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H&r Block State Taxes

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H&r Block State Taxes

H&r block state taxes 11. H&r block state taxes   How To Get Tax Help Table of Contents Whether it's help with a tax issue, preparing your tax return or a need for a free publication or form, get the help you need the way you want it: online, use a smart phone, call or walk in to an IRS office or volunteer site near you. H&r block state taxes Free help with your tax return. H&r block state taxes   You can get free help preparing your return nationwide from IRS-certified volunteers. H&r block state taxes The Volunteer Income Tax Assistance (VITA) program helps low-to-moderate income, elderly, people with disabilities, and limited English proficient taxpayers. H&r block state taxes The Tax Counseling for the Elderly (TCE) program helps taxpayers age 60 and older with their tax returns. H&r block state taxes Most VITA and TCE sites offer free electronic filing and all volunteers will let you know about credits and deductions you may be entitled to claim. H&r block state taxes In addition, some VITA and TCE sites provide taxpayers the opportunity to prepare their own return with help from an IRS-certified volunteer. H&r block state taxes To find the nearest VITA or TCE site, you can use the VITA Locator Tool on IRS. H&r block state taxes gov, download the IRS2Go app, or call 1-800-906-9887. H&r block state taxes   As part of the TCE program, AARP offers the Tax-Aide counseling program. H&r block state taxes To find the nearest AARP Tax-Aide site, visit AARP's website at www. H&r block state taxes aarp. H&r block state taxes org/money/taxaide or call 1-888-227-7669. H&r block state taxes For more information on these programs, go to IRS. H&r block state taxes gov and enter “VITA” in the search box. H&r block state taxes Internet. H&r block state taxes    IRS. H&r block state taxes gov and IRS2Go are ready when you are —24 hours a day, 7 days a week. H&r block state taxes Download the free IRS2Go app from the iTunes app store or from Google Play. H&r block state taxes Use it to check your refund status, order transcripts of your tax returns or tax account, watch the IRS YouTube channel, get IRS news as soon as it's released to the public, subscribe to filing season updates or daily tax tips, and follow the IRS Twitter news feed, @IRSnews, to get the latest federal tax news, including information about tax law changes and important IRS programs. H&r block state taxes Check the status of your 2013 refund with the Where's My Refund? application on IRS. H&r block state taxes gov or download the IRS2Go app and select the Refund Status option. H&r block state taxes The IRS issues more than 9 out of 10 refunds in less than 21 days. H&r block state taxes Using these applications, you can start checking on the status of your return within 24 hours after we receive your e-filed return or 4 weeks after you mail a paper return. H&r block state taxes You will also be given a personalized refund date as soon as the IRS processes your tax return and approves your refund. H&r block state taxes The IRS updates Where's My Refund? every 24 hours, usually overnight, so you only need to check once a day. H&r block state taxes Use the Interactive Tax Assistant (ITA) to research your tax questions. H&r block state taxes No need to wait on the phone or stand in line. H&r block state taxes The ITA is available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, and provides you with a variety of tax information related to general filing topics, deductions, credits, and income. H&r block state taxes When you reach the response screen, you can print the entire interview and the final response for your records. H&r block state taxes New subject areas are added on a regular basis. H&r block state taxes  Answers not provided through ITA may be found in Tax Trails, one of the Tax Topics on IRS. H&r block state taxes gov which contain general individual and business tax information or by searching the IRS Tax Map, which includes an international subject index. H&r block state taxes You can use the IRS Tax Map, to search publications and instructions by topic or keyword. H&r block state taxes The IRS Tax Map integrates forms and publications into one research tool and provides single-point access to tax law information by subject. H&r block state taxes When the user searches the IRS Tax Map, they will be provided with links to related content in existing IRS publications, forms and instructions, questions and answers, and Tax Topics. H&r block state taxes Coming this filing season, you can immediately view and print for free all 5 types of individual federal tax transcripts (tax returns, tax account, record of account, wage and income statement, and certification of non-filing) using Get Transcript. H&r block state taxes You can also ask the IRS to mail a return or an account transcript to you. H&r block state taxes Only the mail option is available by choosing the Tax Records option on the IRS2Go app by selecting Mail Transcript on IRS. H&r block state taxes gov or by calling 1-800-908-9946. H&r block state taxes Tax return and tax account transcripts are generally available for the current year and the past three years. H&r block state taxes Determine if you are eligible for the EITC and estimate the amount of the credit with the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) Assistant. H&r block state taxes Visit Understanding Your IRS Notice or Letter to get answers to questions about a notice or letter you received from the IRS. H&r block state taxes If you received the First Time Homebuyer Credit, you can use the First Time Homebuyer Credit Account Look-up tool for information on your repayments and account balance. H&r block state taxes Check the status of your amended return using Where's My Amended Return? Go to IRS. H&r block state taxes gov and enter Where's My Amended Return? in the search box. H&r block state taxes You can generally expect your amended return to be processed up to 12 weeks from the date we receive it. H&r block state taxes It can take up to 3 weeks from the date you mailed it to show up in our system. H&r block state taxes Make a payment using one of several safe and convenient electronic payment options available on IRS. H&r block state taxes gov. H&r block state taxes Select the Payment tab on the front page of IRS. H&r block state taxes gov for more information. H&r block state taxes Determine if you are eligible and apply for an online payment agreement, if you owe more tax than you can pay today. H&r block state taxes Figure your income tax withholding with the IRS Withholding Calculator on IRS. H&r block state taxes gov. H&r block state taxes Use it if you've had too much or too little withheld, your personal situation has changed, you're starting a new job or you just want to see if you're having the right amount withheld. H&r block state taxes Determine if you might be subject to the Alternative Minimum Tax by using the Alternative Minimum Tax Assistant on IRS. H&r block state taxes gov. H&r block state taxes Request an Electronic Filing PIN by going to IRS. H&r block state taxes gov and entering Electronic Filing PIN in the search box. H&r block state taxes Download forms, instructions and publications, including accessible versions for people with disabilities. H&r block state taxes Locate the nearest Taxpayer Assistance Center (TAC) using the Office Locator tool on IRS. H&r block state taxes gov, or choose the Contact Us option on the IRS2Go app and search Local Offices. H&r block state taxes An employee can answer questions about your tax account or help you set up a payment plan. H&r block state taxes Before you visit, check the Office Locator on IRS. H&r block state taxes gov, or Local Offices under Contact Us on IRS2Go to confirm the address, phone number, days and hours of operation, and the services provided. H&r block state taxes If you have a special need, such as a disability, you can request an appointment. H&r block state taxes Call the local number listed in the Office Locator, or look in the phone book under United States Government, Internal Revenue Service. H&r block state taxes Apply for an Employer Identification Number (EIN). H&r block state taxes Go to IRS. H&r block state taxes gov and enter Apply for an EIN in the search box. H&r block state taxes Read the Internal Revenue Code, regulations, or other official guidance. H&r block state taxes Read Internal Revenue Bulletins. H&r block state taxes Sign up to receive local and national tax news and more by email. H&r block state taxes Just click on “subscriptions” above the search box on IRS. H&r block state taxes gov and choose from a variety of options. H&r block state taxes Phone. H&r block state taxes    You can call the IRS, or you can carry it in your pocket with the IRS2Go app on your smart phone or tablet. H&r block state taxes Download the free IRS2Go app from the iTunes app store or from Google Play. H&r block state taxes Call to locate the nearest volunteer help site, 1-800-906-9887 or you can use the VITA Locator Tool on IRS. H&r block state taxes gov, or download the IRS2Go app. H&r block state taxes Low-to-moderate income, elderly, people with disabilities, and limited English proficient taxpayers can get free help with their tax return from the nationwide Volunteer Income Tax Assistance (VITA) program. H&r block state taxes The Tax Counseling for the Elderly (TCE) program helps taxpayers age 60 and older with their tax returns. H&r block state taxes Most VITA and TCE sites offer free electronic filing. H&r block state taxes Some VITA and TCE sites provide IRS-certified volunteers who can help prepare your tax return. H&r block state taxes Through the TCE program, AARP offers the Tax-Aide counseling program; call 1-888-227-7669 to find the nearest Tax-Aide location. H&r block state taxes Call the automated Where's My Refund? information hotline to check the status of your 2013 refund 24 hours a day, 7 days a week at 1-800-829-1954. H&r block state taxes If you e-file, you can start checking on the status of your return within 24 hours after the IRS receives your tax return or 4 weeks after you've mailed a paper return. H&r block state taxes The IRS issues more than 9 out of 10 refunds in less than 21 days. H&r block state taxes Where's My Refund? will give you a personalized refund date as soon as the IRS processes your tax return and approves your refund. H&r block state taxes Before you call this automated hotline, have your 2013 tax return handy so you can enter your social security number, your filing status, and the exact whole dollar amount of your refund. H&r block state taxes The IRS updates Where's My Refund? every 24 hours, usually overnight, so you only need to check once a day. H&r block state taxes Note, the above information is for our automated hotline. H&r block state taxes Our live phone and walk-in assistors can research the status of your refund only if it's been 21 days or more since you filed electronically or more than 6 weeks since you mailed your paper return. H&r block state taxes Call the Amended Return Hotline, 1-866-464-2050, to check the status of your amended return. H&r block state taxes You can generally expect your amended return to be processed up to 12 weeks from the date we receive it. H&r block state taxes It can take up to 3 weeks from the date you mailed it to show up in our system. H&r block state taxes Call 1-800-TAX-FORM (1-800-829-3676) to order current-year forms, instructions, publications, and prior-year forms and instructions (limited to 5 years). H&r block state taxes You should receive your order within 10 business days. H&r block state taxes Call TeleTax, 1-800-829-4477, to listen to pre-recorded messages covering general and business tax information. H&r block state taxes If, between January and April 15, you still have questions about the Form 1040, 1040A, or 1040EZ (like filing requirements, dependents, credits, Schedule D, pensions and IRAs or self-employment taxes), call 1-800-829-1040. H&r block state taxes Call using TTY/TDD equipment, 1-800-829-4059 to ask tax questions or order forms and publications. H&r block state taxes The TTY/TDD telephone number is for people who are deaf, hard of hearing, or have a speech disability. H&r block state taxes These individuals can also contact the IRS through relay services such as the Federal Relay Service. H&r block state taxes Walk-in. H&r block state taxes   You can find a selection of forms, publications and services — in-person. H&r block state taxes Products. H&r block state taxes You can walk in to some post offices, libraries, and IRS offices to pick up certain forms, instructions, and publications. H&r block state taxes Some IRS offices, libraries, and city and county government offices have a collection of products available to photocopy from reproducible proofs. H&r block state taxes Services. H&r block state taxes You can walk in to your local TAC for face-to-face tax help. H&r block state taxes An employee can answer questions about your tax account or help you set up a payment plan. H&r block state taxes Before visiting, use the Office Locator tool on IRS. H&r block state taxes gov, or choose the Contact Us option on the IRS2Go app and search Local Offices for days and hours of operation, and services provided. H&r block state taxes Mail. H&r block state taxes   You can send your order for forms, instructions, and publications to the address below. H&r block state taxes You should receive a response within 10 business days after your request is received. H&r block state taxes Internal Revenue Service 1201 N. H&r block state taxes Mitsubishi Motorway Bloomington, IL 61705-6613    The Taxpayer Advocate Service Is Here to Help You. H&r block state taxes The Taxpayer Advocate Service (TAS) is your voice at the IRS. H&r block state taxes Our job is to ensure that every taxpayer is treated fairly and that you know and understand your rights. H&r block state taxes   What can TAS do for you? We can offer you free help with IRS problems that you can't resolve on your own. H&r block state taxes We know this process can be confusing, but the worst thing you can do is nothing at all! TAS can help if you can't resolve your tax problem and: Your problem is causing financial difficulties for you, your family, or your business. H&r block state taxes You face (or your business is facing) an immediate threat of adverse action. H&r block state taxes You've tried repeatedly to contact the IRS but no one has responded, or the IRS hasn't responded by the date promised. H&r block state taxes   If you qualify for our help, you'll be assigned to one advocate who'll be with you at every turn and will do everything possible to resolve your problem. H&r block state taxes Here's why we can help: TAS is an independent organization within the IRS. H&r block state taxes Our advocates know how to work with the IRS. H&r block state taxes Our services are free and tailored to meet your needs. H&r block state taxes We have offices in every state, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. H&r block state taxes   How can you reach us? If you think TAS can help you, call your local advocate, whose number is in your local directory and at Taxpayer Advocate, or call us toll-free at 1-877-777-4778. H&r block state taxes   How else does TAS help taxpayers?  TAS also works to resolve large-scale, systemic problems that affect many taxpayers. H&r block state taxes If you know of one of these broad issues, please report it to us through our Systemic Advocacy Management System. H&r block state taxes Low Income Taxpayer Clinics. H&r block state taxes   Low Income Taxpayer Clinics (LITCs) serve individuals whose income is below a certain level and need to resolve tax problems such as audits, appeals and tax collection disputes. H&r block state taxes Some clinics can provide information about taxpayer rights and responsibilities in different languages for individuals who speak English as a second language. H&r block state taxes Visit Taxpayer Advocate or see IRS Publication 4134, Low Income Taxpayer Clinic List. H&r block state taxes Prev  Up  Next   Home   More Online Publications
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IRS VITA Grant Program

The Volunteer Income Tax Assistance (VITA) Grant Program is an IRS initiative designed to promote and support free tax preparation service for the underserved, in both urban and non-urban locations. Service is targeted to low-to-moderate income individuals, persons with disabilities, the elderly, and limited English speaking. IRS awards matching grants each year to organizations that offer free tax preparation services during the tax filing season at locations in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Congress appropriates this funding to support the Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Program.

This Grant Program is intended to provide direct funds to organizations to:

  • Enable VITA Programs to extend services to underserved populations in hardest-to-reach areas, both urban and non-urban;
  • Increase the capacity to file returns electronically;
  • Heighten quality control;
  • Enhance volunteer training; and
  • Significantly improve the accuracy rate of returns prepared at volunteer sites.

This webpage serves as a resource for organizations interested in applying for a VITA Grant as well as for organizations who have been awarded a grant.

Select from the following categories to get started:

 

Contact the VITA Grant Program at Grant.Program.Office@irs.gov.

Page Last Reviewed or Updated: 07-Nov-2013

The H&r Block State Taxes

H&r block state taxes Publication 561 - Main Contents Table of Contents What Is Fair Market Value (FMV)?Factors. H&r block state taxes Stock. H&r block state taxes Options. H&r block state taxes Determining Fair Market Value Problems in Determining Fair Market Value Valuation of Various Kinds of PropertyHousehold Goods Used Clothing Jewelry and Gems Paintings, Antiques, and Other Objects of Art Collections Cars, Boats, and Aircraft Inventory Patents Stocks and Bonds Real Estate Interest in a Business Annuities, Interests for Life or Terms of Years, Remainders, and Reversions Certain Life Insurance and Annuity Contracts Partial Interest in Property Not in Trust AppraisalsDeductions of More Than $5,000 Deductions of More Than $500,000 Qualified Appraisal Form 8283 Internal Revenue Service Review of Appraisals Penalty How To Get Tax HelpLow income tax clinics (LITCs). H&r block state taxes What Is Fair Market Value (FMV)? To figure how much you may deduct for property that you contribute, you must first determine its fair market value on the date of the contribution. H&r block state taxes Fair market value. H&r block state taxes   Fair market value (FMV) is the price that property would sell for on the open market. H&r block state taxes It is the price that would be agreed on between a willing buyer and a willing seller, with neither being required to act, and both having reasonable knowledge of the relevant facts. H&r block state taxes If you put a restriction on the use of property you donate, the FMV must reflect that restriction. H&r block state taxes Example 1. H&r block state taxes If you give used clothing to the Salvation Army, the FMV would be the price that typical buyers actually pay for clothing of this age, condition, style, and use. H&r block state taxes Usually, such items are worth far less than what you paid for them. H&r block state taxes Example 2. H&r block state taxes If you donate land and restrict its use to agricultural purposes, you must value the land at its value for agricultural purposes, even though it would have a higher FMV if it were not restricted. H&r block state taxes Factors. H&r block state taxes   In making and supporting the valuation of property, all factors affecting value are relevant and must be considered. H&r block state taxes These include: The cost or selling price of the item, Sales of comparable properties, Replacement cost, and Opinions of experts. H&r block state taxes   These factors are discussed later. H&r block state taxes Also, see Table 1 for a summary of questions to ask as you consider each factor. H&r block state taxes Date of contribution. H&r block state taxes   Ordinarily, the date of a contribution is the date that the transfer of the property takes place. H&r block state taxes Stock. H&r block state taxes   If you deliver, without any conditions, a properly endorsed stock certificate to a qualified organization or to an agent of the organization, the date of the contribution is the date of delivery. H&r block state taxes If the certificate is mailed and received through the regular mail, it is the date of mailing. H&r block state taxes If you deliver the certificate to a bank or broker acting as your agent or to the issuing corporation or its agent, for transfer into the name of the organization, the date of the contribution is the date the stock is transferred on the books of the corporation. H&r block state taxes Options. H&r block state taxes   If you grant an option to a qualified organization to buy real property, you have not made a charitable contribution until the organization exercises the option. H&r block state taxes The amount of the contribution is the FMV of the property on the date the option is exercised minus the exercise price. H&r block state taxes Example. H&r block state taxes You grant an option to a local university, which is a qualified organization, to buy real property. H&r block state taxes Under the option, the university could buy the property at any time during a 2-year period for $40,000. H&r block state taxes The FMV of the property on the date the option is granted is $50,000. H&r block state taxes In the following tax year, the university exercises the option. H&r block state taxes The FMV of the property on the date the option is exercised is $55,000. H&r block state taxes Therefore, you have made a charitable contribution of $15,000 ($55,000, the FMV, minus $40,000, the exercise price) in the tax year the option is exercised. H&r block state taxes Determining Fair Market Value Determining the value of donated property would be a simple matter if you could rely only on fixed formulas, rules, or methods. H&r block state taxes Usually it is not that simple. H&r block state taxes Using such formulas, etc. H&r block state taxes , seldom results in an acceptable determination of FMV. H&r block state taxes There is no single formula that always applies when determining the value of property. H&r block state taxes This is not to say that a valuation is only guesswork. H&r block state taxes You must consider all the facts and circumstances connected with the property, such as its desirability, use, and scarcity. H&r block state taxes For example, donated furniture should not be evaluated at some fixed rate such as 15% of the cost of new replacement furniture. H&r block state taxes When the furniture is contributed, it may be out of style or in poor condition, therefore having little or no market value. H&r block state taxes On the other hand, it may be an antique, the value of which could not be determined by using any formula. H&r block state taxes Cost or Selling Price of the Donated Property The cost of the property to you or the actual selling price received by the qualified organization may be the best indication of its FMV. H&r block state taxes However, because conditions in the market change, the cost or selling price of property may have less weight if the property was not bought or sold reasonably close to the date of contribution. H&r block state taxes The cost or selling price is a good indication of the property's value if: The purchase or sale took place close to the valuation date in an open market, The purchase or sale was at “arm's-length,” The buyer and seller knew all relevant facts, The buyer and seller did not have to act, and The market did not change between the date of purchase or sale and the valuation date. H&r block state taxes Example. H&r block state taxes Tom Morgan, who is not a dealer in gems, bought an assortment of gems for $5,000 from a promoter. H&r block state taxes The promoter claimed that the price was “wholesale” even though he and other dealers made similar sales at similar prices to other persons who were not dealers. H&r block state taxes The promoter said that if Tom kept the gems for more than 1 year and then gave them to charity, Tom could claim a charitable deduction of $15,000, which, according to the promoter, would be the value of the gems at the time of contribution. H&r block state taxes Tom gave the gems to a qualified charity 13 months after buying them. H&r block state taxes The selling price for these gems had not changed from the date of purchase to the date he donated them to charity. H&r block state taxes The best evidence of FMV depends on actual transactions and not on some artificial estimate. H&r block state taxes The $5,000 charged Tom and others is, therefore, the best evidence of the maximum FMV of the gems. H&r block state taxes Terms of the purchase or sale. H&r block state taxes   The terms of the purchase or sale should be considered in determining FMV if they influenced the price. H&r block state taxes These terms include any restrictions, understandings, or covenants limiting the use or disposition of the property. H&r block state taxes Rate of increase or decrease in value. H&r block state taxes   Unless you can show that there were unusual circumstances, it is assumed that the increase or decrease in the value of your donated property from your cost has been at a reasonable rate. H&r block state taxes For time adjustments, an appraiser may consider published price indexes for information on general price trends, building costs, commodity costs, securities, and works of art sold at auction in arm's-length sales. H&r block state taxes Example. H&r block state taxes Bill Brown bought a painting for $10,000. H&r block state taxes Thirteen months later he gave it to an art museum, claiming a charitable deduction of $15,000 on his tax return. H&r block state taxes The appraisal of the painting should include information showing that there were unusual circumstances that justify a 50% increase in value for the 13 months Bill held the property. H&r block state taxes Arm's-length offer. H&r block state taxes   An arm's-length offer to buy the property close to the valuation date may help to prove its value if the person making the offer was willing and able to complete the transaction. H&r block state taxes To rely on an offer, you should be able to show proof of the offer and the specific amount to be paid. H&r block state taxes Offers to buy property other than the donated item will help to determine value if the other property is reasonably similar to the donated property. H&r block state taxes Sales of Comparable Properties The sales prices of properties similar to the donated property are often important in determining the FMV. H&r block state taxes The weight to be given to each sale depends on the following. H&r block state taxes The degree of similarity between the property sold and the donated property. H&r block state taxes The time of the sale—whether it was close to the valuation date. H&r block state taxes The circumstances of the sale—whether it was at arm's-length with a knowledgeable buyer and seller, with neither having to act. H&r block state taxes The conditions of the market in which the sale was made—whether unusually inflated or deflated. H&r block state taxes The comparable sales method of valuing real estate is explained later under Valuation of Various Kinds of Property. H&r block state taxes Example 1. H&r block state taxes Mary Black, who is not a book dealer, paid a promoter $10,000 for 500 copies of a single edition of a modern translation of the Bible. H&r block state taxes The promoter had claimed that the price was considerably less than the “retail” price, and gave her a statement that the books had a total retail value of $30,000. H&r block state taxes The promoter advised her that if she kept the Bibles for more than 1 year and then gave them to a qualified organization, she could claim a charitable deduction for the “retail” price of $30,000. H&r block state taxes Thirteen months later she gave all the Bibles to a church that she selected from a list provided by the promoter. H&r block state taxes At the time of her donation, wholesale dealers were selling similar quantities of Bibles to the general public for $10,000. H&r block state taxes The FMV of the Bibles is $10,000, the price at which similar quantities of Bibles were being sold to others at the time of the contribution. H&r block state taxes Example 2. H&r block state taxes The facts are the same as in Example 1, except that the promoter gave Mary Black a second option. H&r block state taxes The promoter said that if Mary wanted a charitable deduction within 1 year of the purchase, she could buy the 500 Bibles at the “retail” price of $30,000, paying only $10,000 in cash and giving a promissory note for the remaining $20,000. H&r block state taxes The principal and interest on the note would not be due for 12 years. H&r block state taxes According to the promoter, Mary could then, within 1 year of the purchase, give the Bibles to a qualified organization and claim the full $30,000 retail price as a charitable contribution. H&r block state taxes She purchased the Bibles under the second option and, 3 months later, gave them to a church, which will use the books for church purposes. H&r block state taxes At the time of the gift, the promoter was selling similar lots of Bibles for either $10,000 or $30,000. H&r block state taxes The difference between the two prices was solely at the discretion of the buyer. H&r block state taxes The promoter was a willing seller for $10,000. H&r block state taxes Therefore, the value of Mary's contribution of the Bibles is $10,000, the amount at which similar lots of Bibles could be purchased from the promoter by members of the general public. H&r block state taxes Replacement Cost The cost of buying, building, or manufacturing property similar to the donated item should be considered in determining FMV. H&r block state taxes However, there must be a reasonable relationship between the replacement cost and the FMV. H&r block state taxes The replacement cost is the amount it would cost to replace the donated item on the valuation date. H&r block state taxes Often there is no relationship between the replacement cost and the FMV. H&r block state taxes If the supply of the donated property is more or less than the demand for it, the replacement cost becomes less important. H&r block state taxes To determine the replacement cost of the donated property, find the “estimated replacement cost new. H&r block state taxes ” Then subtract from this figure an amount for depreciation due to the physical condition and obsolescence of the donated property. H&r block state taxes You should be able to show the relationship between the depreciated replacement cost and the FMV, as well as how you arrived at the “estimated replacement cost new. H&r block state taxes ” Opinions of Experts Generally, the weight given to an expert's opinion on matters such as the authenticity of a coin or a work of art, or the most profitable and best use of a piece of real estate, depends on the knowledge and competence of the expert and the thoroughness with which the opinion is supported by experience and facts. H&r block state taxes For an expert's opinion to deserve much weight, the facts must support the opinion. H&r block state taxes For additional information, see Appraisals, later. H&r block state taxes Table 1. H&r block state taxes Factors That Affect FMV IF the factor you are considering is. H&r block state taxes . H&r block state taxes . H&r block state taxes THEN you should ask these questions. H&r block state taxes . H&r block state taxes . H&r block state taxes     cost or selling price Was the purchase or sale of the property reasonably close to the date of contribution? Was any increase or decrease in value, as compared to your cost, at a reasonable rate? Do the terms of purchase or sale limit what can be done with the property? Was there an arm's-length offer to buy the property close to the valuation date?     sales of comparable properties How similar is the property sold to the property donated? How close is the date of sale to the valuation date? Was the sale at arm's-length? What was the condition of the market at the time of sale?     replacement cost What would it cost to replace the donated property? Is there a reasonable relationship between replacement cost and FMV? Is the supply of the donated property more or less than the demand for it?     opinions of experts Is the expert knowledgeable and competent? Is the opinion thorough and supported by facts and experience? Problems in Determining Fair Market Value There are a number of problems in determining the FMV of donated property. H&r block state taxes Unusual Market Conditions The sale price of the property itself in an arm's-length transaction in an open market is often the best evidence of its value. H&r block state taxes When you rely on sales of comparable property, the sales must have been made in an open market. H&r block state taxes If those sales were made in a market that was artificially supported or stimulated so as not to be truly representative, the prices at which the sales were made will not indicate the FMV. H&r block state taxes For example, liquidation sale prices usually do not indicate the FMV. H&r block state taxes Also, sales of stock under unusual circumstances, such as sales of small lots, forced sales, and sales in a restricted market, may not represent the FMV. H&r block state taxes Selection of Comparable Sales Using sales of comparable property is an important method for determining the FMV of donated property. H&r block state taxes However, the amount of weight given to a sale depends on the degree of similarity between the comparable and the donated properties. H&r block state taxes The degree of similarity must be close enough so that this selling price would have been given consideration by reasonably well-informed buyers or sellers of the property. H&r block state taxes Example. H&r block state taxes You give a rare, old book to your former college. H&r block state taxes The book is a third edition and is in poor condition because of a missing back cover. H&r block state taxes You discover that there was a sale for $300, near the valuation date, of a first edition of the book that was in good condition. H&r block state taxes Although the contents are the same, the books are not at all similar because of the different editions and their physical condition. H&r block state taxes Little consideration would be given to the selling price of the $300 property by knowledgeable buyers or sellers. H&r block state taxes Future Events You may not consider unexpected events happening after your donation of property in making the valuation. H&r block state taxes You may consider only the facts known at the time of the gift, and those that could be reasonably expected at the time of the gift. H&r block state taxes Example. H&r block state taxes You give farmland to a qualified charity. H&r block state taxes The transfer provides that your mother will have the right to all income and full use of the property for her life. H&r block state taxes Even though your mother dies 1 week after the transfer, the value of the property on the date it is given is its present value, subject to the life interest as estimated from actuarial tables. H&r block state taxes You may not take a higher deduction because the charity received full use and possession of the land only 1 week after the transfer. H&r block state taxes Using Past Events to Predict the Future A common error is to rely too much on past events that do not fairly reflect the probable future earnings and FMV. H&r block state taxes Example. H&r block state taxes You give all your rights in a successful patent to your favorite charity. H&r block state taxes Your records show that before the valuation date there were three stages in the patent's history of earnings. H&r block state taxes First, there was rapid growth in earnings when the invention was introduced. H&r block state taxes Then, there was a period of high earnings when the invention was being exploited. H&r block state taxes Finally, there was a decline in earnings when competing inventions were introduced. H&r block state taxes The entire history of earnings may be relevant in estimating the future earnings. H&r block state taxes However, the appraiser must not rely too much on the stage of rapid growth in earnings, or of high earnings. H&r block state taxes The market conditions at those times do not represent the condition of the market at the valuation date. H&r block state taxes What is most significant is the trend of decline in earnings up to the valuation date. H&r block state taxes For more information about donations of patents, see Patents, later. H&r block state taxes Valuation of Various Kinds of Property This section contains information on determining the FMV of ordinary kinds of donated property. H&r block state taxes For information on appraisals, see Appraisals, later. H&r block state taxes Household Goods The FMV of used household goods, such as furniture, appliances, and linens, is usually much lower than the price paid when new. H&r block state taxes Such used property may have little or no market value because of its worn condition. H&r block state taxes It may be out of style or no longer useful. H&r block state taxes You cannot take a deduction for household goods donated after August 17, 2006, unless they are in good used condition or better. H&r block state taxes A household good that is not in good used condition or better for which you take a deduction of more than $500 requires a qualified appraisal. H&r block state taxes See Deduction over $500 for certain clothing or household items, later. H&r block state taxes If the property is valuable because it is old or unique, see the discussion under Paintings, Antiques, and Other Objects of Art. H&r block state taxes Used Clothing Used clothing and other personal items are usually worth far less than the price you paid for them. H&r block state taxes Valuation of items of clothing does not lend itself to fixed formulas or methods. H&r block state taxes The price that buyers of used items actually pay in used clothing stores, such as consignment or thrift shops, is an indication of the value. H&r block state taxes You cannot take a deduction for clothing donated after August 17, 2006, unless it is in good used condition or better. H&r block state taxes An item of clothing that is not in good used condition or better for which you take a deduction of more than $500 requires a qualified appraisal. H&r block state taxes See Deduction over $500 for certain clothing or household items, later. H&r block state taxes For valuable furs or very expensive gowns, a Form 8283 may have to be sent with your tax return. H&r block state taxes Jewelry and Gems Jewelry and gems are of such a specialized nature that it is almost always necessary to get an appraisal by a specialized jewelry appraiser. H&r block state taxes The appraisal should describe, among other things, the style of the jewelry, the cut and setting of the gem, and whether it is now in fashion. H&r block state taxes If not in fashion, the possibility of having the property redesigned, recut, or reset should be reported in the appraisal. H&r block state taxes The stone's coloring, weight, cut, brilliance, and flaws should be reported and analyzed. H&r block state taxes Sentimental personal value has no effect on FMV. H&r block state taxes But if the jewelry was owned by a famous person, its value might increase. H&r block state taxes Paintings, Antiques, and Other Objects of Art Your deduction for contributions of paintings, antiques, and other objects of art, should be supported by a written appraisal from a qualified and reputable source, unless the deduction is $5,000 or less. H&r block state taxes Examples of information that should be included in appraisals of art objects—paintings in particular—are found later under Qualified Appraisal. H&r block state taxes Art valued at $20,000 or more. H&r block state taxes   If you claim a deduction of $20,000 or more for donations of art, you must attach a complete copy of the signed appraisal to your return. H&r block state taxes For individual objects valued at $20,000 or more, a photograph of a size and quality fully showing the object, preferably an 8 x 10 inch color photograph or a color transparency no smaller than 4 x 5 inches, must be provided upon request. H&r block state taxes Art valued at $50,000 or more. H&r block state taxes   If you donate an item of art that has been appraised at $50,000 or more, you can request a Statement of Value for that item from the IRS. H&r block state taxes You must request the statement before filing the tax return that reports the donation. H&r block state taxes Your request must include the following. H&r block state taxes A copy of a qualified appraisal of the item. H&r block state taxes See Qualified Appraisal, later. H&r block state taxes A $2,500 check or money order payable to the Internal Revenue Service for the user fee that applies to your request regarding one, two, or three items of art. H&r block state taxes Add $250 for each item in excess of three. H&r block state taxes A completed Form 8283, Section B. H&r block state taxes The location of the IRS territory that has examination responsibility for your return. H&r block state taxes If your request lacks essential information, you will be notified and given 30 days to provide the missing information. H&r block state taxes   Send your request to: Internal Revenue Service Attention: Art Appraisal (C:AP:ART) P. H&r block state taxes O. H&r block state taxes Box 27720 McPherson Station Washington, DC 20038 Refunds. H&r block state taxes   You can withdraw your request for a Statement of Value at any time before it is issued. H&r block state taxes However, the IRS will not refund the user fee if you do. H&r block state taxes   If the IRS declines to issue a Statement of Value in the interest of efficient tax administration, the IRS will refund the user fee. H&r block state taxes Authenticity. H&r block state taxes   The authenticity of the donated art must be determined by the appraiser. H&r block state taxes Physical condition. H&r block state taxes   Important items in the valuation of antiques and art are physical condition and extent of restoration. H&r block state taxes These have a significant effect on the value and must be fully reported in an appraisal. H&r block state taxes An antique in damaged condition, or lacking the “original brasses,” may be worth much less than a similar piece in excellent condition. H&r block state taxes Art appraisers. H&r block state taxes   More weight will usually be given to an appraisal prepared by an individual specializing in the kind and price range of the art being appraised. H&r block state taxes Certain art dealers or appraisers specialize, for example, in old masters, modern art, bronze sculpture, etc. H&r block state taxes Their opinions on the authenticity and desirability of such art would usually be given more weight than the opinions of more generalized art dealers or appraisers. H&r block state taxes They can report more recent comparable sales to support their opinion. H&r block state taxes   To identify and locate experts on unique, specialized items or collections, you may wish to use the current Official Museum Directory of the American Association of Museums. H&r block state taxes It lists museums both by state and by category. H&r block state taxes   To help you locate a qualified appraiser for your donation, you may wish to ask an art historian at a nearby college or the director or curator of a local museum. H&r block state taxes The Yellow Pages often list specialized art and antique dealers, auctioneers, and art appraisers. H&r block state taxes You may be able to find a qualified appraiser on the Internet. H&r block state taxes You may also contact associations of dealers for guidance. H&r block state taxes Collections Since many kinds of hobby collections may be the subject of a charitable donation, it is not possible to discuss all of the possible collectibles in this publication. H&r block state taxes Most common are rare books, autographs, sports memorabilia, dolls, manuscripts, stamps, coins, guns, phonograph records, and natural history items. H&r block state taxes Many of the elements of valuation that apply to paintings and other objects of art, discussed earlier, also apply to miscellaneous collections. H&r block state taxes Reference material. H&r block state taxes   Publications available to help you determine the value of many kinds of collections include catalogs, dealers' price lists, and specialized hobby periodicals. H&r block state taxes When using one of these price guides, you must use the current edition at the date of contribution. H&r block state taxes However, these sources are not always reliable indicators of FMV and should be supported by other evidence. H&r block state taxes   For example, a dealer may sell an item for much less than is shown on a price list, particularly after the item has remained unsold for a long time. H&r block state taxes The price an item sold for in an auction may have been the result of a rigged sale or a mere bidding duel. H&r block state taxes The appraiser must analyze the reference material, and recognize and make adjustments for misleading entries. H&r block state taxes If you are donating a valuable collection, you should get an appraisal. H&r block state taxes If your donation appears to be of little value, you may be able to make a satisfactory valuation using reference materials available at a state, city, college, or museum library. H&r block state taxes Stamp collections. H&r block state taxes   Most libraries have catalogs or other books that report the publisher's estimate of values. H&r block state taxes Generally, two price levels are shown for each stamp: the price postmarked and the price not postmarked. H&r block state taxes Stamp dealers generally know the value of their merchandise and are able to prepare satisfactory appraisals of valuable collections. H&r block state taxes Coin collections. H&r block state taxes   Many catalogs and other reference materials show the writer's or publisher's opinion of the value of coins on or near the date of the publication. H&r block state taxes Like many other collectors' items, the value of a coin depends on the demand for it, its age, and its rarity. H&r block state taxes Another important factor is the coin's condition. H&r block state taxes For example, there is a great difference in the value of a coin that is in mint condition and a similar coin that is only in good condition. H&r block state taxes   Catalogs usually establish a category for coins, based on their physical condition—mint or uncirculated, extremely fine, very fine, fine, very good, good, fair, or poor—with a different valuation for each category. H&r block state taxes Books. H&r block state taxes   The value of books is usually determined by selecting comparable sales and adjusting the prices according to the differences between the comparable sales and the item being evaluated. H&r block state taxes This is difficult to do and, except for a collection of little value, should be done by a specialized appraiser. H&r block state taxes Within the general category of literary property, there are dealers who specialize in certain areas, such as Americana, foreign imports, Bibles, and scientific books. H&r block state taxes Modest value of collection. H&r block state taxes   If the collection you are donating is of modest value, not requiring a written appraisal, the following information may help you in determining the FMV. H&r block state taxes   A book that is very old, or very rare, is not necessarily valuable. H&r block state taxes There are many books that are very old or rare, but that have little or no market value. H&r block state taxes Condition of book. H&r block state taxes   The condition of a book may have a great influence on its value. H&r block state taxes Collectors are interested in items that are in fine, or at least good, condition. H&r block state taxes When a book has a missing page, a loose binding, tears, stains, or is otherwise in poor condition, its value is greatly lowered. H&r block state taxes Other factors. H&r block state taxes   Some other factors in the valuation of a book are the kind of binding (leather, cloth, paper), page edges, and illustrations (drawings and photographs). H&r block state taxes Collectors usually want first editions of books. H&r block state taxes However, because of changes or additions, other editions are sometimes worth as much as, or more than, the first edition. H&r block state taxes Manuscripts, autographs, diaries, and similar items. H&r block state taxes   When these items are handwritten, or at least signed by famous people, they are often in demand and are valuable. H&r block state taxes The writings of unknowns also may be of value if they are of unusual historical or literary importance. H&r block state taxes Determining the value of such material is difficult. H&r block state taxes For example, there may be a great difference in value between two diaries that were kept by a famous person—one kept during childhood and the other during a later period in his or her life. H&r block state taxes The appraiser determines a value in these cases by applying knowledge and judgment to such factors as comparable sales and conditions. H&r block state taxes Signatures. H&r block state taxes   Signatures, or sets of signatures, that were cut from letters or other papers usually have little or no value. H&r block state taxes But complete sets of the signatures of U. H&r block state taxes S. H&r block state taxes presidents are in demand. H&r block state taxes Cars, Boats, and Aircraft If you donate a car, a boat, or an aircraft to a charitable organization, its FMV must be determined. H&r block state taxes Certain commercial firms and trade organizations publish monthly or seasonal guides for different regions of the country, containing complete dealer sale prices or dealer average prices for recent model years. H&r block state taxes Prices are reported for each make, model, and year. H&r block state taxes These guides also provide estimates for adjusting for unusual equipment, unusual mileage, and physical condition. H&r block state taxes The prices are not “official,” and these publications are not considered an appraisal of any specific donated property. H&r block state taxes But they do provide clues for making an appraisal and suggest relative prices for comparison with current sales and offerings in your area. H&r block state taxes These publications are sometimes available from public libraries or at a bank, credit union, or finance company. H&r block state taxes You can also find pricing information about used cars on the Internet. H&r block state taxes An acceptable measure of the FMV of a donated car, boat, or airplane is an amount not in excess of the price listed in a used vehicle pricing guide for a private party sale, not the dealer retail value, of a similar vehicle. H&r block state taxes However, the FMV may be less than that amount if the vehicle has engine trouble, body damage, high mileage, or any type of excessive wear. H&r block state taxes The FMV of a donated vehicle is the same as the price listed in a used vehicle pricing guide for a private party sale only if the guide lists a sales price for a vehicle that is the same make, model, and year, sold in the same area, in the same condition, with the same or similar options or accessories, and with the same or similar warranties as the donated vehicle. H&r block state taxes Example. H&r block state taxes You donate a used car in poor condition to a local high school for use by students studying car repair. H&r block state taxes A used car guide shows the dealer retail value for this type of car in poor condition is $1,600. H&r block state taxes However, the guide shows the price for a private party sale of the car is only $750. H&r block state taxes The FMV of the car is considered to be no more than $750. H&r block state taxes Boats. H&r block state taxes   Except for inexpensive small boats, the valuation of boats should be based on an appraisal by a marine surveyor because the physical condition is so critical to the value. H&r block state taxes More information. H&r block state taxes   Your deduction for a donated car, boat, or airplane generally is limited to the gross proceeds from its sale by the qualified organization. H&r block state taxes This rule applies if the claimed value of the donated vehicle is more than $500. H&r block state taxes In certain cases, you can deduct the vehicle's FMV. H&r block state taxes For details, see Publication 526. H&r block state taxes Inventory If you donate any inventory item to a charitable organization, the amount of your deductible contribution generally is the FMV of the item, minus any gain you would have realized if you had sold the item at its FMV on the date of the gift. H&r block state taxes For more information, see Publication 526. H&r block state taxes Patents To determine the FMV of a patent, you must take into account, among other factors: Whether the patented technology has been made obsolete by other technology; Any restrictions on the donee's use of, or ability to transfer, the patented technology; and The length of time remaining before the patent expires. H&r block state taxes However, your deduction for a donation of a patent or other intellectual property is its FMV, minus any gain you would have realized if you had sold the property at its FMV on the date of the gift. H&r block state taxes Generally, this means your deduction is the lesser of the property's FMV or its basis. H&r block state taxes For details, see Publication 526. H&r block state taxes Stocks and Bonds The value of stocks and bonds is the FMV of a share or bond on the valuation date. H&r block state taxes See Date of contribution, earlier, under What Is Fair Market Value (FMV). H&r block state taxes Selling prices on valuation date. H&r block state taxes   If there is an active market for the contributed stocks or bonds on a stock exchange, in an over-the-counter market, or elsewhere, the FMV of each share or bond is the average price between the highest and lowest quoted selling prices on the valuation date. H&r block state taxes For example, if the highest selling price for a share was $11, and the lowest $9, the average price is $10. H&r block state taxes You get the average price by adding $11 and $9 and dividing the sum by 2. H&r block state taxes No sales on valuation date. H&r block state taxes   If there were no sales on the valuation date, but there were sales within a reasonable period before and after the valuation date, you determine FMV by taking the average price between the highest and lowest sales prices on the nearest date before and on the nearest date after the valuation date. H&r block state taxes Then you weight these averages in inverse order by the respective number of trading days between the selling dates and the valuation date. H&r block state taxes Example. H&r block state taxes   On the day you gave stock to a qualified organization, there were no sales of the stock. H&r block state taxes Sales of the stock nearest the valuation date took place two trading days before the valuation date at an average selling price of $10 and three trading days after the valuation date at an average selling price of $15. H&r block state taxes The FMV on the valuation date was $12, figured as follows: [(3 x $10) + (2 x $15)] ÷ 5 = $12 Listings on more than one stock exchange. H&r block state taxes   Stocks or bonds listed on more than one stock exchange are valued based on the prices of the exchange on which they are principally dealt. H&r block state taxes This applies if these prices are published in a generally available listing or publication of general circulation. H&r block state taxes If this is not applicable, and the stocks or bonds are reported on a composite listing of combined exchanges in a publication of general circulation, use the composite list. H&r block state taxes See also Unavailable prices or closely held corporation, later. H&r block state taxes Bid and asked prices on valuation date. H&r block state taxes   If there were no sales within a reasonable period before and after the valuation date, the FMV is the average price between the bona fide bid and asked prices on the valuation date. H&r block state taxes Example. H&r block state taxes Although there were no sales of Blue Corporation stock on the valuation date, bona fide bid and asked prices were available on that date of $14 and $16, respectively. H&r block state taxes The FMV is $15, the average price between the bid and asked prices. H&r block state taxes No prices on valuation date. H&r block state taxes   If there were no prices available on the valuation date, you determine FMV by taking the average prices between the bona fide bid and asked prices on the closest trading date before and after the valuation date. H&r block state taxes Both dates must be within a reasonable period. H&r block state taxes Then you weight these averages in inverse order by the respective number of trading days between the bid and asked dates and the valuation date. H&r block state taxes Example. H&r block state taxes On the day you gave stock to a qualified organization, no prices were available. H&r block state taxes Bona fide bid and asked prices 3 days before the valuation date were $10 and 2 days after the valuation date were $15. H&r block state taxes The FMV on the valuation date is $13, figured as follows: [(2 x $10) + (3 x $15)] ÷ 5 = $13 Prices only before or after valuation date, but not both. H&r block state taxes   If no selling prices or bona fide bid and asked prices are available on a date within a reasonable period before the valuation date, but are available on a date within a reasonable period after the valuation date, or vice versa, then the average price between the highest and lowest of such available prices may be treated as the value. H&r block state taxes Large blocks of stock. H&r block state taxes   When a large block of stock is put on the market, it may lower the selling price of the stock if the supply is greater than the demand. H&r block state taxes On the other hand, market forces may exist that will afford higher prices for large blocks of stock. H&r block state taxes Because of the many factors to be considered, determining the value of large blocks of stock usually requires the help of experts specializing in underwriting large quantities of securities, or in trading in the securities of the industry of which the particular company is a part. H&r block state taxes Unavailable prices or closely held corporation. H&r block state taxes   If selling prices or bid and asked prices are not available, or if securities of a closely held corporation are involved, determine the FMV by considering the following factors. H&r block state taxes For bonds, the soundness of the security, the interest yield, the date of maturity, and other relevant factors. H&r block state taxes For shares of stock, the company's net worth, prospective earning power and dividend-paying capacity, and other relevant factors. H&r block state taxes Other factors. H&r block state taxes   Other relevant factors include: The nature and history of the business, especially its recent history, The goodwill of the business, The economic outlook in the particular industry, The company's position in the industry, its competitors, and its management, and The value of securities of corporations engaged in the same or similar business. H&r block state taxes For preferred stock, the most important factors are its yield, dividend coverage, and protection of its liquidation preference. H&r block state taxes   You should keep complete financial and other information on which the valuation is based. H&r block state taxes This includes copies of reports of examinations of the company made by accountants, engineers, or any technical experts on or close to the valuation date. H&r block state taxes Restricted securities. H&r block state taxes   Some classes of stock cannot be traded publicly because of restrictions imposed by the Securities and Exchange Commission, or by the corporate charter or a trust agreement. H&r block state taxes These restricted securities usually trade at a discount in relation to freely traded securities. H&r block state taxes   To arrive at the FMV of restricted securities, factors that you must consider include the resale provisions found in the restriction agreements, the relative negotiating strengths of the buyer and seller, and the market experience of freely traded securities of the same class as the restricted securities. H&r block state taxes Real Estate Because each piece of real estate is unique and its valuation is complicated, a detailed appraisal by a professional appraiser is necessary. H&r block state taxes The appraiser must be thoroughly trained in the application of appraisal principles and theory. H&r block state taxes In some instances the opinions of equally qualified appraisers may carry unequal weight, such as when one appraiser has a better knowledge of local conditions. H&r block state taxes The appraisal report must contain a complete description of the property, such as street address, legal description, and lot and block number, as well as physical features, condition, and dimensions. H&r block state taxes The use to which the property is put, zoning and permitted uses, and its potential use for other higher and better uses are also relevant. H&r block state taxes In general, there are three main approaches to the valuation of real estate. H&r block state taxes An appraisal may require the combined use of two or three methods rather than one method only. H&r block state taxes 1. H&r block state taxes Comparable Sales The comparable sales method compares the donated property with several similar properties that have been sold. H&r block state taxes The selling prices, after adjustments for differences in date of sale, size, condition, and location, would then indicate the estimated FMV of the donated property. H&r block state taxes If the comparable sales method is used to determine the value of unimproved real property (land without significant buildings, structures, or any other improvements that add to its value), the appraiser should consider the following factors when comparing the potential comparable property and the donated property: Location, size, and zoning or use restrictions, Accessibility and road frontage, and available utilities and water rights, Riparian rights (right of access to and use of the water by owners of land on the bank of a river) and existing easements, rights-of-way, leases, etc. H&r block state taxes , Soil characteristics, vegetative cover, and status of mineral rights, and Other factors affecting value. H&r block state taxes For each comparable sale, the appraisal must include the names of the buyer and seller, the deed book and page number, the date of sale and selling price, a property description, the amount and terms of mortgages, property surveys, the assessed value, the tax rate, and the assessor's appraised FMV. H&r block state taxes The comparable selling prices must be adjusted to account for differences between the sale property and the donated property. H&r block state taxes Because differences of opinion may arise between appraisers as to the degree of comparability and the amount of the adjustment considered necessary for comparison purposes, an appraiser should document each item of adjustment. H&r block state taxes Only comparable sales having the least adjustments in terms of items and/or total dollar adjustments should be considered as comparable to the donated property. H&r block state taxes 2. H&r block state taxes Capitalization of Income This method capitalizes the net income from the property at a rate that represents a fair return on the particular investment at the particular time, considering the risks involved. H&r block state taxes The key elements are the determination of the income to be capitalized and the rate of capitalization. H&r block state taxes 3. H&r block state taxes Replacement Cost New or Reproduction Cost Minus Observed Depreciation This method, used alone, usually does not result in a determination of FMV. H&r block state taxes Instead, it generally tends to set the upper limit of value, particularly in periods of rising costs, because it is reasonable to assume that an informed buyer will not pay more for the real estate than it would cost to reproduce a similar property. H&r block state taxes Of course, this reasoning does not apply if a similar property cannot be created because of location, unusual construction, or some other reason. H&r block state taxes Generally, this method serves to support the value determined from other methods. H&r block state taxes When the replacement cost method is applied to improved realty, the land and improvements are valued separately. H&r block state taxes The replacement cost of a building is figured by considering the materials, the quality of workmanship, and the number of square feet or cubic feet in the building. H&r block state taxes This cost represents the total cost of labor and material, overhead, and profit. H&r block state taxes After the replacement cost has been figured, consideration must be given to the following factors: Physical deterioration—the wear and tear on the building itself, Functional obsolescence—usually in older buildings with, for example, inadequate lighting, plumbing, or heating, small rooms, or a poor floor plan, and Economic obsolescence—outside forces causing the whole area to become less desirable. H&r block state taxes Interest in a Business The FMV of any interest in a business, whether a sole proprietorship or a partnership, is the amount that a willing buyer would pay for the interest to a willing seller after consideration of all relevant factors. H&r block state taxes The relevant factors to be considered in valuing the business are: The FMV of the assets of the business, The demonstrated earnings capacity of the business, based on a review of past and current earnings, and The other factors used in evaluating corporate stock, if they apply. H&r block state taxes The value of the goodwill of the business should also be taken into consideration. H&r block state taxes You should keep complete financial and other information on which you base the valuation. H&r block state taxes This includes copies of reports of examinations of the business made by accountants, engineers, or any technical experts on or close to the valuation date. H&r block state taxes Annuities, Interests for Life or Terms of Years, Remainders, and Reversions The value of these kinds of property is their present value, except in the case of annuities under contracts issued by companies regularly engaged in their sale. H&r block state taxes The valuation of these commercial annuity contracts and of insurance policies is discussed later under Certain Life Insurance and Annuity Contracts. H&r block state taxes To determine present value, you must know the applicable interest rate and use actuarial tables. H&r block state taxes Interest rate. H&r block state taxes   The applicable interest rate varies. H&r block state taxes It is announced monthly in a news release and published in the Internal Revenue Bulletin as a Revenue Ruling. H&r block state taxes The interest rate to use is under the heading “Rate Under Section 7520” for a given month and year. H&r block state taxes You can call the IRS office at 1-800-829-1040 to obtain this rate. H&r block state taxes Actuarial tables. H&r block state taxes   You need to refer to actuarial tables to determine a qualified interest in the form of an annuity, any interest for life or a term of years, or any remainder interest to a charitable organization. H&r block state taxes   Use the valuation tables set forth in IRS Publications 1457, Actuarial Values (Book Aleph), and 1458, Actuarial Values (Book Beth). H&r block state taxes Both of these publications provide tables containing actuarial factors to be used in determining the present value of an annuity, an interest for life or for a term of years, or a remainder or reversionary interest. H&r block state taxes For qualified charitable transfers, you can use the factor for the month in which you made the contribution or for either of the 2 months preceding that month. H&r block state taxes   Publication 1457 also contains actuarial factors for computing the value of a remainder interest in a charitable remainder annuity trust and a pooled income fund. H&r block state taxes Publication 1458 contains the factors for valuing the remainder interest in a charitable remainder unitrust. H&r block state taxes You can download Publications 1457 and 1458 from www. H&r block state taxes irs. H&r block state taxes gov. H&r block state taxes In addition, they are available for purchase via the website of the U. H&r block state taxes S. H&r block state taxes Government Printing Office, by phone at (202) 512-1800, or by mail from the: Superintendent of Documents P. H&r block state taxes O. H&r block state taxes Box 371954 Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954 Tables containing actuarial factors for transfers to pooled income funds may also be found in Income Tax Regulation 1. H&r block state taxes 642(c)-6(e)(6), transfers to charitable remainder unitrusts in Regulation 1. H&r block state taxes 664-4(e), and other transfers in Regulation 20. H&r block state taxes 2031-7(d)(6). H&r block state taxes Special factors. H&r block state taxes   If you need a special factor for an actual transaction, you can request a letter ruling. H&r block state taxes Be sure to include the date of birth of each person the duration of whose life may affect the value of the interest. H&r block state taxes Also include copies of the relevant instruments. H&r block state taxes IRS charges a user fee for providing special factors. H&r block state taxes   For more information about requesting a ruling, see Revenue Procedure 2006-1 (or annual update), 2006-1 I. H&r block state taxes R. H&r block state taxes B. H&r block state taxes 1. H&r block state taxes Revenue Procedure 2006-1 is available at www. H&r block state taxes irs. H&r block state taxes gov/irb/2006-01_IRB/ar06. H&r block state taxes html. H&r block state taxes   For information on the circumstances under which a charitable deduction may be allowed for the donation of a partial interest in property not in trust, see Partial Interest in Property Not in Trust, later. H&r block state taxes Certain Life Insurance and Annuity Contracts The value of an annuity contract or a life insurance policy issued by a company regularly engaged in the sale of such contracts or policies is the amount that company would charge for a comparable contract. H&r block state taxes But if the donee of a life insurance policy may reasonably be expected to cash the policy rather than hold it as an investment, then the FMV is the cash surrender value rather than the replacement cost. H&r block state taxes If an annuity is payable under a combination annuity contract and life insurance policy (for example, a retirement income policy with a death benefit) and there was no insurance element when it was transferred to the charity, the policy is treated as an annuity contract. H&r block state taxes Partial Interest in Property Not in Trust Generally, no deduction is allowed for a charitable contribution, not made in trust, of less than your entire interest in property. H&r block state taxes However, this does not apply to a transfer of less than your entire interest if it is a transfer of: A remainder interest in your personal residence or farm, An undivided part of your entire interest in property, or A qualified conservation contribution. H&r block state taxes Remainder Interest in Real Property The amount of the deduction for a donation of a remainder interest in real property is the FMV of the remainder interest at the time of the contribution. H&r block state taxes To determine this value, you must know the FMV of the property on the date of the contribution. H&r block state taxes Multiply this value by the appropriate factor. H&r block state taxes Publications 1457 and 1458 contain these factors. H&r block state taxes You must make an adjustment for depreciation or depletion using the factors shown in Publication 1459, Actuarial Values (Book Gimel). H&r block state taxes You can use the factors for the month in which you made the contribution or for either of the two months preceding that month. H&r block state taxes See the earlier discussion on Annuities, Interests for Life or Terms of Years, Remainders, and Reversions. H&r block state taxes You can download Publication 1459 from www. H&r block state taxes irs. H&r block state taxes gov. H&r block state taxes For this purpose, the term “depreciable property” means any property subject to wear and tear or obsolescence, even if not used in a trade or business or for the production of income. H&r block state taxes If the remainder interest includes both depreciable and nondepreciable property, for example a house and land, the FMV must be allocated between each kind of property at the time of the contribution. H&r block state taxes This rule also applies to a gift of a remainder interest that includes property that is part depletable and part not depletable. H&r block state taxes Take into account depreciation or depletion only for the property that is subject to depreciation or depletion. H&r block state taxes For more information, see section 1. H&r block state taxes 170A-12 of the Income Tax Regulations. H&r block state taxes Undivided Part of Your Entire Interest A contribution of an undivided part of your entire interest in property must consist of a part of each and every substantial interest or right you own in the property. H&r block state taxes It must extend over the entire term of your interest in the property. H&r block state taxes For example, you are entitled to the income from certain property for your life (life estate) and you contribute 20% of that life estate to a qualified organization. H&r block state taxes You can claim a deduction for the contribution if you do not have any other interest in the property. H&r block state taxes To figure the value of a contribution involving a partial interest, see Publication 1457. H&r block state taxes If the only interest you own in real property is a remainder interest and you transfer part of that interest to a qualified organization, see the previous discussion on valuation of a remainder interest in real property. H&r block state taxes Qualified Conservation Contribution A qualified conservation contribution is a contribution of a qualified real property interest to a qualified organization to be used only for conservation purposes. H&r block state taxes Qualified organization. H&r block state taxes   For purposes of a qualified conservation contribution, a qualified organization is: A governmental unit, A publicly supported charitable, religious, scientific, literary, educational, etc. H&r block state taxes , organization, or An organization that is controlled by, and operated for the exclusive benefit of, a governmental unit or a publicly supported charity. H&r block state taxes The organization also must have a commitment to protect the conservation purposes of the donation and must have the resources to enforce the restrictions. H&r block state taxes Conservation purposes. H&r block state taxes   Your contribution must be made only for one of the following conservation purposes. H&r block state taxes Preserving land areas for outdoor recreation by, or for the education of, the general public. H&r block state taxes Protecting a relatively natural habitat of fish, wildlife, or plants, or a similar ecosystem. H&r block state taxes Preserving open space, including farmland and forest land, if it yields a significant public benefit. H&r block state taxes It must be either for the scenic enjoyment of the general public or under a clearly defined federal, state, or local governmental conservation policy. H&r block state taxes Preserving a historically important land area or a certified historic structure. H&r block state taxes There must be some visual public access to the property. H&r block state taxes Factors used in determining the type and amount of public access required include the historical significance of the property, the remoteness or accessibility of the site, and the extent to which intrusions on the privacy of individuals living on the property would be unreasonable. H&r block state taxes Building in registered historic district. H&r block state taxes   A contribution after July 25, 2006, of a qualified real property interest that is an easement or other restriction on the exterior of a building in a registered historic district is deductible only if it meets all of the following three conditions. H&r block state taxes The restriction must preserve the entire exterior of the building and must prohibit any change to the exterior of the building that is inconsistent with its historical character. H&r block state taxes You and the organization receiving the contribution must enter into a written agreement certifying, that the organization is a qualified organization and that it has the resources and commitment to maintain the property as donated. H&r block state taxes If you make the contribution in a tax year beginning after August 17, 2006, you must include with your return: A qualified appraisal, Photographs of the building's entire exterior, and A description of all restrictions on development of the building, such as zoning laws and restrictive covenants. H&r block state taxes   If you make this type of contribution after February 12, 2007, and claim a deduction of more than $10,000, your deduction will not be allowed unless you pay a $500 filing fee. H&r block state taxes See Form 8283-V, Payment Voucher for Filing Fee Under Section 170(f)(13), and its instructions. H&r block state taxes Qualified real property interest. H&r block state taxes   This is any of the following interests in real property. H&r block state taxes Your entire interest in real estate other than a mineral interest (subsurface oil, gas, or other minerals, and the right of access to these minerals). H&r block state taxes A remainder interest. H&r block state taxes A restriction (granted in perpetuity) on the use that may be made of the real property. H&r block state taxes Valuation. H&r block state taxes   A qualified real property interest described in (1) should be valued in a manner that is consistent with the type of interest transferred. H&r block state taxes If you transferred all the interest in the property, the FMV of the property is the amount of the contribution. H&r block state taxes If you do not transfer the mineral interest, the FMV of the surface rights in the property is the amount of the contribution. H&r block state taxes   If you owned only a remainder interest or an income interest (life estate), see Undivided Part of Your Entire Interest, earlier. H&r block state taxes If you owned the entire property but transferred only a remainder interest (item (2)), see Remainder Interest in Real Property, earlier. H&r block state taxes   In determining the value of restrictions, you should take into account the selling price in arm's-length transactions of other properties that have comparable restrictions. H&r block state taxes If there are no comparable sales, the restrictions are valued indirectly as the difference between the FMVs of the property involved before and after the grant of the restriction. H&r block state taxes   The FMV of the property before contribution of the restriction should take into account not only current use but the likelihood that the property, without the restriction, would be developed. H&r block state taxes You should also consider any zoning, conservation, or historical preservation laws that would restrict development. H&r block state taxes Granting an easement may increase, rather than reduce, the value of property, and in such a situation no deduction would be allowed. H&r block state taxes Example. H&r block state taxes   You own 10 acres of farmland. H&r block state taxes Similar land in the area has an FMV of $2,000 an acre. H&r block state taxes However, land in the general area that is restricted solely to farm use has an FMV of $1,500 an acre. H&r block state taxes Your county wants to preserve open space and prevent further development in your area. H&r block state taxes   You grant to the county an enforceable open space easement in perpetuity on 8 of the 10 acres, restricting its use to farmland. H&r block state taxes The value of this easement is $4,000, determined as follows: FMV of the property before granting easement:   $2,000 × 10 acres $20,000 FMV of the property after granting easement:   $1,500 × 8 acres $12,000   $2,000 × 2 acres 4,000 16,000 Value of easement   $4,000   If you later transfer in fee your remaining interest in the 8 acres to another qualified organization, the FMV of your remaining interest is the FMV of the 8 acres reduced by the FMV of the easement granted to the first organization. H&r block state taxes More information. H&r block state taxes   For more information about qualified conservation contributions, see Publication 526. H&r block state taxes Appraisals Appraisals are not necessary for items of property for which you claim a deduction of $5,000 or less. H&r block state taxes (There is one exception, described next, for certain clothing and household items. H&r block state taxes ) However, you generally will need an appraisal for donated property for which you claim a deduction of more than $5,000. H&r block state taxes There are exceptions. H&r block state taxes See Deductions of More Than $5,000, later. H&r block state taxes The weight given an appraisal depends on the completeness of the report, the qualifications of the appraiser, and the appraiser's demonstrated knowledge of the donated property. H&r block state taxes An appraisal must give all the facts on which to base an intelligent judgment of the value of the property. H&r block state taxes The appraisal will not be given much weight if: All the factors that apply are not considered, The opinion is not supported with facts, such as purchase price and comparable sales, or The opinion is not consistent with known facts. H&r block state taxes The appraiser's opinion is never more valid than the facts on which it is based; without these facts it is simply a guess. H&r block state taxes The opinion of a person claiming to be an expert is not binding on the Internal Revenue Service. H&r block state taxes All facts associated with the donation must be considered. H&r block state taxes Deduction over $500 for certain clothing or household items. H&r block state taxes   You must include with your return a qualified appraisal of any single item of clothing or any household item that is not in good used condition or better, that you donated after August 17, 2006, and for which you deduct more than $500. H&r block state taxes See Household Goods and Used Clothing, earlier. H&r block state taxes Cost of appraisals. H&r block state taxes   You may not take a charitable contribution deduction for fees you pay for appraisals of your donated property. H&r block state taxes However, these fees may qualify as a miscellaneous deduction, subject to the 2% limit, on Schedule A (Form 1040) if paid to determine the amount allowable as a charitable contribution. H&r block state taxes Deductions of More Than $5,000 Generally, if the claimed deduction for an item or group of similar items of donated property is more than $5,000, you must get a qualified appraisal made by a qualified appraiser, and you must attach Section B of Form 8283 to your tax return. H&r block state taxes There are exceptions, discussed later. H&r block state taxes You should keep the appraiser's report with your written records. H&r block state taxes Records are discussed in Publication 526. H&r block state taxes The phrase “similar items” means property of the same generic category or type (whether or not donated to the same donee), such as stamp collections, coin collections, lithographs, paintings, photographs, books, nonpublicly traded stock, nonpublicly traded securities other than nonpublicly traded stock, land, buildings, clothing, jewelry, furniture, electronic equipment, household appliances, toys, everyday kitchenware, china, crystal, or silver. H&r block state taxes For example, if you give books to three schools and you deduct $2,000, $2,500, and $900, respectively, your claimed deduction is more than $5,000 for these books. H&r block state taxes You must get a qualified appraisal of the books and for each school you must attach a fully completed Form 8283, Section B, to your tax return. H&r block state taxes Exceptions. H&r block state taxes   You do not need an appraisal if the property is: Nonpublicly traded stock of $10,000 or less, A vehicle (including a car, boat, or airplane) for which your deduction is limited to the gross proceeds from its sale, Qualified intellectual property, such as a patent, Certain publicly traded securities described next, Inventory and other property donated by a corporation that are “qualified contributions” for the care of the ill, the needy, or infants, within the meaning of section 170(e)(3)(A) of the Internal Revenue Code, or Stock in trade, inventory, or property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of your trade or business. H&r block state taxes   Although an appraisal is not required for the types of property just listed, you must provide certain information about a donation of any of these types of property on Form 8283. H&r block state taxes Publicly traded securities. H&r block state taxes   Even if your claimed deduction is more than $5,000, neither a qualified appraisal nor Section B of Form 8283 is required for publicly traded securities that are: Listed on a stock exchange in which quotations are published on a daily basis, Regularly traded in a national or regional over-the-counter market for which published quotations are available, or Shares of an open-end investment company (mutual fund) for which quotations are published on a daily basis in a newspaper of general circulation throughout the United States. H&r block state taxes Publicly traded securities that meet these requirements must be reported on Form 8283, Section A. H&r block state taxes   A qualified appraisal is not required, but Form 8283, Section B, Parts I and IV, must be completed, for an issue of a security that does not meet the requirements just listed but does meet these requirements: The issue is regularly traded during the computation period (defined later) in a market for which there is an “interdealer quotation system” (defined later), The issuer or agent computes the “average trading price” (defined later) for the same issue for the computation period, The average trading price and total volume of the issue during the computation period are published in a newspaper of general circulation throughout the United States, not later than the last day of the month following the end of the calendar quarter in which the computation period ends, The issuer or agent keeps books and records that list for each transaction during the computation period the date of settlement of the transaction, the name and address of the broker or dealer making the market in which the transaction occurred, and the trading price and volume, and The issuer or agent permits the Internal Revenue Service to review the books and records described in item (4) with respect to transactions during the computation period upon receiving reasonable notice. H&r block state taxes   An interdealer quotation system is any system of general circulation to brokers and dealers that regularly disseminates quotations of obligations by two or more identified brokers or dealers who are not related to either the issuer or agent who computes the average trading price of the security. H&r block state taxes A quotation sheet prepared and distributed by a broker or dealer in the regular course of business and containing only quotations of that broker or dealer is not an interdealer quotation system. H&r block state taxes   The average trading price is the average price of all transactions (weighted by volume), other than original issue or redemption transactions, conducted through a United States office of a broker or dealer who maintains a market in the issue of the security during the computation period. H&r block state taxes Bid and asked quotations are not taken into account. H&r block state taxes   The computation period is weekly during October through December and monthly during January through September. H&r block state taxes The weekly computation periods during October through December begin with the first Monday in October and end with the first Sunday following the last Monday in December. H&r block state taxes Nonpublicly traded stock. H&r block state taxes   If you contribute nonpublicly traded stock, for which you claim a deduction of $10,000 or less, a qualified appraisal is not required. H&r block state taxes However, you must attach Form 8283 to your tax return, with Section B, Parts I and IV, completed. H&r block state taxes Deductions of More Than $500,000 If you claim a deduction of more than $500,000 for a donation of property, you must attach a qualified appraisal of the property to your return. H&r block state taxes This does not apply to contributions of cash, inventory, publicly traded stock, or intellectual property. H&r block state taxes If you do not attach the appraisal, you cannot deduct your contribution, unless your failure to attach the appraisal is due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect. H&r block state taxes Qualified Appraisal Generally, if the claimed deduction for an item or group of similar items of donated property is more than $5,000, you must get a qualified appraisal made by a qualified appraiser. H&r block state taxes You must also complete Form 8283, Section B, and attach it to your tax return. H&r block state taxes See Deductions of More Than $5,000, earlier. H&r block state taxes A qualified appraisal is an appraisal document that: Is made, signed, and dated by a qualified appraiser (defined later) in accordance with generally accepted appraisal standards, Meets the relevant requirements of Regulations section 1. H&r block state taxes 170A-13(c)(3) and Notice 2006-96, 2006-46 I. H&r block state taxes R. H&r block state taxes B. H&r block state taxes 902 (available at www. H&r block state taxes irs. H&r block state taxes gov/irb/2006-46_IRB/ar13. H&r block state taxes html), Relates to an appraisal made not earlier than 60 days before the date of contribution of the appraised property, Does not involve a prohibited appraisal fee, and Includes certain information (covered later). H&r block state taxes You must receive the qualified appraisal before the due date, including extensions, of the return on which a charitable contribution deduction is first claimed for the donated property. H&r block state taxes If the deduction is first claimed on an amended return, the qualified appraisal must be received before the date on which the amended return is filed. H&r block state taxes Form 8283, Section B, must be attached to your tax return. H&r block state taxes Generally, you do not need to attach the qualified appraisal itself, but you should keep a copy as long as it may be relevant under the tax law. H&r block state taxes There are four exceptions. H&r block state taxes If you claim a deduction of $20,000 or more for donations of art, you must attach a complete copy of the appraisal. H&r block state taxes See Paintings, Antiques, and Other Objects of Art, earlier. H&r block state taxes If you claim a deduction of more than $500,000 for a donation of property, you must attach the appraisal. H&r block state taxes See Deductions of More Than $500,000, earlier. H&r block state taxes If you claim a deduction of more than $500 for an article of clothing, or a household item, that is not in good used condition or better, that you donated after August 17, 2006, you must attach the appraisal. H&r block state taxes See Deduction over $500 for certain clothing or household items, earlier. H&r block state taxes If you claim a deduction in a tax year beginning after August 17, 2006, for an easement or other restriction on the exterior of a building in a historic district, you must attach the appraisal. H&r block state taxes See Building in registered historic district, earlier. H&r block state taxes Prohibited appraisal fee. H&r block state taxes   Generally, no part of the fee arrangement for a qualified appraisal can be based on a percentage of the appraised value of the property. H&r block state taxes If a fee arrangement is based on what is allowed as a deduction, after Internal Revenue Service examination or otherwise, it is treated as a fee based on a percentage of appraised value. H&r block state taxes However, appraisals are not disqualified when an otherwise prohi