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Freefile Irs GovFreefile irs gov 9. Freefile irs gov Education Exception to Additional Tax on Early IRA Distributions Table of Contents Introduction Who Is Eligible Figuring the Amount Not Subject to the 10% Tax Reporting Early Distributions Introduction Generally, if you take a distribution from your IRA before you reach age 59½, you must pay a 10% additional tax on the early distribution. Freefile irs gov This applies to any IRA you own, whether it is a traditional IRA (including a SEP-IRA), a Roth IRA, or a SIMPLE IRA. Freefile irs gov The additional tax on an early distribution from a SIMPLE IRA may be as high as 25%. Freefile irs gov See Publication 560, Retirement Plans for Small Business, for information on SEP-IRAs, and Publication 590, for information about all other IRAs. Freefile irs gov However, you can take distributions from your IRAs for qualified higher education expenses without having to pay the 10% additional tax. Freefile irs gov You may owe income tax on at least part of the amount distributed, but you may not have to pay the 10% additional tax. Freefile irs gov Generally, if the taxable part of the distribution is less than or equal to the adjusted qualified education expenses (AQEE), none of the distribution is subject to the additional tax. Freefile irs gov If the taxable part of the distribution is more than the AQEE, only the excess is subject to the additional tax. Freefile irs gov Who Is Eligible You can take a distribution from your IRA before you reach age 59½ and not have to pay the 10% additional tax if, for the year of the distribution, you pay qualified education expenses for: yourself, your spouse, or your or your spouse's child, foster child, adopted child, or descendant of any of them. Freefile irs gov Qualified education expenses. Freefile irs gov For purposes of the 10% additional tax, these expenses are tuition, fees, books, supplies, and equipment required for enrollment or attendance at an eligible educational institution. Freefile irs gov They also include expenses for special needs services incurred by or for special needs students in connection with their enrollment or attendance. Freefile irs gov In addition, if the student is at least a half-time student, room and board are qualified education expenses. Freefile irs gov The expense for room and board qualifies only to the extent that it is not more than the greater of the following two amounts. Freefile irs gov The allowance for room and board, as determined by the eligible educational institution, that was included in the cost of attendance (for federal financial aid purposes) for a particular academic period and living arrangement of the student. Freefile irs gov The actual amount charged if the student is residing in housing owned or operated by the eligible educational institution. Freefile irs gov You will need to contact the eligible educational institution for qualified room and board costs. Freefile irs gov Eligible educational institution. Freefile irs gov An eligible educational institution is any college, university, vocational school, or other postsecondary educational institution eligible to participate in a student aid program administered by the U. Freefile irs gov S. Freefile irs gov Department of Education. Freefile irs gov It includes virtually all accredited public, nonprofit, and proprietary (privately owned profit-making) postsecondary institutions. Freefile irs gov The educational institution should be able to tell you if it is an eligible educational institution. Freefile irs gov Certain educational institutions located outside the United States also participate in the U. Freefile irs gov S. Freefile irs gov Department of Education's Federal Student Aid (FSA) programs. Freefile irs gov Half-time student. Freefile irs gov A student is enrolled “at least half-time” if he or she is enrolled for at least half the full-time academic work load for the course of study the student is pursuing as determined under the standards of the school where the student is enrolled. Freefile irs gov Figuring the Amount Not Subject to the 10% Tax To determine the amount of your distribution that is not subject to the 10% additional tax, first figure your adjusted qualified education expenses. Freefile irs gov You do this by reducing your total qualified education expenses by any tax-free educational assistance, which includes: Expenses used to figure the tax-free portion of distributions from a Coverdell education savings account (ESA) (see Distributions in chapter 7, Coverdell Education Savings Account), The tax-free part of scholarships and fellowships (see Tax-Free Scholarships and Fellowships in chapter 1, Scholarships, Fellowships, Grants, and Tuition Reductions), Pell grants (see Pell Grants and Other Title IV Need-Based Education Grants in chapter 1, Scholarships, Fellowships, Grants, and Tuition Reductions), Veterans' educational assistance (see Veterans' Benefits in chapter 1, Scholarships, Fellowships, Grants, and Tuition Reductions), Employer-provided educational assistance (see chapter 11, Employer-Provided Educational Assistance ), and Any other nontaxable (tax-free) payments (other than gifts or inheritances) received as educational assistance. Freefile irs gov Do not reduce the qualified education expenses by amounts paid with funds the student receives as: Payment for services, such as wages, A loan, A gift, An inheritance given to either the student or the individual making the withdrawal, or A withdrawal from personal savings (including savings from a qualified tuition program (QTP)). Freefile irs gov If your IRA distribution is equal to or less than your adjusted qualified education expenses, you are not subject to the 10% additional tax. Freefile irs gov Example 1. Freefile irs gov In 2013, Erin (age 32) took a year off from teaching to attend graduate school full-time. Freefile irs gov She paid $5,800 of qualified education expenses from the following sources. Freefile irs gov Employer-provided educational assistance (tax free) $5,000 Early distribution from IRA (includes $500 taxable earnings) 3,200 Before Erin can determine if she must pay the 10% additional tax on her IRA distribution, she must reduce her total qualified education expenses. Freefile irs gov Total qualified education expenses $5,800 Minus: Tax-free educational assistance −5,000 Equals: Adjusted qualified education expenses (AQEE) $ 800 Because Erin's AQEE ($800) are more than the taxable portion of her IRA distribution ($500), she does not have to pay the 10% additional tax on any part of this distribution. Freefile irs gov However, she must include the $500 taxable earnings in her gross income subject to income tax. Freefile irs gov Example 2. Freefile irs gov Assume the same facts as in Example 1 , except that Erin deducted some of the contributions to her IRA, so the taxable part of her early distribution is higher by $1,000. Freefile irs gov This must be included in her income subject to income tax. Freefile irs gov The taxable part of Erin's IRA distribution ($1,000) is larger than her $800 AQEE. Freefile irs gov Therefore, she must pay the 10% additional tax on $200, the taxable part of her distribution ($1,000) that is more than her qualified education expenses ($800). Freefile irs gov She does not have to pay the 10% additional tax on the remaining $800 of her taxable distribution. Freefile irs gov Reporting Early Distributions By January 31, 2014, the payer of your IRA distribution should send you Form 1099-R, Distributions From Pensions, Annuities, Retirement or Profit-Sharing Plans, IRAs, Insurance Contracts, etc. Freefile irs gov The information on this form will help you determine how much of your distribution is taxable for income tax purposes and how much is subject to the 10% additional tax. Freefile irs gov If you received an early distribution from your IRA, you must report the taxable earnings on Form 1040, line 15b (Form 1040NR, line 16b). Freefile irs gov Then, if you qualify for an exception for qualified higher education expenses, you must file Form 5329 to show how much, if any, of your early distribution is subject to the 10% additional tax. Freefile irs gov See the Instructions for Form 5329, Part I, for help in completing the form and entering the results on Form 1040 or 1040NR. Freefile irs gov There are many other situations in which Form 5329 is required. Freefile irs gov If, during 2013, you had other distributions from IRAs or qualified retirement plans, or have made excess contributions to certain tax-favored accounts, see the instructions for line 58 (Form 1040) or line 56 (Form 1040NR) to determine if you must file Form 5329. Freefile irs gov Prev Up Next Home More Online Publications
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