis. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   The discussion that follows applies to trade-ins of cars in 2013, where the election was made to treat the transaction as a tax-free disposition of the old car and the purchase of the new car. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes For information on how to figure depreciation for cars involved in a like-kind exchange (trade-in) in 2013, for which the election was not made, see Publication 946 and Regulations section 1. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes 168(i)-6(d)(3). Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Traded car used only for business. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   If you trade in a car you used only in your business for another car that will be used only in your business, your original basis in the new car is your adjusted basis in the old car, plus any additional amount you pay for the new car. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Example. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Paul trades in a car that has an adjusted basis of $5,000 for a new car. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes In addition, he pays cash of $20,000 for the new car. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes His original basis of the new car is $25,000 (his $5,000 adjusted basis in the old car plus the $20,000 cash paid). Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Paul's unadjusted basis is $25,000 unless he claims the section 179 deduction, special depreciation allowance, or has other increases or decreases to his original basis, discussed under Unadjusted basis , earlier. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Traded car used partly in business. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   If you trade in a car you used partly in your business for a new car you will use in your business, you must make a “trade-in” adjustment for the personal use of the old car. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes This adjustment has the effect of reducing your basis in your old car, but not below zero, for purposes of figuring your depreciation deduction for the new car. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes (This adjustment is not used, however, when you determine the gain or loss on the later disposition of the new car. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes See Publication 544, Sales and Other Dispositions of Assets, for information on how to report the disposition of your car. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes )   To figure the unadjusted basis of your new car for depreciation, first add to your adjusted basis in the old car any additional amount you pay for the new car. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Then subtract from that total the excess, if any, of: The total of the amounts that would have been allowable as depreciation during the tax years before the trade if 100% of the use of the car had been business and investment use, over The total of the amounts actually allowed as depreciation during those years. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes For information about figuring depreciation, see Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) , which follows Example 2, later. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS). Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   The Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) is the name given to the tax rules for getting back (recovering) through depreciation deductions the cost of property used in a trade or business or to produce income. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   The maximum amount you can deduct is limited, depending on the year you placed your car in service. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes See Depreciation Limits , later. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Recovery period. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Under MACRS, cars are classified as 5-year property. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You actually depreciate the cost of a car, truck, or van over a period of 6 calendar years. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes This is because your car is generally treated as placed in service in the middle of the year, and you claim depreciation for one-half of both the first year and the sixth year. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Depreciation deduction for certain Indian reservation property. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Shorter recovery periods are provided under MACRS for qualified Indian reservation property placed in service on Indian reservations after 1993 and before 2014. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes The recovery that applies for a business-use car is 3 years instead of 5 years. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes However, the depreciation limits, discussed later, will still apply. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   For more information on the qualifications for this shorter recovery period and the percentages to use in figuring the depreciation deduction, see chapter 4 of Publication 946. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Depreciation methods. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   You can use one of the following methods to depreciate your car. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes The 200% declining balance method (200% DB) over a 5-year recovery period that switches to the straight line method when that method provides an equal or greater deduction. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes The 150% declining balance method (150% DB) over a 5-year recovery period that switches to the straight line method when that method provides an equal or greater deduction. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes The straight line method (SL) over a 5-year recovery period. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes    If you use Table 4-1 (discussed later under MACRS depreciation chart) to determine your depreciation rate for 2013, you do not need to determine in what year using the straight line method provides an equal or greater deduction. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes This is because the chart has the switch to the straight line method built into its rates. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Before choosing a method, you may wish to consider the following facts. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Using the straight line method provides equal yearly deductions throughout the recovery period. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Using the declining balance methods provides greater deductions during the earlier recovery years with the deductions generally getting smaller each year. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes MACRS depreciation chart. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   A 2013 MACRS Depreciation Chart and instructions are included in this chapter as Table 4-1 . Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Using this table will make it easy for you to figure the 2013 depreciation deduction for your car. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes A similar chart appears in the Instructions for Form 2106. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes    You may have to use the tables in Publication 946 instead of using this MACRS Depreciation Chart. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   You must use the Depreciation Tables in Publication 946 rather than the 2013 MACRS Depreciation Chart in this publication if any one of the following four conditions applies to you. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You file your return on a fiscal year basis. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You file your return for a short tax year (less than 12 months). Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes During the year, all of the following conditions apply. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You placed some property in service from January through September. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You placed some property in service from October through December. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Your basis in the property you placed in service from October through December (excluding nonresidential real property, residential rental property, and property placed in service and disposed of in the same year) was more than 40% of your total bases in all property you placed in service during the year. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   You placed qualified property in service on an Indian reservation. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Depreciation in future years. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   If you use the percentages from the chart, you generally must continue to use them for the entire recovery period of your car. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes However, you cannot continue to use the chart if your basis in your car is adjusted because of a casualty. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes In that case, for the year of the adjustment and the remaining recovery period, figure the depreciation without the chart using your adjusted basis in the car at the end of the year of the adjustment and over the remaining recovery period. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes See Figuring the Deduction Without Using the Tables in chapter 4 of Publication 946. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes    In future years, do not use the chart in this edition of the publication. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Instead, use the chart in the publication or the form instructions for those future years. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Disposition of car during recovery period. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   If you dispose of the car before the end of the recovery period, you are generally allowed a half year of depreciation in the year of disposition unless you purchased the car during the last quarter of a year. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes See Depreciation deduction for the year of disposition under Disposition of a Car, later, for information on how to figure the depreciation allowed in the year of disposition. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes How to use the 2013 chart. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   To figure your depreciation deduction for 2013, find the percentage in the column of Table 4-1 based on the date that you first placed the car in service and the depreciation method that you are using. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Multiply the unadjusted basis of your car (defined earlier) by that percentage to determine the amount of your depreciation deduction. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes If you prefer to figure your depreciation deduction without the help of the chart, see Publication 946. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes    Your deduction cannot be more than the maximum depreciation limit for cars. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes See Depreciation Limits, later. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Example. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Phil bought a used truck in February 2012 to use exclusively in his landscape business. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes He paid $9,200 for the truck with no trade-in. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Phil did not claim any section 179 deduction, the truck did not qualify for the special depreciation allowance, and he chose to use the 200% DB method to get the largest depreciation deduction in the early years. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Phil used the MACRS depreciation chart in 2012 to find his percentage. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes The unadjusted basis of his truck equals its cost because Phil used it exclusively for business. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes He multiplied the unadjusted basis of his truck, $9,200, by the percentage that applied, 20%, to figure his 2012 depreciation deduction of $1,840. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes In 2013, Phil used the truck for personal purposes when he repaired his father's cabin. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes His records show that the business use of his truck was 90% in 2013. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Phil used Table 4-1 to find his percentage. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Reading down the first column for the date placed in service and across to the 200% DB column, he locates his percentage, 32%. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes He multiplies the unadjusted basis of his truck, $8,280 ($9,200 cost × 90% business use), by 32% to figure his 2013 depreciation deduction of $2,650. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Depreciation Limits There are limits on the amount you can deduct for depreciation of your car, truck, or van. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes The section 179 deduction and special depreciation allowance are treated as depreciation for purposes of the limits. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes The maximum amount you can deduct each year depends on the year you place the car in service. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes These limits are shown in the following tables. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Maximum Depreciation Deduction for Cars Date       4th & Placed 1st 2nd 3rd Later In Service Year Year Year Years 2012–2013 $11,1601 $5,100 $3,050 $1,875 2010–2011 11,0602 4,900 2,950 1,775 2008–2009 10,9603 4,800 2,850 1,775 2007 3,060 4,900 2,850 1,775 2006 2,960 4,800 2,850 1,775 2005 2,960 4,700 2,850 1,675 2004 10,6103 4,800 2,850 1,675 5/06/2003– 12/31/2003 10,7104 4,900 2,950 1,775 1/01/2003– 5/05/2003 7,6605 4,900 2,950 1,775 2001–2002 7,6605 4,900 2,950 1,775 2000 3,060 4,900 2,950 1,775 1$3,160 if the car is not qualified property or if you elect not to claim the special depreciation allowance. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes 2$3,060 if the car is not qualified property or if you elect not to claim the special depreciation allowance. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes 3$2,960 if the car is not qualified property or if you elect not to claim the special depreciation allowance. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes 4$7,660 if you acquired the car before 5/6/2003. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes $3,060 if the car is not qualified property or if you elect not to claim any special depreciation allowance. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes 5$3,060 if you acquired the car before 9/11/2001, the car is not qualified property, or you elect not to claim the special depreciation allowance. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Trucks and vans. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   For 2013, the maximum depreciation deductions for trucks and vans are generally higher than those for cars. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes A truck or van is a passenger automobile that is classified by the manufacturer as a truck or van and rated at 6,000 pounds gross vehicle weight or less. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes For trucks and vans placed in service before 2003, use the Maximum Depreciation Deduction for Cars table. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Maximum Depreciation Deduction for Trucks and Vans Date       4th & Placed 1st 2nd 3rd Later In Service Year Year Year Years 2013 $11,3601 $5,400 $3,250 $1,975 2012 $11,3601 $5,300 $3,150 $1,875 2011 11,2601 5,200 3,150 1,875 2010 11,1601 5,100 3,050 1,875 2009 11,0601 4,900 2,950 1,775 2008 11,1601 5,100 3,050 1,875 2007 3,260 5,200 3,050 1,875 2005–2006 3,260 5,200 3,150 1,875 2004 10,9101 5,300 3,150 1,875 2003 11,0101,2 5,400 3,250 1,975 1If the special depreciation allowance does not apply or you make the election not to claim the special depreciation allowance, the first-year limit is $3,360 for 2012 and 2013, $3,260 for 2011, $3,160 for 2010, $3,060 for 2009, $3,160 for 2008, $3,260 for 2004, and $3,360 for 2003. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes 2If the truck or van was acquired before 5/06/2003, the truck or van is qualified property, and you claim the special depreciation allowance for the truck or van, the maximum deduction is $7,960. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Car used less than full year. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   The depreciation limits are not reduced if you use a car for less than a full year. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes This means that you do not reduce the limit when you either place a car in service or dispose of a car during the year. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes However, the depreciation limits are reduced if you do not use the car exclusively for business and investment purposes. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes See Reduction for personal use , next. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Reduction for personal use. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   The depreciation limits are reduced based on your percentage of personal use. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes If you use a car less than 100% in your business or work, you must determine the depreciation deduction limit by multiplying the limit amount by the percentage of business and investment use during the tax year. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Section 179 deduction. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   The section 179 deduction is treated as a depreciation deduction. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes If you place a car that is not a truck or van in service in 2013, use it only for business, and choose the section 179 deduction, the special depreciation allowance, and the depreciation deduction for that car for 2013 is limited to $11,160. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Example. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes On September 4, 2013, Jack bought a used car for $10,000 and placed it in service. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes He used it 80% for his business, and he chooses to take a section 179 deduction for the car. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes The car is not qualified property for purposes of the special depreciation allowance. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Before applying the limit, Jack figures his maximum section 179 deduction to be $8,000. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes This is the cost of his qualifying property (up to the maximum $500,000 amount) multiplied by his business use ($10,000 × 80%). Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Jack then figures that his section 179 deduction for 2013 is limited to $2,528 (80% of $3,160). Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes He then figures his unadjusted basis of $5,472 (($10,000 × 80%) − $2,528) for determining his depreciation deduction. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Jack has reached his maximum depreciation deduction for 2013. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes For 2014, Jack will use his unadjusted basis of $5,472 to figure his depreciation deduction. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Deductions in years after the recovery period. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   If the depreciation deductions for your car are reduced under the passenger automobile limits (discussed earlier), you will have unrecovered basis in your car at the end of the recovery period. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes If you continue to use your car for business, you can deduct that unrecovered basis (subject to depreciation limits) after the recovery period ends. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Unrecovered basis. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   This is your cost or other basis in the car reduced by any clean-fuel vehicle deduction (for vehicles placed in service before January 1, 2006), alternative motor vehicle credit, electric vehicle credit, gas guzzler tax, and depreciation (including any special depreciation allowance , discussed earlier, unless you elect not to claim it) and section 179 deductions that would have been allowable if you had used the car 100% for business and investment use. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes The recovery period. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   For 5-year property, your recovery period is 6 calendar years. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes A part year's depreciation is allowed in the first calendar year, a full year's depreciation is allowed in each of the next 4 calendar years, and a part year's depreciation is allowed in the 6th calendar year. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   Under MACRS, your recovery period is the same whether you use declining balance or straight line depreciation. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You determine your unrecovered basis in the 7th year after you placed the car in service. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes How to treat unrecovered basis. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   If you continue to use your car for business after the recovery period, you can claim a depreciation deduction in each succeeding tax year until you recover your basis in the car. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes The maximum amount you can deduct each year is determined by the date you placed the car in service and your business-use percentage. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes For example, no deduction is allowed for a year you use your car 100% for personal purposes. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Example. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes In April 2007, Bob bought and placed in service a car he used exclusively in his business. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes The car cost $31,500. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Bob did not claim a section 179 deduction or the special depreciation allowance for the car. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes He continued to use the car 100% in his business throughout the recovery period (2007 through 2012). Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes For those years, Bob used the MACRS Depreciation Chart (200% declining balance method) and the Maximum Depreciation Deduction for Cars table, earlier, for the applicable tax year to compute his depreciation deductions during the recovery period. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Bob's depreciation deductions were subject to the depreciation limits so he will have unrecovered basis at the end of the recovery period as shown in the following table. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes      MACRS     Deprec. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Year % Amount Limit Allowed 2007 20. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes 00 $6,300 $3,060 $ 3,060 2008 32. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes 00 10,080 4,900 4,900 2009 19. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes 20 6,048 2,850 2,850 2010 11. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes 52 3,629 1,775 1,775 2011 11. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes 52 3,629 1,775 1,775 2012 5. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes 76 1,814 1,775 1,775 Total $31,500   16,135 For the correct limit, see Maximum Depreciation Deduction for Cars under “Depreciation Limits,” earlier, for the maximum amount of depreciation allowed each year. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   At the end of 2012, Bob had an unrecovered basis in the car of $15,365 ($31,500 – $16,135). Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes If Bob continued to use the car 100% for business in 2013 and later years, he can claim a depreciation deduction equal to the lesser of $1,775 or his remaining unrecovered basis. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   If Bob's business use of the car was less than 100% during any year, his depreciation deduction would be less than the maximum amount allowable for that year. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes However, in determining his unrecovered basis in the car, he would still reduce his original basis by the maximum amount allowable as if the business use had been 100%. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes For example, if Bob had used his car 60% for business instead of 100%, his allowable depreciation deductions would have been $9,681 ($16,135 × 60%), but he still would have to reduce his basis by $16,135 to determine his unrecovered basis. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Table 4-1. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes 2013 MACRS Depreciation Chart (Use to Figure Depreciation for 2013. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes ) If you claim actual expenses for your car, use the chart below to find the depreciation method and percentage to use for your 2013 return for cars placed in service in 2013. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes   First, using the left column, find the date you first placed the car in service in 2013. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Then select the depreciation method and percentage from column (a), (b), or (c) following the rules explained in this chapter. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes For cars placed in service before 2013, you must use the same method you used on last year's return unless a decline in your business use requires you to change to the straight line method. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Refer back to the MACRS Depreciation Chart for the year you placed the car in service. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes (See Car Used 50% or Less for Business . Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes )  Multiply the unadjusted basis of your car by your business use percentage. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes Multiply the result by the percentage you found in the chart to find the amount of your depreciation deduction for 2013. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes (Also see Depreciation Limits . Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes )   If you placed your car in service after September of any year and you placed other business property in service during the same year, you may have to use the Jan. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes 1—Sept. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes 30 percentage instead of the Oct. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes 1—Dec. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes 31 percentage for your car. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes               To find out if this applies to you, determine: 1) the basis of all business property you placed in service after September of that year and 2) the basis of all business property you placed in service during that entire year. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes If the basis of the property placed in service after September is not more than 40% of the basis of all property (certain property is excluded) placed in service for the entire year, use the percentage for Jan. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes 1—Sept. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes 30 for figuring depreciation for your car. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes See Which Convention Applies? in chapter 4 of Publication 946 for more details. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes               Example. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You buy machinery (basis of $32,000) in May 2013 and a new van (basis of $20,000) in October 2013, both used 100% in your business. Amended tax returns more:label_amended_20tax_20returns more:taxes You