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SOI Tax Stats - Archive

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SOI Publications Archive

Here you'll find PDFs of SOI's historical publications. Beginning in 1916, Congress mandated the annual publication of statistics related to “the operation of the internal revenue laws.”

In 2009, SOI began digitizing nearly 500 print publications (and more than 50,000 pages) from its library. As a result of this effort, a wealth of historical tax data is now easily accessible in electronic format. The archive includes publications from 1916 through 1999. Publications for 2000 to present are available from the Tax Stats landing page here.

The oldest report available here was published in 1863. The Report of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue for 1863 contains information on the collection of revenue by source and district of collection. From 1863 to today, the Annual Report of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, later called the IRS Data Book, presents an annual overview of IRS operations.

Early SOI publications, from 1916 to 1933, compiled all available tax information into one publication, the annual Statistics of Income Report. Beginning in 1934, SOI reported tax information for individuals and businesses separately, published as Parts 1 and 2 of the Statistics of Income Report, respectively. Beginning in the 1950s, these reports were replaced with annual and special reports, usually focused on single taxpayer groups.

In 1981, SOI introduced the SOI Bulletin, replacing many of its earlier reports with a quarterly publication that contains summary articles and tables on a wide range of tax topics.

All of the archive files are Adobe Acrobat PDFs. A free Adobe Acrobat reader is available for download, if needed. Please note: any reports or years of publications that are listed but not links are in the process of being digitized and will be uploaded as soon as they become available. Don't hesitate to contact us for any requests.

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1916–1933 Statistics of Income Reports

From 1916 to 1933, the Statistics of Income Report provided information on income taxes paid by individuals, corporations, partnerships, estates and trusts, as well as information on gift and estate taxes.

 

1934–1999 Tax Information from Individuals

This section contains archived reports on:

  • Individual income tax returns
  • Sales of capital assets
  • Estate and gift taxes
  • Personal wealth
  • Income tax returns of trusts or estates
  • Data by small area 
1929–1999 Tax Information from Businesses

Here you'll find archived reports on:

  • Corporations
  • Partnerships
  • Sole proprietorships
  • Farmers' cooperatives 
  • Foreign corporations
1863–1999 IRS Data Books

The IRS Data Book provides annual data on collecting revenue, issuing refunds, enforcing tax law, assisting taxpayers, and the IRS budget and workforce.

 

1946–1999 Tax-Exempt Organization Reports

Here you'll find archived reports on the activities and finances of charities and private foundations.

 

Special Papers

Some archived publications were originally created in response to special requests, may have been produced for only 1 or 2 years, or present historical summaries of SOI's operations—you'll find these articles here.


 

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The Efile

Efile Publication 587 - Main Content Table of Contents Qualifying for a DeductionExclusive Use Regular Use Trade or Business Use Principal Place of Business Place To Meet Patients, Clients, or Customers Separate Structure Figuring the DeductionUsing Actual Expenses Using the Simplified Method Daycare Facility Standard meal and snack rates. Efile Sale or Exchange of Your HomeGain on Sale Depreciation Basis Adjustment Reporting the Sale More Information Business Furniture and EquipmentListed Property Property Bought for Business Use Personal Property Converted to Business Use Recordkeeping Where To DeductSelf-Employed Persons Employees Partners How To Get Tax HelpLow Income Taxpayer Clinics Worksheet To Figure the Deduction for Business Use of Your HomeInstructions for the Worksheet Worksheets To Figure the Deduction for Business Use of Your Home (Simplified Method) Instructions for the Simplified Method Worksheet Instructions for the Daycare Facility Worksheet Instructions for the Area Adjustment Worksheet Qualifying for a Deduction Generally, you cannot deduct items related to your home, such as mortgage interest, real estate taxes, utilities, maintenance, rent, depreciation, or property insurance, as business expenses. Efile However, you may be able to deduct expenses related to the business use of part of your home if you meet specific requirements. Efile Even then, the deductible amount of these types of expenses may be limited. Efile Use this section and Figure A, later, to decide if you can deduct expenses for the business use of your home. Efile To qualify to deduct expenses for business use of your home, you must use part of your home: Exclusively and regularly as your principal place of business (defined later), Exclusively and regularly as a place where you meet or deal with patients, clients, or customers in the normal course of your trade or business, In the case of a separate structure which is not attached to your home, in connection with your trade or business, On a regular basis for certain storage use (see Storage of inventory or product samples , later), For rental use (see Publication 527), or As a daycare facility (see Daycare Facility , later). Efile Additional tests for employee use. Efile   If you are an employee and you use a part of your home for business, you may qualify for a deduction for its business use. Efile You must meet the tests discussed earlier plus: Your business use must be for the convenience of your employer, and You must not rent any part of your home to your employer and use the rented portion to perform services as an employee for that employer. Efile If the use of the home office is merely appropriate and helpful, you cannot deduct expenses for the business use of your home. Efile Exclusive Use To qualify under the exclusive use test, you must use a specific area of your home only for your trade or business. Efile The area used for business can be a room or other separately identifiable space. Efile The space does not need to be marked off by a permanent partition. Efile You do not meet the requirements of the exclusive use test if you use the area in question both for business and for personal purposes. Efile Example. Efile You are an attorney and use a den in your home to write legal briefs and prepare clients' tax returns. Efile Your family also uses the den for recreation. Efile The den is not used exclusively in your trade or business, so you cannot claim a deduction for the business use of the den. Efile Exceptions to Exclusive Use You do not have to meet the exclusive use test if either of the following applies. Efile You use part of your home for the storage of inventory or product samples (discussed next). Efile You use part of your home as a daycare facility, discussed later under Daycare Facility . Efile Note. Efile With the exception of these two uses, any portion of the home used for business purposes must meet the exclusive use test. Efile Storage of inventory or product samples. Efile    If you use part of your home for storage of inventory or product samples, you can deduct expenses for the business use of your home without meeting the exclusive use test. Efile However, you must meet all the following tests. Efile You sell products at wholesale or retail as your trade or business. Efile You keep the inventory or product samples in your home for use in your trade or business. Efile Your home is the only fixed location of your trade or business. Efile You use the storage space on a regular basis. Efile The space you use is a separately identifiable space suitable for storage. Efile Example. Efile Your home is the only fixed location of your business of selling mechanics' tools at retail. Efile You regularly use half of your basement for storage of inventory and product samples. Efile You sometimes use the area for personal purposes. Efile The expenses for the storage space are deductible even though you do not use this part of your basement exclusively for business. Efile Regular Use To qualify under the regular use test, you must use a specific area of your home for business on a regular basis. Efile Incidental or occasional business use is not regular use. Efile You must consider all facts and circumstances in determining whether your use is on a regular basis. Efile Trade or Business Use To qualify under the trade-or-business-use test, you must use part of your home in connection with a trade or business. Efile If you use your home for a profit-seeking activity that is not a trade or business, you cannot take a deduction for its business use. Efile Example. Efile You use part of your home exclusively and regularly to read financial periodicals and reports, clip bond coupons, and carry out similar activities related to your own investments. Efile You do not make investments as a broker or dealer. Efile So, your activities are not part of a trade or business and you cannot take a deduction for the business use of your home. Efile Principal Place of Business You can have more than one business location, including your home, for a single trade or business. Efile To qualify to deduct the expenses for the business use of your home under the principal place of business test, your home must be your principal place of business for that trade or business. Efile To determine whether your home is your principal place of business, you must consider: The relative importance of the activities performed at each place where you conduct business, and The amount of time spent at each place where you conduct business. Efile Your home office will qualify as your principal place of business if you meet the following requirements. Efile You use it exclusively and regularly for administrative or management activities of your trade or business. Efile You have no other fixed location where you conduct substantial administrative or management activities of your trade or business. Efile If, after considering your business locations, your home cannot be identified as your principal place of business, you cannot deduct home office expenses. Efile However, see the later discussions under Place To Meet Patients, Clients, or Customers and Separate Structure for other ways to qualify to deduct home office expenses. Efile Administrative or management activities. Efile   There are many activities that are administrative or managerial in nature. Efile The following are a few examples. Efile Billing customers, clients, or patients. Efile Keeping books and records. Efile Ordering supplies. Efile Setting up appointments. Efile Forwarding orders or writing reports. Efile Administrative or management activities performed at other locations. Efile   The following activities performed by you or others will not disqualify your home office from being your principal place of business. Efile You have others conduct your administrative or management activities at locations other than your home. Efile (For example, another company does your billing from its place of business. Efile ) You conduct administrative or management activities at places that are not fixed locations of your business, such as in a car or a hotel room. Efile You occasionally conduct minimal administrative or management activities at a fixed location outside your home. Efile You conduct substantial nonadministrative or nonmanagement business activities at a fixed location outside your home. Efile (For example, you meet with or provide services to customers, clients, or patients at a fixed location of the business outside your home. Efile ) You have suitable space to conduct administrative or management activities outside your home, but choose to use your home office for those activities instead. Efile Please click here for the text description of the image. Efile Can you deduct business use of the home expenses? Example 1. Efile John is a self-employed plumber. Efile Most of John's time is spent at customers' homes and offices installing and repairing plumbing. Efile He has a small office in his home that he uses exclusively and regularly for the administrative or management activities of his business, such as phoning customers, ordering supplies, and keeping his books. Efile John writes up estimates and records of work completed at his customers' premises. Efile He does not conduct any substantial administrative or management activities at any fixed location other than his home office. Efile John does not do his own billing. Efile He uses a local bookkeeping service to bill his customers. Efile John's home office qualifies as his principal place of business for deducting expenses for its use. Efile He uses the home office for the administrative or managerial activities of his plumbing business and he has no other fixed location where he conducts these administrative or managerial activities. Efile His choice to have his billing done by another company does not disqualify his home office from being his principal place of business. Efile He meets all the qualifications, including principal place of business, so he can deduct expenses (subject to certain limitations, explained later) for the business use of his home. Efile Example 2. Efile Pamela is a self-employed sales representative for several different product lines. Efile She has an office in her home that she uses exclusively and regularly to set up appointments and write up orders and other reports for the companies whose products she sells. Efile She occasionally writes up orders and sets up appointments from her hotel room when she is away on business overnight. Efile Pamela's business is selling products to customers at various locations throughout her territory. Efile To make these sales, she regularly visits customers to explain the available products and take orders. Efile Pamela's home office qualifies as her principal place of business for deducting expenses for its use. Efile She conducts administrative or management activities there and she has no other fixed location where she conducts substantial administrative or management activities. Efile The fact that she conducts some administrative or management activities in her hotel room (not a fixed location) does not disqualify her home office from being her principal place of business. Efile She meets all the qualifications, including principal place of business, so she can deduct expenses (subject to certain limitations, explained later) for the business use of her home. Efile Example 3. Efile Paul is a self-employed anesthesiologist. Efile He spends the majority of his time administering anesthesia and postoperative care in three local hospitals. Efile One of the hospitals provides him with a small shared office where he could conduct administrative or management activities. Efile Paul very rarely uses the office the hospital provides. Efile He uses a room in his home that he has converted to an office. Efile He uses this room exclusively and regularly to conduct all the following activities. Efile Contacting patients, surgeons, and hospitals regarding scheduling. Efile Preparing for treatments and presentations. Efile Maintaining billing records and patient logs. Efile Satisfying continuing medical education requirements. Efile Reading medical journals and books. Efile Paul's home office qualifies as his principal place of business for deducting expenses for its use. Efile He conducts administrative or management activities for his business as an anesthesiologist there and he has no other fixed location where he conducts substantial administrative or management activities for this business. Efile His choice to use his home office instead of the one provided by the hospital does not disqualify his home office from being his principal place of business. Efile His performance of substantial nonadministrative or nonmanagement activities at fixed locations outside his home also does not disqualify his home office from being his principal place of business. Efile He meets all the qualifications, including principal place of business, so he can deduct expenses (subject to certain limitations, explained later) for the business use of his home. Efile Example 4. Efile Kathleen is employed as a teacher. Efile She is required to teach and meet with students at the school and to grade papers and tests. Efile The school provides her with a small office where she can work on her lesson plans, grade papers and tests, and meet with parents and students. Efile The school does not require her to work at home. Efile Kathleen prefers to use the office she has set up in her home and does not use the one provided by the school. Efile She uses this home office exclusively and regularly for the administrative duties of her teaching job. Efile Kathleen must meet the convenience-of-the-employer test, even if her home qualifies as her principal place of business for deducting expenses for its use. Efile Her employer provides her with an office and does not require her to work at home, so she does not meet the convenience-of-the-employer test and cannot claim a deduction for the business use of her home. Efile More Than One Trade or Business The same home office can be the principal place of business for two or more separate business activities. Efile Whether your home office is the principal place of business for more than one business activity must be determined separately for each of your trade or business activities. Efile You must use the home office exclusively and regularly for one or more of the following purposes. Efile As the principal place of business for one or more of your trades or businesses. Efile As a place to meet or deal with patients, clients, or customers in the normal course of one or more of your trades or businesses. Efile If your home office is a separate structure, in connection with one or more of your trades or businesses. Efile You can use your home office for more than one business activity, but you cannot use it for any nonbusiness (i. Efile e. Efile , personal) activities. Efile If you are an employee, any use of the home office in connection with your employment must be for the convenience of your employer. Efile See Rental to employer , later, if you rent part of your home to your employer. Efile Example. Efile Tracy White is employed as a teacher. Efile Her principal place of work is the school, which provides her office space to do her school work. Efile She also has a mail order jewelry business. Efile All her work in the jewelry business is done in her home office and the office is used exclusively for that business. Efile If she meets all the other tests, she can deduct expenses for the business use of her home for the jewelry business. Efile If Tracy also uses the office for work related to her teaching, she must meet the exclusive use test for both businesses to qualify for the deduction. Efile As an employee, Tracy must also meet the convenience-of-the-employer test to qualify for the deduction. Efile She does not meet this test for her work as a teacher, so she cannot claim a deduction for the business use of her home for either activity. Efile Place To Meet Patients, Clients, or Customers If you meet or deal with patients, clients, or customers in your home in the normal course of your business, even though you also carry on business at another location, you can deduct your expenses for the part of your home used exclusively and regularly for business if you meet both the following tests. Efile You physically meet with patients, clients, or customers on your premises. Efile Their use of your home is substantial and integral to the conduct of your business. Efile Doctors, dentists, attorneys, and other professionals who maintain offices in their homes generally will meet this requirement. Efile Using your home for occasional meetings and telephone calls will not qualify you to deduct expenses for the business use of your home. Efile The part of your home you use exclusively and regularly to meet patients, clients, or customers does not have to be your principal place of business. Efile Example. Efile June Quill, a self-employed attorney, works 3 days a week in her city office. Efile She works 2 days a week in her home office used only for business. Efile She regularly meets clients there. Efile Her home office qualifies for a business deduction because she meets clients there in the normal course of her business. Efile Separate Structure You can deduct expenses for a separate free-standing structure, such as a studio, workshop, garage, or barn, if you use it exclusively and regularly for your business. Efile The structure does not have to be your principal place of business or a place where you meet patients, clients, or customers. Efile Example. Efile John Berry operates a floral shop in town. Efile He grows the plants for his shop in a greenhouse behind his home. Efile He uses the greenhouse exclusively and regularly in his business, so he can deduct the expenses for its use, subject to certain limitations, explained later. Efile Figuring the Deduction After you determine that you meet the tests under Qualifying for a Deduction , you can begin to figure how much you can deduct. Efile When figuring the amount you can deduct for the business use of your home, you will use either your actual expenses or a simplified method. Efile Electing to use the simplified method. Efile   The simplified method is an alternative to the calculation, allocation, and substantiation of actual expenses. Efile You choose whether or not to figure your deduction using the simplified method each taxable year. Efile See Using the Simplified Method , later. Efile Rental to employer. Efile   If you rent part of your home to your employer and you use the rented part in performing services for your employer as an employee, your deduction for the business use of your home is limited. Efile You can deduct mortgage interest, qualified mortgage insurance premiums, real estate taxes, and personal casualty losses for the rented part, subject to any limitations. Efile However, you cannot deduct otherwise allowable trade or business expenses, business casualty losses, or depreciation related to the use of your home (or use the simplified method as an alternative to deducting these actual expenses) in performing services for your employer. Efile Using Actual Expenses If you do not or cannot elect to use the simplified method for a home, you will figure your deduction for that home using your actual expenses. Efile You will also need to figure the percentage of your home used for business and the limit on the deduction. Efile If you are an employee or a partner, or you use your home in your farming business and you file Schedule F (Form 1040), you can use the Worksheet To Figure the Deduction for Business Use of Your Home, near the end of this publication, to help you figure your deduction. Efile If you use your home in a trade or business and you file Schedule C (Form 1040), you will use Form 8829 to figure your deduction. Efile Part-year use. Efile   You cannot deduct expenses for the business use of your home incurred during any part of the year you did not use your home for business purposes. Efile For example, if you begin using part of your home for business on July 1, and you meet all the tests from that date until the end of the year, consider only your expenses for the last half of the year in figuring your allowable deduction. Efile Expenses related to tax-exempt income. Efile   Generally, you cannot deduct expenses that are related to tax-exempt allowances. Efile However, if you receive a tax-exempt parsonage allowance or a tax-exempt military allowance, your expenses for mortgage interest and real estate taxes are deductible under the normal rules. Efile No deduction is allowed for other expenses related to the tax-exempt allowance. Efile   If your housing is provided free of charge and the value of the housing is tax exempt, you cannot deduct the rental value of any portion of the housing. Efile Actual Expenses You must divide the expenses of operating your home between personal and business use. Efile The part of a home operating expense you can use to figure your deduction depends on both of the following. Efile Whether the expense is direct, indirect, or unrelated. Efile The percentage of your home used for business. Efile Table 1, next, describes the types of expenses you may have and the extent to which they are deductible. Efile Table 1. Efile Types of Expenses  Expense  Description  Deductibility Direct Expenses only for  the business part  of your home. Efile Deductible in full. Efile *   Examples:  Painting or repairs  only in the area  used for business. Efile Exception: May be only partially  deductible in a daycare facility. Efile See Daycare Facility , later. Efile Indirect Expenses for  keeping up and running your  entire home. Efile Deductible based on the percentage of your home used for business. Efile *   Examples:  Insurance, utilities, and  general repairs. Efile   Unrelated Expenses only for  the parts of your  home not used  for business. Efile Not deductible. Efile   Examples:  Lawn care or painting  a room not used  for business. Efile   *Subject to the deduction limit, discussed later. Efile Form 8829 and the Worksheet To Figure the Deduction for Business Use of Your Home have separate columns for direct and indirect expenses. Efile Certain expenses are deductible whether or not you use your home for business. Efile If you qualify to deduct business use of the home expenses, use the business percentage of these expenses to figure your total business use of the home deduction. Efile These expenses include the following. Efile Real estate taxes. Efile Qualified mortgage insurance premiums. Efile Deductible mortgage interest. Efile Casualty losses. Efile Other expenses are deductible only if you use your home for business. Efile You can use the business percentage of these expenses to figure your total business use of the home deduction. Efile These expenses generally include (but are not limited to) the following. Efile Depreciation (covered under Depreciating Your Home , later). Efile Insurance. Efile Rent paid for the use of property you do not own but use in your trade or business. Efile Repairs. Efile Security system. Efile Utilities and services. Efile Real estate taxes. Efile   To figure the business part of your real estate taxes, multiply the real estate taxes paid by the percentage of your home used for business. Efile   For more information on the deduction for real estate taxes, see Publication 530, Tax Information for Homeowners. Efile Deductible mortgage interest. Efile   To figure the business part of your deductible mortgage interest, multiply this interest by the percentage of your home used for business. Efile You can include interest on a second mortgage in this computation. Efile If your total mortgage debt is more than $1,000,000 or your home equity debt is more than $100,000, your deduction may be limited. Efile For more information on what interest is deductible, see Publication 936, Home Mortgage Interest Deduction. Efile Qualified mortgage insurance premiums. Efile   To figure the business part of your qualified mortgage insurance premiums, multiply the premiums by the percentage of your home used for business. Efile You can include premiums for insurance on a second mortgage in this computation. Efile If your adjusted gross income is more than $100,000 ($50,000 if your filing status is married filing separately), your deduction may be limited. Efile For more information, see Publication 936, and Line 13 in the Instructions for Schedule A (Form 1040). Efile Casualty losses. Efile    If you have a casualty loss on your home that you use for business, treat the casualty loss as a direct expense, an indirect expense, or an unrelated expense, depending on the property affected. Efile A direct expense is the loss on the portion of the property you use only in your business. Efile Use the entire loss to figure the business use of the home deduction. Efile An indirect expense is the loss on property you use for both business and personal purposes. Efile Use only the business portion to figure the deduction. Efile An unrelated expense is the loss on property you do not use in your business. Efile Do not use any of the loss to figure the deduction. Efile Example. Efile You meet the rules to take a deduction for an office in your home that is 10% of the total area of your house. Efile A storm damages your roof. Efile This is an indirect expense as the roof is part of the whole house and is considered to be used both for business and personal purposes. Efile You would complete Form 4684, Casualties and Thefts, to report your loss. Efile You complete both section A (Personal Use Property) and section B (Business and Income-Producing Property) as your home is used both for business and personal purposes. Efile Since you use 90% of your home for personal purposes, use 90% of the cost or adjusted basis of your home, insurance or other reimbursement, and fair market value, both before and after the storm, to figure the amounts to enter on lines 2, 3, 5, and 6 of Form 4684. Efile Since you use 10% of your home for business purposes, use 10% of the cost or adjusted basis of your home, insurance or other reimbursement, and fair market value, both before and after the storm, to figure the amounts to enter on lines 20, 21, 23, and 24 of Form 4684. Efile Forms and worksheets to use. Efile   If you are filing Schedule C (Form 1040), get Form 8829 and follow the instructions for casualty losses. Efile If you are an employee or a partner, or you file Schedule F (Form 1040), use the Worksheet To Figure the Deduction for Business Use of Your Home, near the end of this publication. Efile You will also need to get Form 4684. Efile More information. Efile   For more information on casualty losses, see Publication 547, Casualties, Disasters, and Thefts. Efile Insurance. Efile   You can deduct the cost of insurance that covers the business part of your home. Efile However, if your insurance premium gives you coverage for a period that extends past the end of your tax year, you can deduct only the business percentage of the part of the premium that gives you coverage for your tax year. Efile You can deduct the business percentage of the part that applies to the following year in that year. Efile Rent. Efile   If you rent the home you occupy and meet the requirements for business use of the home, you can deduct part of the rent you pay. Efile To figure your deduction, multiply your rent payments by the percentage of your home used for business. Efile   If you own your home, you cannot deduct the fair rental value of your home. Efile However, see Depreciating Your Home , later. Efile Repairs. Efile   The cost of repairs that relate to your business, including labor (other than your own labor), is a deductible expense. Efile For example, a furnace repair benefits the entire home. Efile If you use 10% of your home for business, you can deduct 10% of the cost of the furnace repair. Efile   Repairs keep your home in good working order over its useful life. Efile Examples of common repairs are patching walls and floors, painting, wallpapering, repairing roofs and gutters, and mending leaks. Efile However, repairs are sometimes treated as a permanent improvement and are not deductible. Efile See Permanent improvements , later, under Depreciating Your Home. Efile Security system. Efile   If you install a security system that protects all the doors and windows in your home, you can deduct the business part of the expenses you incur to maintain and monitor the system. Efile You also can take a depreciation deduction for the part of the cost of the security system relating to the business use of your home. Efile Utilities and services. Efile   Expenses for utilities and services, such as electricity, gas, trash removal, and cleaning services, are primarily personal expenses. Efile However, if you use part of your home for business, you can deduct the business part of these expenses. Efile Generally, the business percentage for utilities is the same as the percentage of your home used for business. Efile Telephone. Efile   The basic local telephone service charge, including taxes, for the first telephone line into your home (i. Efile e. Efile , landline) is a nondeductible personal expense. Efile However, charges for business long-distance phone calls on that line, as well as the cost of a second line into your home used exclusively for business, are deductible business expenses. Efile Do not include these expenses as a cost of using your home for business. Efile Deduct these charges separately on the appropriate form or schedule. Efile For example, if you file Schedule C (Form 1040), deduct these expenses on line 25, Utilities (instead of line 30, Expenses for business use of your home). Efile Depreciating Your Home If you own your home and qualify to deduct expenses for its business use, you can claim a deduction for depreciation. Efile Depreciation is an allowance for the wear and tear on the part of your home used for business. Efile You cannot depreciate the cost or value of the land. Efile You recover its cost when you sell or otherwise dispose of the property. Efile Before you figure your depreciation deduction, you need to know the following information. Efile The month and year you started using your home for business. Efile The adjusted basis and fair market value of your home (excluding land) at the time you began using it for business. Efile The cost of any improvements before and after you began using the property for business. Efile The percentage of your home used for business. Efile See Business Percentage , later. Efile Adjusted basis defined. Efile   The adjusted basis of your home is generally its cost, plus the cost of any permanent improvements you made to it, minus any casualty losses or depreciation deducted in earlier tax years. Efile For a discussion of adjusted basis, see Publication 551. Efile Permanent improvements. Efile   A permanent improvement increases the value of property, adds to its life, or gives it a new or different use. Efile Examples of improvements are replacing electric wiring or plumbing, adding a new roof or addition, paneling, or remodeling. Efile    You must carefully distinguish between repairs and improvements. Efile See Repairs , earlier, under Actual Expenses. Efile You also must keep accurate records of these expenses. Efile These records will help you decide whether an expense is a deductible or a capital (added to the basis) expense. Efile However, if you make repairs as part of an extensive remodeling or restoration of your home, the entire job is an improvement. Efile Example. Efile You buy an older home and fix up two rooms as a beauty salon. Efile You patch the plaster on the ceilings and walls, paint, repair the floor, install an outside door, and install new wiring, plumbing, and other equipment. Efile Normally, the patching, painting, and floor work are repairs and the other expenses are permanent improvements. Efile However, because the work gives your property a new use, the entire remodeling job is a permanent improvement and its cost is added to the basis of the property. Efile You cannot deduct any portion of it as a repair expense. Efile Adjusting for depreciation deducted in earlier years. Efile   Decrease the basis of your property by the depreciation you deducted, or could have deducted, on your tax returns under the method of depreciation you properly selected. Efile If you deducted less depreciation than you could have under the method you selected, decrease the basis by the amount you could have deducted under that method. Efile If you did not deduct any depreciation, decrease the basis by the amount you could have deducted. Efile   If you deducted more depreciation than you should have, decrease your basis by the amount you should have deducted, plus the part of the excess depreciation you deducted that actually decreased your tax liability for any year. Efile   If you deducted the incorrect amount of depreciation, see Publication 946. Efile Fair market value defined. Efile   The fair market value of your home is the price at which the property would change hands between a buyer and a seller, neither having to buy or sell, and both having reasonable knowledge of all necessary facts. Efile Sales of similar property, on or about the date you begin using your home for business, may be helpful in determining the property's fair market value. Efile Figuring the depreciation deduction for the current year. Efile   If you began using your home for business before 2013, continue to use the same depreciation method you used in past tax years. Efile   If you began using your home for business for the first time in 2013, depreciate the business part as nonresidential real property under the modified accelerated cost recovery system (MACRS). Efile Under MACRS, nonresidential real property is depreciated using the straight line method over 39 years. Efile For more information on MACRS and other methods of depreciation, see Publication 946. Efile   To figure the depreciation deduction, you must first figure the part of the cost of your home that can be depreciated (depreciable basis). Efile The depreciable basis is figured by multiplying the percentage of your home used for business by the smaller of the following. Efile The adjusted basis of your home (excluding land) on the date you began using your home for business. Efile The fair market value of your home (excluding land) on the date you began using your home for business. Efile Depreciation table. Efile   If 2013 was the first year you used your home for business, you can figure your 2013 depreciation for the business part of your home by using the appropriate percentage from the following table. Efile Table 2. Efile MACRS Percentage Table for 39-Year Nonresidential Real Property Month First Used for Business Percentage To Use 1 2. Efile 461% 2 2. Efile 247% 3 2. Efile 033% 4 1. Efile 819% 5 1. Efile 605% 6 1. Efile 391% 7 1. Efile 177% 8 0. Efile 963% 9 0. Efile 749% 10 0. Efile 535% 11 0. Efile 321% 12 0. Efile 107%   Multiply the depreciable basis of the business part of your home by the percentage from the table for the first month you use your home for business. Efile See Publication 946 for the percentages for the remaining tax years of the recovery period. Efile Example. Efile In May, George Miller began to use one room in his home exclusively and regularly to meet clients. Efile This room is 8% of the square footage of his home. Efile He bought the home in 2003 for $125,000. Efile He determined from his property tax records that his adjusted basis in the house (exclusive of land) is $115,000. Efile In May, the house had a fair market value of $165,000. Efile He multiplies his adjusted basis of $115,000 (which is less than the fair market value) by 8%. Efile The result is $9,200, his depreciable basis for the business part of the house. Efile George files his return based on the calendar year. Efile May is the 5th month of his tax year. Efile He multiplies his depreciable basis of $9,200 by 1. Efile 605% (. Efile 01605), the percentage from the table for the 5th month. Efile His depreciation deduction is $147. Efile 66. Efile Depreciating permanent improvements. Efile   Add the costs of permanent improvements made before you began using your home for business to the basis of your property. Efile Depreciate these costs as part of the cost of your home as explained earlier. Efile The costs of improvements made after you begin using your home for business (that affect the business part of your home, such as a new roof) are depreciated separately. Efile Multiply the cost of the improvement by the business-use percentage and depreciate the result over the recovery period that would apply to your home if you began using it for business at the same time as the improvement. Efile For improvements made this year, the recovery period is 39 years. Efile For the percentage to use for the first year, see Table 2, earlier. Efile For more information on recovery periods, see Publication 946. Efile Business Percentage To find the business percentage, compare the size of the part of your home that you use for business to your whole house. Efile Use the resulting percentage to figure the business part of the expenses for operating your entire home. Efile You can use any reasonable method to determine the business percentage. Efile The following are two commonly used methods for figuring the percentage. Efile Divide the area (length multiplied by the width) used for business by the total area of your home. Efile If the rooms in your home are all about the same size, you can divide the number of rooms used for business by the total number of rooms in your home. Efile Example 1. Efile Your office is 240 square feet (12 feet × 20 feet). Efile Your home is 1,200 square feet. Efile Your office is 20% (240 ÷ 1,200) of the total area of your home. Efile Your business percentage is 20%. Efile Example 2. Efile You use one room in your home for business. Efile Your home has 10 rooms, all about equal size. Efile Your office is 10% (1 ÷ 10) of the total area of your home. Efile Your business percentage is 10%. Efile Use lines 1-7 of Form 8829, or lines 1-3 on the Worksheet To Figure the Deduction for Business Use of Your Home (near the end of this publication) to figure your business percentage. Efile Deduction Limit If your gross income from the business use of your home equals or exceeds your total business expenses (including depreciation), you can deduct all your business expenses related to the use of your home. Efile If your gross income from the business use of your home is less than your total business expenses, your deduction for certain expenses for the business use of your home is limited. Efile Your deduction of otherwise nondeductible expenses, such as insurance, utilities, and depreciation of your home (with depreciation of your home taken last), that are allocable to the business, is limited to the gross income from the business use of your home minus the sum of the following. Efile The business part of expenses you could deduct even if you did not use your home for business (such as mortgage interest, real estate taxes, and casualty and theft losses that are allowable as itemized deductions on Schedule A (Form 1040)). Efile These expenses are discussed in detail under Actual Expenses , earlier. Efile The business expenses that relate to the business activity in the home (for example, business phone, supplies, and depreciation on equipment), but not to the use of the home itself. Efile If you are self-employed, do not include in (2) above your deduction for one-half of your self-employment tax. Efile Carryover of unallowed expenses. Efile   If your deductions are greater than the current year's limit, you can carry over the excess to the next year in which you use actual expenses. Efile They are subject to the deduction limit for that year, whether or not you live in the same home during that year. Efile Figuring the deduction limit and carryover. Efile   If you are an employee or a partner, or you file Schedule F (Form 1040), use the Worksheet To Figure the Deduction for Business Use of Your Home, near the end of this publication. Efile If you file Schedule C (Form 1040), figure your deduction limit and carryover on Form 8829. Efile Example. Efile You meet the requirements for deducting expenses for the business use of your home. Efile You use 20% of your home for business. Efile In 2013, your business expenses and the expenses for the business use of your home are deducted from your gross income in the following order. Efile    Gross income from business $6,000 Minus:   Deductible mortgage interest and real estate taxes (20%) 3,000 Business expenses not related to the use of your home (100%) (business phone, supplies, and depreciation on equipment) 2,000 Deduction limit $1,000 Minus other expenses allocable to business use of home:   Maintenance, insurance, and utilities (20%) 800 Depreciation allowed (20% = $1,600 allowable, but subject to balance of deduction limit) 200 Other expenses up to the deduction limit $1,000 Depreciation carryover to 2014 ($1,600 − $200) (subject to deduction limit in 2014) $1,400   You can deduct all of the business part of your deductible mortgage interest and real estate taxes ($3,000). Efile You also can deduct all of your business expenses not related to the use of your home ($2,000). Efile Additionally, you can deduct all of the business part of your expenses for maintenance, insurance, and utilities, because the total ($800) is less than the $1,000 deduction limit. Efile Your deduction for depreciation for the business use of your home is limited to $200 ($1,000 minus $800) because of the deduction limit. Efile You can carry over the $1,400 balance and add it to your depreciation for 2014, subject to your deduction limit in 2014. Efile More than one place of business. Efile   If part of the gross income from your trade or business is from the business use of part of your home and part is from a place other than your home, you must determine the part of your gross income from the business use of your home before you figure the deduction limit. Efile In making this determination, consider the time you spend at each location, the business investment in each location, and any other relevant facts and circumstances. Efile If your home office qualifies as your principal place of business, you can deduct your daily transportation costs between your home and another work location in the same trade or business. Efile For more information on transportation costs, see Publication 463, Travel, Entertainment, Gift, and Car Expenses. Efile Using the Simplified Method The simplified method is an alternative to the calculation, allocation, and substantiation of actual expenses. Efile In most cases, you will figure your deduction by multiplying $5, the prescribed rate, by the area of your home used for a qualified business use. Efile The area you use to figure your deduction is limited to 300 square feet. Efile See Simplified Amount , later, for information about figuring the amount of the deduction. Efile For more information about the simplified method, see Revenue Procedure 2013-13, 2013-06 I. Efile R. Efile B. Efile 478, available at www. Efile irs. Efile gov/irb/2013-06_IRB/ar09. Efile html. Efile Actual expenses and depreciation of your home. Efile   If you elect to use the simplified method, you cannot deduct any actual expenses for the business except for business expenses that are not related to the use of the home. Efile You also cannot deduct any depreciation (including any additional first-year depreciation) or section 179 expense for the portion of the home that is used for a qualified business use. Efile The depreciation deduction allowable for that portion of the home is deemed to be zero for a year you use the simplified method. Efile If you figure your deduction for business use of the home using actual expenses in a subsequent year, you will have to use the appropriate optional depreciation table for MACRS to figure your depreciation. Efile More information. Efile   For more information about claiming depreciation in a subsequent year, see Revenue Procedure 2013-13, 2013-06 I. Efile R. Efile B. Efile 478, available at www. Efile irs. Efile gov/irb/2013-06_IRB/ar09. Efile html. Efile See Publication 946 for the optional depreciation tables Although you cannot deduct any depreciation or section 179 expense for the portion of your home used for a qualified business use, you may still claim depreciation or the section 179 expense deduction on other assets used in the business (for example, furniture and equipment). Efile Expenses deductible without regard to business use. Efile   When using the simplified method, treat as personal expenses those business expenses related to the use of the home that are deductible without regard to whether there is a qualified business use of the home. Efile These expenses include mortgage interest, real estate taxes, and casualty losses, subject to any limitations. Efile See Where To Deduct , later. Efile If you also rent part of your home, you must still allocate these expenses between rental use and personal use (for this purpose, personal use includes business use reported using the simplified method). Efile No deduction of carryover of actual expenses. Efile   If you used actual expenses to figure your deduction for business use of the home in a prior year and your deduction was limited, you cannot deduct the disallowed amount carried over from the prior year during a year you figure your deduction using the simplified method. Efile Instead, you will continue to carry over the disallowed amount to the next year that you use actual expenses to figure your deduction. Efile Electing the Simplified Method You choose whether or not to figure your deduction using the simplified method each taxable year. Efile Make the election for a home by using the simplified method to figure the deduction for the qualified business use of that home on a timely filed, original federal income tax return. Efile An election for a taxable year, once made, is irrevocable. Efile A change from using the simplified method in one year to actual expenses in a succeeding taxable year, or vice-versa, is not a change in method of accounting and does not require the consent of the Commissioner. Efile Shared use. Efile   If you share your home with someone else who also uses the home in a business that qualifies for this deduction, each of you make your own election. Efile More than one qualified business use. Efile   If you conduct more than one business that qualifies for this deduction in your home, your election to use the simplified method applies to all your qualified business uses of that home. Efile More than one home. Efile   If you used more than one home during the year (for example, you moved during the year), you can elect to use the simplified method for only one of the homes. Efile You must figure the deduction for any other home using actual expenses. Efile Simplified Amount Your deduction for the qualified business use of a home is the sum of each amount you figure for a separate qualified business use of your home. Efile To figure your deduction for the business use of a home using the simplified method, you will need to know the following information for each qualified business use of the home. Efile The allowable area of your home used in conducting the business. Efile If you did not conduct the business for the entire year in the home or the area changed during the year, you will need to know the allowable area you used and the number of days you conducted the business for each month. Efile The gross income from the business use of your home. Efile The amount of the business expenses that are not related to the use of your home. Efile If the qualified business use is for a daycare facility that uses space in your home on a regular (but not exclusive) basis, you will also need to know the percentage of time that part of your home is used for daycare. Efile To figure the amount you can deduct for qualified business use of your home using the simplified method, follow these 3 steps. Efile Multiply the allowable area by $5 (or less than $5 if the qualified business use is for a daycare that uses space in your home on a regular, but not exclusive, basis). Efile See Allowable area and Space used regularly for daycare , later. Efile Subtract the expenses from the business that are not related to the use of the home from the gross income related to the business use of the home. Efile If these expenses are greater than the gross income from the business use of the home, then you cannot take a deduction for this business use of the home. Efile See Gross income limitation , later. Efile Take the smaller of the amounts from (1) and (2). Efile This is the amount you can deduct for this qualified business use of your home using the simplified method. Efile If you are an employee or a partner, or you use your home in your farming business and file Schedule F (Form 1040), you can use the Simplified Method Worksheet, near the end of this publication, to help you figure your deduction. Efile If you use your home in a trade or business and you file Schedule C (Form 1040), you will use the Simplified Method Worksheet in your Instructions for Schedule C to figure your deduction. Efile Allowable area. Efile   In most cases, the allowable area is the smaller of the actual area (in square feet) of your home used in conducting the business and 300 square feet. Efile Your allowable area may be smaller if you conducted the business as a qualified joint venture with your spouse, the area used by the business was shared with another qualified business use, you used the home for the business for only part of the year, or the area used by the business changed during the year. Efile You can use the Area Adjustment Worksheet (for simplified method), near the end of this publication, to help you figure your allowable area for a qualified business use. Efile Area used by a qualified joint venture. Efile   If the qualified business use of the home is also a qualified joint venture, you and your spouse will figure the deduction for the business use separately. Efile Split the actual area used in conducting business between you and your spouse in the same manner you split your other tax attributes. Efile Then, each spouse will figure the allowable area separately. Efile For more information about qualified joint ventures, see Qualified Joint Venture in the Instructions for Schedule C. Efile Shared use. Efile   If you share your home with someone else who uses the home to conduct business that also qualifies for this deduction, you may not include the same square feet to figure your deduction as the other person. Efile You must allocate the shared space between you and the other person in a reasonable manner. Efile Example. Efile Kristin and Lindsey are roommates. Efile Kristin uses 300 square feet of their home for a qualified business use. Efile Lindsey uses 200 square feet of their home for a separate qualified business use. Efile The qualified business uses share 100 square feet. Efile In addition to the portion that they do not share, Kristin and Lindsey can both claim 50 of the 100 square feet or divide the 100 square feet between them in any reasonable manner. Efile If divided evenly, Kristin could claim 250 square feet using the simplified method and Lindsey could claim 150 square feet. Efile More than one qualified business use. Efile   If you conduct more than one business qualifying for the deduction, you are limited to a maximum of 300 square feet for all of the businesses. Efile Allocate the actual square footage used (up to the maximum of 300 square feet) among your qualified business uses in a reasonable manner. Efile However, do not allocate more square feet to a qualified business use than you actually use for that business. Efile Rental use. Efile   The simplified method does not apply to rental use. Efile A rental use that qualifies for the deduction must be figured using actual expenses. Efile If the rental use and a qualified business use share the same area, you will have to allocate the actual area used between the two uses. Efile You cannot use the same area to figure a deduction for the qualified business use as you are using to figure the deduction for the rental use. Efile Part-year use or area changes. Efile   If your qualified business use was for a portion of the taxable year (for example, a seasonal business or a business that begins during the taxable year) or you changed the square footage of your qualified business use, your deduction is limited to the average monthly allowable square footage. Efile You calculate the average monthly allowable square footage by adding the amount of allowable square feet you used in each month and dividing the sum by 12. Efile When determining the average monthly allowable square footage, you cannot take more than 300 square feet into account for any one month. Efile Additionally, if your qualified business use was less than 15 days in a month, you must use -0- for that month. Efile Example 1. Efile Andy files his federal income tax return on a calendar year basis. Efile On July 20, he began using 420 square feet of his home for a qualified business use. Efile He continued to use the 420 square feet until the end of the year. Efile His average monthly allowable square footage is 125 square feet, which is figured using 300 square feet for each month August through December divided by the number of months in the taxable year ((0 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 300 + 300 + 300 + 300 + 300)/12). Efile Example 2. Efile Amy files her federal income tax return on a calendar year basis. Efile On April 20, she began using 100 square feet of her home for a qualified business use. Efile On August 5, she expanded the area of her qualified use to 330 square feet. Efile Amy continued to use the 330 square feet until the end of the year. Efile Her average monthly allowable square footage is 150 square feet, which is figured using 100 square feet for May through July and 300 square feet for August through December divided by the number of months in the taxable year ((0 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 100 + 100 +100 + 300 + 300 + 300 + 300 + 300)/12). Efile Gross income limitation. Efile   Your deduction for business use of the home is limited to an amount equal to the gross income derived from the qualified business use of the home reduced by the business deductions that are unrelated to the use of your home. Efile If the business deductions that are unrelated to the use of your home are greater than the gross income derived from the qualified business use of your home, then you cannot take a deduction for this qualified business use of your home. Efile Business expenses not related to use of the home. Efile   These expenses relate to the business activity in the home, but not to the use of the home itself. Efile You can still deduct business expenses that are unrelated to the use of the home. Efile See Where To Deduct , later. Efile Examples of business expenses that are unrelated to the use of the home are advertising, wages, supplies, dues, and depreciation for equipment. Efile Space used regularly for daycare. Efile   If you do not use the area of your home exclusively for daycare, you must reduce the prescribed rate (maximum $5 per square foot) before figuring your deduction. Efile The reduced rate will equal the prescribed rate times a fraction. Efile The numerator of the fraction is the number of hours that the space was used during the year for daycare and the denominator is the total number of hours during the year that the space was available for all uses. Efile You can use the Daycare Facility Worksheet (for simplified method), near the end of this publication, to help you figure the reduced rate. Efile    If you used at least 300 square feet for daycare regularly and exclusively during the year, then you do not need to reduce the prescribed rate or complete the Daycare Facility Worksheet. Efile Daycare Facility If you use space in your home on a regular basis for providing daycare, you may be able to claim a deduction for that part of your home even if you use the same space for nonbusiness purposes. Efile To qualify for this exception to the exclusive use rule, you must meet both of the following requirements. Efile You must be in the trade or business of providing daycare for children, persons age 65 or older, or persons who are physically or mentally unable to care for themselves. Efile You must have applied for, been granted, or be exempt from having, a license, certification, registration, or approval as a daycare center or as a family or group daycare home under state law. Efile You do not meet this requirement if your application was rejected or your license or other authorization was revoked. Efile Figuring the deduction. Efile   If you elect to use the simplified method for your home, figure your deduction as described earlier in Using the Simplified Method under Figuring the Deduction. Efile    If you are figuring your deduction using actual expenses and you regularly use part of your home for daycare, figure what part is used for daycare, as explained in Business Percentage , earlier, under Figuring the Deduction. Efile If you also use that part exclusively for daycare, deduct all the allocable expenses, subject to the deduction limit, as explained earlier. Efile   If the use of part of your home as a daycare facility is regular, but not exclusive, you must figure the percentage of time that part of your home is used for daycare. Efile A room that is available for use throughout each business day and that you regularly use in your business is considered to be used for daycare throughout each business day. Efile You do not have to keep records to show the specific hours the area was used for business. Efile You can use the area occasionally for personal reasons. Efile However, a room you use only occasionally for business does not qualify for the deduction. Efile To find the percentage of time you actually use your home for business, compare the total time used for business to the total time that part of your home can be used for all purposes. Efile You can compare the hours of business use in a week with the number of hours in a week (168). Efile Or you can compare the hours of business use for the year with the number of hours in the year (8,760 in 2013). Efile If you started or stopped using your home for daycare in 2013, you must prorate the number of hours based on the number of days the home was available for daycare. Efile Example 1. Efile Mary Lake used her basement to operate a daycare business for children. Efile She figures the business percentage of the basement as follows. Efile Square footage of the basement Square footage of her home = 1,600 3,200 = 50%           She used the basement for daycare an average of 12 hours a day, 5 days a week, for 50 weeks a year. Efile During the other 12 hours a day, the family could use the basement. Efile She figures the percentage of time the basement was used for daycare as follows. Efile Number of hours used for daycare (12 x 5 x 50) Total number of hours in the year (24 x 365) = 3,000 8,760 = 34. Efile 25%           Mary can deduct 34. Efile 25% of any direct expenses for the basement. Efile However, because her indirect expenses are for the entire house, she can deduct only 17. Efile 13% of the indirect expenses. Efile She figures the percentage for her indirect expenses as follows. Efile Business percentage of the basement 50% Multiplied by: Percentage of time used for daycare × 34. Efile 25% Percentage for indirect expenses 17. Efile 13% Mary completes Form 8829, Part I, figuring the percentage of her home used for business, including the percentage of time the basement was used. Efile In Part II, Mary figures her deductible expenses. Efile She uses the following information to complete Part II. Efile Gross income from her daycare business $50,000 Expenses not related to the business use of the home $25,000 Tentative profit $25,000 Rent $8,400 Utilities $850 Painting the basement $500 Mary enters her tentative profit, $25,000, on line 8. Efile (This figure is the same as the amount on line 29 of her Schedule C (Form 1040). Efile ) The expenses she paid for rent and utilities relate to her entire home. Efile Therefore, she enters the amount paid for rent on line 18, column (b), and the amount paid for utilities on line 20, column (b). Efile She shows the total of these expenses on line 22, column (b). Efile For line 23, she multiplies the amount on line 22, column (b) by the percentage on line 7 and enters the result, $1,585. Efile Mary paid $500 to have the basement painted. Efile The painting is a direct expense. Efile However, because she did not use the basement exclusively for daycare, she must multiply $500 by the percentage of time the basement was used for daycare (34. Efile 25% – line 6). Efile She enters $171 (34. Efile 25% × $500) on line 19, column (a). Efile She adds line 22, column (a), and line 23 and enters $1,756 ($171 + $1,585) on line 25. Efile This is less than her deduction limit (line 15), so she can deduct the entire amount. Efile She follows the instructions to complete the rest of Part II and enters $1,756 on lines 33 and 35. Efile She then carries the $1,756 to line 30 of her Schedule C (Form 1040). Efile Example 2. Efile Assume the same facts as in Example 1 except that Mary also has another room that was available each business day for children to take naps in. Efile Although she did not keep a record of the number of hours the room was actually used for naps, it was used for part of each business day. Efile Since the room was available for business use during regular operating hours each business day and was used regularly in the business, it is considered used for daycare throughout each business day. Efile The basement and room are 60% of the total area of her home. Efile In figuring her expenses, 34. Efile 25% of any direct expenses for the basement and room are deductible. Efile In addition, 20. Efile 55% (34. Efile 25% × 60%) of her indirect expenses are deductible. Efile Example 3. Efile Assume the same facts as in Example 1 except that Mary stopped using her home for a daycare facility on June 24, 2013. Efile She used the basement for daycare an average of 12 hours a day, 5 days a week, but for only 25 weeks of the year. Efile During the other 12 hours a day, the family could still use the basement. Efile She figures the percentage of time the basement was used for business as follows. Efile Number of hours used for daycare (12 x 5 x 25) Total number of hours during period used (24 x 175) = 1,500 4,200 = 35. Efile 71%           Mary can deduct 35. Efile 71% of any direct expenses for the basement. Efile However, because her indirect expenses are for the entire house, she can deduct only 17. Efile 86% of the indirect expenses. Efile She figures the percentage for her indirect expenses as follows. Efile Business percentage of the basement 50% Multiplied by: Percentage of time used for daycare × 35. Efile 71% Percentage for indirect expenses 17. Efile 86% Meals. Efile   If you provide food for your daycare recipients, do not include the expense as a cost of using your home for business. Efile Claim it as a separate deduction on your Schedule C (Form 1040). Efile You can never deduct the cost of food consumed by you or your family. Efile You can deduct as a business expense 100% of the actual cost of food consumed by your daycare recipients (see Standard meal and snack rates , later, for an optional method for eligible children) and generally only 50% of the cost of food consumed by your employees. Efile However, you can deduct 100% of the cost of food consumed by your employees if its value can be excluded from their wages as a de minimis fringe benefit. Efile For more information on meals that meet these requirements, see Meals in chapter 2 of Publication 15-B, Employer's Tax Guide to Fringe Benefits. Efile   If you deduct the actual cost of food for your daycare business, keep a separate record (with receipts) of your family's food costs. Efile   Reimbursements you receive from a sponsor under the Child and Adult Care Food Program of the Department of Agriculture are taxable only to the extent they exceed your expenses for food for eligible children. Efile If your reimbursements are more than your expenses for food, show the difference as income in Part I of Schedule C (Form 1040). Efile If your food expenses are greater than the reimbursements, show the difference as an expense in Part V of Schedule C (Form 1040). Efile Do not include payments or expenses for your own children if they are eligible for the program. Efile Follow this procedure even if you receive a Form 1099-MISC, Miscellaneous Income, reporting a payment from the sponsor. Efile Standard meal and snack rates. Efile   If you qualify as a family daycare provider, you can use the standard meal and snack rates, instead of actual costs, to compute the deductible cost of meals and snacks provided to eligible children. Efile For these purposes: A family daycare provider is a person engaged in the business of providing family daycare. Efile Family daycare is childcare provided to eligible children in the home of the family daycare provider. Efile The care must be non-medical, not involve a transfer of legal custody, and generally last less than 24 hours each day. Efile Eligible children are minor children receiving family daycare in the home of the family daycare provider. Efile Eligible children do not include children who are full-time or part-time residents in the home where the childcare is provided or children whose parents or guardians are residents of the same home. Efile Eligible children do not include children who receive daycare services for personal reasons of the provider. Efile For example, if a provider provides daycare services for a relative as a favor to that relative, that child is not an eligible child. Efile   You can compute the deductible cost of each meal and snack you actually purchased and served to an eligible child during the time period you provided family daycare using the standard meal and snack rates shown in Table 3, later. Efile You can use the standard meal and snack rates for a maximum of one breakfast, one lunch, one dinner, and three snacks per eligible child per day. Efile If you receive reimbursement for a particular meal or snack, you can deduct only the portion of the applicable standard meal or snack rate that is more than the amount of the reimbursement. Efile   You can use either the standard meal and snack rates or actual costs to calculate the deductible cost of food provided to eligible children in the family daycare for any particular tax year. Efile If you choose to use the standard meal and snack rates for a particular tax year, you must use the rates for all your deductible food costs for eligible children during that tax year. Efile However, if you use the standard meal and snack rates in any tax year, you can use actual costs to compute the deductible cost of food in any other tax year. Efile   If you use the standard meal and snack rates, you must maintain records to substantiate the computation of the total amount deducted for the cost of food provided to eligible children. Efile The records kept should include the name of each child, dates and hours of attendance in the daycare, and the type and quantity of meals and snacks served. Efile This information can be recorded in a log similar to the one shown in Exhibit A, near the end of this publication. Efile   The standard meal and snack rates include beverages, but do not include non-food supplies used for food preparation, service, or storage, such as containers, paper products, or utensils. Efile These expenses can be claimed as a separate deduction on your Schedule C (Form 1040). Efile     Table 3. Efile Standard Meal and Snack Rates1 Location of Family Daycare Provider Breakfast Lunch Dinner Snack States other than Alaska an