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H&r Block Tax Cut

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H&r Block Tax Cut

H&r block tax cut Publication 971 - Main Content Table of Contents How To Request ReliefException for agreements relating to TEFRA partnership proceedings. H&r block tax cut The IRS Must Contact Your Spouse or Former Spouse Tax Court Review of Request Community Property LawsRelief for Married Persons Who Did Not File Joint Returns Innocent Spouse ReliefUnderstated Tax Erroneous Items Actual Knowledge or Reason To Know Indications of Unfairness for Innocent Spouse Relief Separation of Liability ReliefLimitations on Relief Equitable ReliefConditions for Getting Equitable Relief Factors for Determining Whether To Grant Equitable Relief RefundsProof Required Refunds Under Equitable Relief Limit on Amount of Refund Filled-in Form 8857 Flowcharts How To Request Relief File Form 8857 to ask the IRS for the types of relief discussed in this publication. H&r block tax cut If you are requesting relief for more than three tax years, you must file an additional Form 8857. H&r block tax cut The IRS will review your Form 8857 and let you know if you qualify. H&r block tax cut A completed Form 8857 is shown later. H&r block tax cut When to file Form 8857. H&r block tax cut   You should file Form 8857 as soon as you become aware of a tax liability for which you believe only your spouse or former spouse should be held responsible. H&r block tax cut The following are some of the ways you may become aware of such a liability. H&r block tax cut The IRS is examining your tax return and proposing to increase your tax liability. H&r block tax cut The IRS sends you a notice. H&r block tax cut   You must file Form 8857 no later than two years after the date on which the IRS first attempted to collect the tax from you that occurs after July 22, 1998. H&r block tax cut (But see the exceptions below for different filing deadlines that apply. H&r block tax cut ) For this reason, do not delay filing because you do not have all the documentation. H&r block tax cut   Collection activities that may start the 2-year period are: The IRS offset your income tax refund against an amount you owed on a joint return for another year and the IRS informed you about your right to file Form 8857. H&r block tax cut The filing of a claim by the IRS in a court proceeding in which you were a party or the filing of a claim in a proceeding that involves your property. H&r block tax cut This includes the filing of a proof of claim in a bankruptcy proceeding. H&r block tax cut The filing of a suit by the United States against you to collect the joint liability. H&r block tax cut The issuance of a section 6330 notice, which notifies you of the IRS' intent to levy and your right to a collection due process (CDP) hearing. H&r block tax cut The collection-related notices include, but are not limited to, Letter 11 and Letter 1058. H&r block tax cut Exception for equitable relief. H&r block tax cut   On July 25, 2011, the IRS issued Notice 2011-70 (available at www. H&r block tax cut irs. H&r block tax cut gov/irb/2011-32_IRB/ar11. H&r block tax cut html) expanding the amount of time to request equitable relief. H&r block tax cut The amount of time to request equitable relief depends on whether you are seeking relief from a balance due, seeking a credit or refund, or both: Balance Due – Generally, you must file your request within the time period the IRS has to collect the tax. H&r block tax cut Generally, the IRS has 10 years from the date the tax liability was assessed to collect the tax. H&r block tax cut In certain cases, the 10-year period is suspended. H&r block tax cut The amount of time the suspension is in effect will extend the time the IRS has to collect the tax. H&r block tax cut See Pub. H&r block tax cut 594, The IRS Collection Process, for details. H&r block tax cut Credit or Refund – Generally, you must file your request within 3 years after the date the original return was filed or within 2 years after the date the tax was paid, whichever is later. H&r block tax cut But you may have more time to file if you live in a federally declared disaster area or you are physically or mentally unable to manage your financial affairs. H&r block tax cut See Pub. H&r block tax cut 556, Examination of Returns, Appeal Rights, and Claims for Refund, for details. H&r block tax cut Both a Balance Due and a Credit or Refund – If you are seeking a refund of amounts you paid and relief from a balance due over and above what you have paid, the time period for credit or refund will apply to any payments you have made, and the time period for collection of a balance due amount will apply to any unpaid liability. H&r block tax cut Exception for relief based on community property laws. H&r block tax cut   If you are requesting relief based on community property laws, a different filing deadline applies. H&r block tax cut See Relief from liability arising from community property law discussed later under Community Property Laws . H&r block tax cut Form 8857 filed by or on behalf of a decedent. H&r block tax cut   An executor (including any other duly appointed representative) may pursue a Form 8857 filed during the decedent's lifetime. H&r block tax cut An executor (including any other duly appointed representative) may also file Form 8857 as long as the decedent satisfied the eligibility requirements while alive. H&r block tax cut For purposes of separation of liability relief (discussed later), the decedent's marital status is determined on the earlier of the date relief was requested or the date of death. H&r block tax cut Situations in which you are not entitled to relief. H&r block tax cut   You are not entitled to innocent spouse relief for any tax year to which the following situations apply. H&r block tax cut In a final decision dated after July 22, 1998, a court considered whether to grant you relief from joint liability and decided not to do so. H&r block tax cut In a final decision dated after July 22, 1998, a court did not consider whether to grant you relief from joint liability, but you meaningfully participated in the proceeding and could have asked for relief. H&r block tax cut You entered into an offer in compromise with the IRS. H&r block tax cut You entered into a closing agreement with the IRS that disposed of the same liability for which you want to seek relief. H&r block tax cut Exception for agreements relating to TEFRA partnership proceedings. H&r block tax cut   You may be entitled to relief, discussed in (4) earlier, if you entered into a closing agreement for both partnership items and nonpartnership items, while you were a party to a pending TEFRA partnership proceeding. H&r block tax cut (TEFRA is an acronym that refers to the “Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982” that prescribed the tax treatment of partnership items. H&r block tax cut ) You are not entitled to relief for the nonpartnership items, but you will be entitled to relief for the partnership items (if you otherwise qualify). H&r block tax cut Transferee liability not affected by innocent spouse relief provisions. H&r block tax cut   The innocent spouse relief provisions do not affect tax liabilities that arise under federal or state transferee liability or property laws. H&r block tax cut Therefore, even if you are relieved of the tax liability under the innocent spouse relief provisions, you may remain liable for the unpaid tax, interest, and penalties to the extent provided by these laws. H&r block tax cut Example. H&r block tax cut Herb and Wanda timely filed their 2008 joint income tax return on April 15, 2009. H&r block tax cut Herb died in March 2010, and the executor of Herb's will transferred all of the estate's assets to Wanda. H&r block tax cut In August 2010, the IRS assessed a deficiency for the 2008 return. H&r block tax cut The items causing the deficiency belong to Herb. H&r block tax cut Wanda is relieved of the deficiency under the innocent spouse relief provisions, and Herb's estate remains solely liable for it. H&r block tax cut However, the IRS may collect the deficiency from Wanda to the extent permitted under federal or state transferee liability or property laws. H&r block tax cut The IRS Must Contact Your Spouse or Former Spouse By law, the IRS must contact your spouse or former spouse. H&r block tax cut There are no exceptions, even for victims of spousal abuse or domestic violence. H&r block tax cut We will inform your spouse or former spouse that you filed Form 8857 and will allow him or her to participate in the process. H&r block tax cut If you are requesting relief from joint and several liability on a joint return, the IRS must also inform him or her of its preliminary and final determinations regarding your request for relief. H&r block tax cut However, to protect your privacy, the IRS will not disclose your personal information (for example, your current name, address, phone number(s), information about your employer, your income or assets) or any other information that does not relate to making a determination about your request for relief from liability. H&r block tax cut If you petition the Tax Court (explained below), your spouse or former spouse may see your personal information. H&r block tax cut Tax Court Review of Request After you file Form 8857, you may be able to petition (ask) the United States Tax Court to review your request for relief in the following two situations. H&r block tax cut The IRS sends you a final determination letter regarding your request for relief. H&r block tax cut You do not receive a final determination letter from the IRS within six months from the date you filed Form 8857. H&r block tax cut If you seek equitable relief for an underpaid tax, you will be able to get a Tax Court review of your request only if the tax arose or remained unpaid on or after December 20, 2006. H&r block tax cut The United States Tax Court is an independent judicial body and is not part of the IRS. H&r block tax cut You must file a petition with the United States Tax Court in order for it to review your request for relief. H&r block tax cut You must file the petition no later than the 90th day after the date the IRS mails its final determination notice to you. H&r block tax cut If you do not file a petition, or you file it late, the Tax Court cannot review your request for relief. H&r block tax cut You can get a copy of the rules for filing a petition by writing to the Tax Court at the following address:    United States Tax Court 400 Second Street, NW Washington, DC 20217 Or you can visit the Tax Court's website at www. H&r block tax cut ustaxcourt. H&r block tax cut gov Community Property Laws You must generally follow community property laws when filing a tax return if you are married and live in a community property state. H&r block tax cut Community property states are Arizona, California, Idaho, Louisiana, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, Washington, and Wisconsin. H&r block tax cut Generally, community property laws require you to allocate community income and expenses equally between both spouses. H&r block tax cut However, community property laws are not taken into account in determining whether an item belongs to you or to your spouse (or former spouse) for purposes of requesting any relief from liability. H&r block tax cut Relief for Married Persons Who Did Not File Joint Returns Married persons who live in community property states, but who did not file joint returns, have two ways to get relief. H&r block tax cut Relief From Liability Arising From Community Property Law You are not responsible for the tax relating to an item of community income if all the following conditions exist. H&r block tax cut You did not file a joint return for the tax year. H&r block tax cut You did not include the item of community income in gross income. H&r block tax cut The item of community income you did not include is one of the following: Wages, salaries, and other compensation your spouse (or former spouse) received for services he or she performed as an employee. H&r block tax cut Income your spouse (or former spouse) derived from a trade or business he or she operated as a sole proprietor. H&r block tax cut Your spouse's (or former spouse's) distributive share of partnership income. H&r block tax cut Income from your spouse's (or former spouse's) separate property (other than income described in (a), (b), or (c)). H&r block tax cut Use the appropriate community property law to determine what is separate property. H&r block tax cut Any other income that belongs to your spouse (or former spouse) under community property law. H&r block tax cut You establish that you did not know of, and had no reason to know of, that community income. H&r block tax cut See  Actual Knowledge or Reason To Know , below. H&r block tax cut Under all facts and circumstances, it would not be fair to include the item of community income in your gross income. H&r block tax cut See Indications of unfairness for liability arising from community property law, later. H&r block tax cut Actual knowledge or reason to know. H&r block tax cut   You knew or had reason to know of an item of community income if: You actually knew of the item of community income, or A reasonable person in similar circumstances would have known of the item of community income. H&r block tax cut Amount of community income unknown. H&r block tax cut   If you are aware of the source of the item of community income or the income-producing activity, but are unaware of the specific amount, you are considered to know or have reason to know of the item of community income. H&r block tax cut Not knowing the specific amount is not a basis for relief. H&r block tax cut Reason to know. H&r block tax cut   The IRS will consider all facts and circumstances in determining whether you had reason to know of an item of community income. H&r block tax cut The facts and circumstances include: The nature of the item of community income and the amount of the item relative to other income items. H&r block tax cut The financial situation of you and your spouse (or former spouse). H&r block tax cut Your educational background and business experience. H&r block tax cut Whether the item of community income represented a departure from a recurring pattern reflected in prior years' returns (for example, omitted income from an investment regularly reported on prior years' returns). H&r block tax cut Indications of unfairness for liability arising from community property law. H&r block tax cut   The IRS will consider all of the facts and circumstances of the case in order to determine whether it is unfair to hold you responsible for the understated tax due to the item of community income. H&r block tax cut   The following are examples of factors the IRS will consider. H&r block tax cut Whether you received a benefit, either directly or indirectly, from the omitted item of community income (defined below). H&r block tax cut Whether your spouse (or former spouse) deserted you. H&r block tax cut Whether you and your spouse have been divorced or separated. H&r block tax cut  For other factors see Factors for Determining Whether To Grant Equitable Relief later. H&r block tax cut Benefit from omitted item of community income. H&r block tax cut   A benefit includes normal support, but does not include de minimis (small) amounts. H&r block tax cut Evidence of a direct or indirect benefit may consist of transfers of property or rights to property, including transfers received several years after the filing of the return. H&r block tax cut   For example, if you receive property, including life insurance proceeds, from your spouse (or former spouse) and the property is traceable to omitted items of community income attributable to your spouse (or former spouse), you are considered to have benefitted from those omitted items of community income. H&r block tax cut Equitable Relief If you do not qualify for the relief described above and are now liable for an underpaid or understated tax you believe should be paid only by your spouse (or former spouse), you may request equitable relief (discussed later). H&r block tax cut How and When To Request Relief You request relief by filing Form 8857, as discussed earlier. H&r block tax cut Fill in Form 8857 according to the instructions. H&r block tax cut For relief from liability arising from community property law, you must file Form 8857 no later than 6 months before the expiration of the period of limitations on assessment (including extensions) against your spouse for the tax year for which you are requesting relief. H&r block tax cut However, if the IRS begins an examination of your return during that 6-month period, the latest time for requesting relief is 30 days after the date the IRS' initial contact letter to you. H&r block tax cut The period of limitation on assessment is the amount of time, generally three years, that the IRS has from the date you filed the return to assess taxes that you owe. H&r block tax cut Innocent Spouse Relief By requesting innocent spouse relief, you can be relieved of responsibility for paying tax, interest, and penalties if your spouse (or former spouse) improperly reported items or omitted items on your tax return. H&r block tax cut Generally, the tax, interest, and penalties that qualify for relief can only be collected from your spouse (or former spouse). H&r block tax cut However, you are jointly and individually responsible for any tax, interest, and penalties that do not qualify for relief. H&r block tax cut The IRS can collect these amounts from either you or your spouse (or former spouse). H&r block tax cut You must meet all of the following conditions to qualify for innocent spouse relief. H&r block tax cut You filed a joint return. H&r block tax cut There is an understated tax on the return that is due to erroneous items (defined later) of your spouse (or former spouse). H&r block tax cut You can show that when you signed the joint return you did not know, and had no reason to know, that the understated tax existed (or the extent to which the understated tax existed). H&r block tax cut See Actual Knowledge or Reason To Know, later. H&r block tax cut Taking into account all the facts and circumstances, it would be unfair to hold you liable for the understated tax. H&r block tax cut See Indications of Unfairness for Innocent Spouse Relief , later. H&r block tax cut Innocent spouse relief will not be granted if the IRS proves that you and your spouse (or former spouse) transferred property to one another as part of a fraudulent scheme. H&r block tax cut A fraudulent scheme includes a scheme to defraud the IRS or another third party, such as a creditor, former spouse, or business partner. H&r block tax cut Understated Tax You have an understated tax if the IRS determined that your total tax should be more than the amount that was actually shown on your return. H&r block tax cut Erroneous Items Erroneous items are either of the following. H&r block tax cut Unreported income. H&r block tax cut This is any gross income item received by your spouse (or former spouse) that is not reported. H&r block tax cut Incorrect deduction, credit, or basis. H&r block tax cut This is any improper deduction, credit, or property basis claimed by your spouse (or former spouse). H&r block tax cut The following are examples of erroneous items. H&r block tax cut The expense for which the deduction is taken was never paid or incurred. H&r block tax cut For example, your spouse, a cash-basis taxpayer, deducted $10,000 of advertising expenses on Schedule C of your joint Form 1040, but never paid for any advertising. H&r block tax cut The expense does not qualify as a deductible expense. H&r block tax cut For example, your spouse claimed a business fee deduction of $10,000 that was for the payment of state fines. H&r block tax cut Fines are not deductible. H&r block tax cut No factual argument can be made to support the deductibility of the expense. H&r block tax cut For example, your spouse claimed $4,000 for security costs related to a home office, which were actually veterinary and food costs for your family's two dogs. H&r block tax cut Actual Knowledge or Reason To Know You knew or had reason to know of an understated tax if: You actually knew of the understated tax, or A reasonable person in similar circumstances would have known of the understated tax. H&r block tax cut Actual knowledge. H&r block tax cut   If you actually knew about an erroneous item that belongs to your spouse (or former spouse), the relief discussed here does not apply to any part of the understated tax due to that item. H&r block tax cut You and your spouse (or former spouse) remain jointly liable for that part of the understated tax. H&r block tax cut For information about the criteria for determining whether you actually knew about an erroneous item, see Actual Knowledge later under Separation of Liability Relief. H&r block tax cut Reason to know. H&r block tax cut   If you had reason to know about an erroneous item that belongs to your spouse (or former spouse), the relief discussed here does not apply to any part of the understated tax due to that item. H&r block tax cut You and your spouse (or former spouse) remain jointly liable for that part of the understated tax. H&r block tax cut   The IRS will consider all facts and circumstances in determining whether you had reason to know of an understated tax due to an erroneous item. H&r block tax cut The facts and circumstances include: The nature of the erroneous item and the amount of the erroneous item relative to other items. H&r block tax cut The financial situation of you and your spouse (or former spouse). H&r block tax cut Your educational background and business experience. H&r block tax cut The extent of your participation in the activity that resulted in the erroneous item. H&r block tax cut Whether you failed to ask, at or before the time the return was signed, about items on the return or omitted from the return that a reasonable person would question. H&r block tax cut Whether the erroneous item represented a departure from a recurring pattern reflected in prior years' returns (for example, omitted income from an investment regularly reported on prior years' returns). H&r block tax cut Partial relief when a portion of erroneous item is unknown. H&r block tax cut   You may qualify for partial relief if, at the time you filed your return, you had no knowledge or reason to know of only a portion of an erroneous item. H&r block tax cut You will be relieved of the understated tax due to that portion of the item if all other requirements are met for that portion. H&r block tax cut Example. H&r block tax cut At the time you signed your joint return, you knew that your spouse did not report $5,000 of gambling winnings. H&r block tax cut The IRS examined your tax return several months after you filed it and determined that your spouse's unreported gambling winnings were actually $25,000. H&r block tax cut You established that you did not know about, and had no reason to know about, the additional $20,000 because of the way your spouse handled gambling winnings. H&r block tax cut The understated tax due to the $20,000 will qualify for innocent spouse relief if you meet the other requirements. H&r block tax cut The understated tax due to the $5,000 of gambling winnings you knew about will not qualify for relief. H&r block tax cut Indications of Unfairness for Innocent Spouse Relief The IRS will consider all of the facts and circumstances of the case in order to determine whether it is unfair to hold you responsible for the understated tax. H&r block tax cut The following are examples of factors the IRS will consider. H&r block tax cut Whether you received a significant benefit (defined below), either directly or indirectly, from the understated tax. H&r block tax cut Whether your spouse (or former spouse) deserted you. H&r block tax cut Whether you and your spouse have been divorced or separated. H&r block tax cut Whether you received a benefit on the return from the understated tax. H&r block tax cut For other factors, see Factors for Determining Whether To Grant Equitable Relief later under Equitable Relief. H&r block tax cut Significant benefit. H&r block tax cut   A significant benefit is any benefit in excess of normal support. H&r block tax cut Normal support depends on your particular circumstances. H&r block tax cut Evidence of a direct or indirect benefit may consist of transfers of property or rights to property, including transfers that may be received several years after the year of the understated tax. H&r block tax cut Example. H&r block tax cut You receive money from your spouse that is beyond normal support. H&r block tax cut The money can be traced to your spouse's lottery winnings that were not reported on your joint return. H&r block tax cut You will be considered to have received a significant benefit from that income. H&r block tax cut This is true even if your spouse gives you the money several years after he or she received it. H&r block tax cut Separation of Liability Relief Under this type of relief, the understated tax (plus interest and penalties) on your joint return is allocated between you and your spouse (or former spouse). H&r block tax cut The understated tax allocated to you is generally the amount you are responsible for. H&r block tax cut This type of relief is available only for unpaid liabilities resulting from the understated tax. H&r block tax cut Refunds are not allowed. H&r block tax cut To request separation of liability relief, you must have filed a joint return and meet either of the following requirements at the time you file Form 8857. H&r block tax cut You are no longer married to, or are legally separated from, the spouse with whom you filed the joint return for which you are requesting relief. H&r block tax cut (Under this rule, you are no longer married if you are widowed. H&r block tax cut ) You were not a member of the same household (explained below) as the spouse with whom you filed the joint return at any time during the 12-month per- iod ending on the date you file Form 8857. H&r block tax cut Members of the same household. H&r block tax cut   You and your spouse are not members of the same household if you are living apart and are estranged. H&r block tax cut However, you and your spouse are considered members of the same household if any of the following conditions are met. H&r block tax cut You and your spouse reside in the same dwelling. H&r block tax cut You and your spouse reside in separate dwellings but are not estranged, and one of you is temporarily absent from the other's household as explained in (3) below. H&r block tax cut Either spouse is temporarily absent from the household and it is reasonable to assume that the absent spouse will return to the household, and the household or a substantially equivalent household is maintained in anticipation of the absent spouse's return. H&r block tax cut Examples of temporary absences include absence due to imprisonment, illness, business, vacation, military service, or education. H&r block tax cut Burden of proof. H&r block tax cut   You must be able to prove that you meet all of the requirements for separation of liability relief (except actual knowledge) and that you did not transfer property to avoid tax (discussed later). H&r block tax cut You must also establish the basis for allocating the erroneous items. H&r block tax cut Limitations on Relief Even if you meet the requirements discussed previously, separation of liability relief will not be granted in the following situations. H&r block tax cut The IRS proves that you and your spouse (or former spouse) transferred assets to one another as part of a fraudulent scheme. H&r block tax cut A fraudulent scheme includes a scheme to defraud the IRS or another third party, such as a creditor, former spouse, or business partner. H&r block tax cut The IRS proves that at the time you signed your joint return, you had actual knowledge (explained below) of any erroneous items giving rise to the deficiency that were allocable to your spouse (or former spouse). H&r block tax cut For the definition of erroneous items, see Erroneous Items earlier under Innocent Spouse Relief. H&r block tax cut Your spouse (or former spouse) transferred property to you to avoid tax or the payment of tax. H&r block tax cut See Transfers of Property To Avoid Tax , later. H&r block tax cut Actual Knowledge The relief discussed here does not apply to any part of the understated tax due to your spouse's (or former spouse's) erroneous items of which you had actual knowledge. H&r block tax cut You and your spouse (or former spouse) remain jointly and severally liable for this part of the understated tax. H&r block tax cut If you had actual knowledge of only a portion of an erroneous item, the IRS will not grant relief for that portion of the item. H&r block tax cut You had actual knowledge of an erroneous item if: You knew that an item of unreported income was received. H&r block tax cut (This rule applies whether or not there was a receipt of cash. H&r block tax cut ) You knew of the facts that made an incorrect deduction or credit unallowable. H&r block tax cut For a false or inflated deduction, you knew that the expense was not incurred, or not incurred to the extent shown on the tax return. H&r block tax cut Knowledge of the source of an erroneous item is not sufficient to establish actual knowledge. H&r block tax cut Also, your actual knowledge may not be inferred when you merely had a reason to know of the erroneous item. H&r block tax cut Similarly, the IRS does not have to establish that you knew of the source of an erroneous item in order to establish that you had actual knowledge of the item itself. H&r block tax cut Your actual knowledge of the proper tax treatment of an erroneous item is not relevant for purposes of demonstrating that you had actual knowledge of that item. H&r block tax cut Neither is your actual knowledge of how the erroneous item was treated on the tax return. H&r block tax cut For example, if you knew that your spouse received dividend income, relief is not available for that income even if you did not know it was taxable. H&r block tax cut Example. H&r block tax cut Bill and Karen Green filed a joint return showing Karen's wages of $50,000 and Bill's self-employment income of $10,000. H&r block tax cut The IRS audited their return and found that Bill did not report $20,000 of self-employment income. H&r block tax cut The additional income resulted in a $6,000 understated tax, plus interest and penalties. H&r block tax cut After obtaining a legal separation from Bill, Karen filed Form 8857 to request separation of liability relief. H&r block tax cut The IRS proved that Karen actually knew about the $20,000 of additional income at the time she signed the joint return. H&r block tax cut Bill is liable for all of the understated tax, interest, and penalties because all of it was due to his unreported income. H&r block tax cut Karen is also liable for the understated tax, interest, and penalties due to the $20,000 of unreported income because she actually knew of the item. H&r block tax cut The IRS can collect the entire $6,000 plus interest and penalties from either Karen or Bill because they are jointly and individually liable for it. H&r block tax cut Factors supporting actual knowledge. H&r block tax cut   The IRS may rely on all facts and circumstances in determining whether you actually knew of an erroneous item at the time you signed the return. H&r block tax cut The following are examples of factors the IRS may use. H&r block tax cut Whether you made a deliberate effort to avoid learning about the item in order to be shielded from liability. H&r block tax cut Whether you and your spouse (or former spouse) jointly owned the property that resulted in the erroneous item. H&r block tax cut Exception for spousal abuse or domestic violence. H&r block tax cut   Even if you had actual knowledge, you may still qualify for relief if you establish that: You were the victim of spousal abuse or domestic violence before signing the return, and Because of that abuse, you did not challenge the treatment of any items on the return because you were afraid your spouse (or former spouse) would retaliate against you. H&r block tax cut   If you establish that you signed your joint return under duress (threat of harm or other form of coercion), then it is not a joint return, and you are not liable for any tax shown on that return or any tax deficiency for that return. H&r block tax cut However, you may be required to file a separate return for that tax year. H&r block tax cut For more information about duress, see the instructions for Form 8857. H&r block tax cut Transfers of Property To Avoid Tax If your spouse (or former spouse) transfers property (or the right to property) to you for the main purpose of avoiding tax or payment of tax, the tax liability allocated to you will be increased by the fair market value of the property on the date of the transfer. H&r block tax cut The increase may not be more than the entire amount of the liability. H&r block tax cut A transfer will be presumed to have as its main purpose the avoidance of tax or payment of tax if the transfer is made after the date that is 1 year before the date on which the IRS sent its first letter of proposed deficiency. H&r block tax cut This presumption will not apply if: The transfer was made under a divorce decree, separate maintenance agreement, or a written instrument incident to such an agreement, or You establish that the transfer did not have as its main purpose the avoidance of tax or payment of tax. H&r block tax cut If the presumption does not apply, but the IRS can establish that the purpose of the transfer was the avoidance of tax or payment of tax, the tax liability allocated to you will be increased as explained above. H&r block tax cut Equitable Relief If you do not qualify for innocent spouse relief, separation of liability relief, or relief from liability arising from community property law, you may still be relieved of responsibility for tax, interest, and penalties through equitable relief. H&r block tax cut Unlike innocent spouse relief or separation of liability relief, you can get equitable relief from an understated tax (defined earlier under Innocent Spouse Relief ) or an underpaid tax. H&r block tax cut An underpaid tax is an amount of tax you properly reported on your return but you have not paid. H&r block tax cut For example, your joint 2009 return shows that you and your spouse owed $5,000. H&r block tax cut You paid $2,000 with the return. H&r block tax cut You have an underpaid tax of $3,000. H&r block tax cut Conditions for Getting Equitable Relief You may qualify for equitable relief if you meet all of the following conditions. H&r block tax cut You are not eligible for innocent spouse relief, separation of liability relief, or relief from liability arising from community property law. H&r block tax cut You have an understated tax or an underpaid tax. H&r block tax cut You did not pay the tax. H&r block tax cut However, see Refunds , later, for situations in which you are entitled to a refund of payments you made. H&r block tax cut You establish that, taking into account all the facts and circumstances, it would be unfair to hold you liable for the understated or underpaid tax. H&r block tax cut See Factors for Determining Whether To Grant Equitable Relief, later. H&r block tax cut You and your spouse (or former spouse) did not transfer assets to one another as a part of a fraudulent scheme. H&r block tax cut A fraudulent scheme includes a scheme to defraud the IRS or another third party, such as a creditor, former spouse, or business partner. H&r block tax cut Your spouse (or former spouse) did not transfer property to you for the main purpose of avoiding tax or the payment of tax. H&r block tax cut See Transfers of Property To Avoid Tax, earlier, under Separation of Liability Relief. H&r block tax cut You did not file or fail to file your return with the intent to commit fraud. H&r block tax cut The income tax liability from which you seek relief must be attributable to an item of the spouse (or former spouse) with whom you filed the joint return, unless one of the following exceptions applies: The item is attributable or partially attributable to you solely due to the operation of community property law. H&r block tax cut If you meet this exception, that item will be considered attributable to your spouse (or former spouse) for purposes of equitable relief. H&r block tax cut If the item is titled in your name, the item is presumed to be attributable to you. H&r block tax cut However, you can rebut this presumption based on the facts and circumstances. H&r block tax cut You did not know, and had no reason to know, that funds intended for the payment of tax were misappropriated by your spouse (or former spouse) for his or her benefit. H&r block tax cut If you meet this exception, the IRS will consider granting equitable relief although the underpaid tax may be attributable in part or in full to your item, and only to the extent the funds intended for payment were taken by your spouse (or former spouse). H&r block tax cut You establish that you were the victim of spousal abuse or domestic violence before signing the return, and that, as a result of the prior abuse, you did not challenge the treatment of any items on the return for fear of your spouse's (or former spouse's) retaliation. H&r block tax cut If you meet this exception, relief will be considered although the understated tax or underpaid tax may be attributable in part or in full to your item. H&r block tax cut Factors for Determining Whether To Grant Equitable Relief The IRS will consider all of the facts and circumstances in order to determine whether it is unfair to hold you responsible for the understated or underpaid tax. H&r block tax cut The following are examples of factors that the IRS will consider to determine whether to grant equitable relief. H&r block tax cut The IRS will consider all factors and weigh them appropriately. H&r block tax cut Relevant Factors The following are examples of factors that may be relevant to whether the IRS will grant equitable relief. H&r block tax cut Whether you are separated (whether legally or not) or divorced from your spouse. H&r block tax cut A temporary absence, such as an absence due to imprisonment, illness, business, vacation, military service, or education, is not considered separation for this purpose. H&r block tax cut A temporary absence is one where it is reasonable to assume that the absent spouse will return to the household, and the household or a substantially equivalent household is maintained in anticipation of the absent spouse's return. H&r block tax cut Whether you would suffer a significant economic hardship if relief is not granted. H&r block tax cut (In other words, you would not be able to pay your reasonable basic living expenses. H&r block tax cut ) Whether you have a legal obligation under a divorce decree or agreement to pay the tax. H&r block tax cut This factor will not weigh in favor of relief if you knew or had reason to know, when entering into the divorce decree or agreement, that your former spouse would not pay the income tax liability. H&r block tax cut Whether you received a significant benefit (beyond normal support) from the underpaid tax or item causing the understated tax. H&r block tax cut (For a definition of significant benefit, see Indications of Unfairness for Innocent Spouse Relief earlier. H&r block tax cut ) Whether you have made a good faith effort to comply with federal income tax laws for the tax year for which you are requesting relief or the following years. H&r block tax cut Whether you knew or had reason to know about the items causing the understated tax or that the tax would not be paid, as explained next. H&r block tax cut Knowledge or reason to know. H&r block tax cut   In the case of an underpaid tax, the IRS will consider whether you did not know and had no reason to know that your spouse (or former spouse) would not pay the income tax liability. H&r block tax cut   In the case of an income tax liability that arose from an understated tax, the IRS will consider whether you did not know and had no reason to know of the item causing the understated tax. H&r block tax cut Reason to know of the item giving rise to the understated tax will not be weighed more heavily than other factors. H&r block tax cut Actual knowledge of the item giving rise to the understated tax, however, is a strong factor weighing against relief. H&r block tax cut This strong factor may be overcome if the factors in favor of equitable relief are particularly compelling. H&r block tax cut Reason to know. H&r block tax cut   In determining whether you had reason to know, the IRS will consider your level of education, any deceit or evasiveness of your spouse (or former spouse), your degree of involvement in the activity generating the income tax liability, your involvement in business and household financial matters, your business or financial expertise, and any lavish or unusual expenditures compared with past spending levels. H&r block tax cut Example. H&r block tax cut You and your spouse filed a joint 2009 return. H&r block tax cut That return showed you owed $10,000. H&r block tax cut You had $5,000 of your own money and you took out a loan to pay the other $5,000. H&r block tax cut You gave 2 checks for $5,000 each to your spouse to pay the $10,000 liability. H&r block tax cut Without telling you, your spouse took the $5,000 loan and spent it on himself. H&r block tax cut You and your spouse were divorced in 2010. H&r block tax cut In addition, you had no knowledge or reason to know at the time you signed the return that the tax would not be paid. H&r block tax cut These facts indicate to the IRS that it may be unfair to hold you liable for the $5,000 underpaid tax. H&r block tax cut The IRS will consider these facts, together with all of the other facts and circumstances, to determine whether to grant you equitable relief from the $5,000 underpaid tax. H&r block tax cut Factors Weighing in Favor of Equitable Relief The following are examples of factors that will weigh in favor of equitable relief, but will not weigh against equitable relief. H&r block tax cut Whether your spouse (or former spouse) abused you. H&r block tax cut Whether you were in poor mental or physical health on the date you signed the return or at the time you requested relief. H&r block tax cut Refunds If you are granted relief, refunds are: Permitted under innocent spouse relief as explained later under Limit on Amount of Refund . H&r block tax cut Not permitted under separation of liability relief. H&r block tax cut Permitted in limited circumstances under equitable relief, as explained under Refunds Under Equitable Relief. H&r block tax cut Proof Required The IRS will only refund payments you made with your own money. H&r block tax cut However, you must provide proof that you made the payments with your own money. H&r block tax cut Examples of proof are a copy of your bank statement or a canceled check. H&r block tax cut No proof is required if your individual refund was used by the IRS to pay a tax you owed on a joint tax return for another year. H&r block tax cut Refunds Under Equitable Relief In the following situations, you are eligible to receive a refund of certain payments you made. H&r block tax cut Underpaid tax. H&r block tax cut   If you are granted relief for an underpaid tax, you are eligible for a refund of separate payments that you made after July 22, 1998. H&r block tax cut However, you are not eligible for refunds of payments made with the joint return, joint payments, or payments that your spouse (or former spouse) made. H&r block tax cut For example, withholding tax and estimated tax payments cannot be refunded because they are considered made with the joint return. H&r block tax cut   The amount of the refund is subject to the limit discussed later under Limit on Amount of Refund. H&r block tax cut Understated tax. H&r block tax cut   If you are granted relief for an understated tax, you are eligible for a refund of certain payments made under an installment agreement that you entered into with the IRS, if you have not defaulted on the installment agreement. H&r block tax cut You are not in default if the IRS did not issue you a notice of default or take any action to end the installment agreement. H&r block tax cut Only installment payments made after the date you filed Form 8857 are eligible for a refund. H&r block tax cut   The amount of the refund is subject to the limit discussed next. H&r block tax cut Limit on Amount of Refund The amount of your refund is limited. H&r block tax cut Read the following chart to find out the limit. H&r block tax cut IF you file Form 8857. H&r block tax cut . H&r block tax cut . H&r block tax cut THEN the refund cannot be more than. H&r block tax cut . H&r block tax cut . H&r block tax cut Within 3 years after filing your return The part of the tax paid within 3 years (plus any extension of time for filing your return) before you filed Form 8857. H&r block tax cut After the 3-year period, but within 2 years from the time you paid the tax The tax you paid within 2 years immediately before you filed Form 8857. H&r block tax cut Filled-in Form 8857 This part explains how Janie Boulder fills out Form 8857 to request innocent spouse relief. H&r block tax cut Janie and Joe Boulder filed a joint tax return for 2007. H&r block tax cut They claimed one dependency exemption for their son Michael. H&r block tax cut Their return was adjusted by the IRS because Joe did not report a $5,000 award he won that year. H&r block tax cut Janie did not know about the award when the return was filed. H&r block tax cut They agreed to the adjustment but could not pay the additional amount due of $815 ($650 tax + $165 penalty and interest). H&r block tax cut Janie and Joe were divorced on May 13, 2009. H&r block tax cut In February 2010, Janie filed her 2009 federal income tax return as head of household. H&r block tax cut She expected a refund of $1,203. H&r block tax cut In May 2010, she received a notice informing her that the IRS had offset her refund against the $815 owed on her joint 2007 income tax return and that she had a right to file Form 8857. H&r block tax cut Janie applies the conditions listed earlier under Innocent Spouse Relief to see if she qualifies for relief. H&r block tax cut Janie meets the first and second conditions because the joint tax return they filed has an understated tax due to Joe's erroneous item. H&r block tax cut Janie believes she meets the third condition. H&r block tax cut She did not know about the award and had no reason to know about it because of the secretive way Joe conducted his financial affairs. H&r block tax cut Janie believes she meets the fourth condition. H&r block tax cut She believes it would be unfair to be held liable for the tax because she did not benefit from the award. H&r block tax cut Joe spent it on personal items for his use only. H&r block tax cut Because Janie believes she qualifies for innocent spouse relief, she first completes Part I of Form 8857 to determine if she should file the form. H&r block tax cut In Part I, she makes all entries under the Tax Year 1 column because she is requesting relief for only one year. H&r block tax cut Part I Line 1. H&r block tax cut   She enters “2007” on line 1 because this is the tax year for which she is requesting relief. H&r block tax cut Line 2. H&r block tax cut   She checks the box because she wants a refund. H&r block tax cut Note. H&r block tax cut Because the IRS used her individual refund to pay the tax owed on the joint tax return, she does not need to provide proof of payment. H&r block tax cut Line 3. H&r block tax cut   She checks the “No” box because the IRS did not use her share of a joint refund to pay Joe's past-due debts. H&r block tax cut Line 4. H&r block tax cut   She checks the “Yes” box because she filed a joint tax return for tax year 2007. H&r block tax cut Line 5. H&r block tax cut   She skips this line because she checked the “Yes” box on line 4. H&r block tax cut Part II Line 6. H&r block tax cut   She enters her name, address, social security number, county, and best daytime phone number. H&r block tax cut Part III Line 7. H&r block tax cut   She enters Joe's name, address, social security number, and best daytime phone number. H&r block tax cut Line 8. H&r block tax cut   She checks the “divorced since” box and enters the date she was divorced as “05/13/2009. H&r block tax cut ” She attaches a copy of her entire divorce decree (not Illustrated) to the form. H&r block tax cut Line 9. H&r block tax cut   She checks the box for “High school diploma, equivalent, or less,” because she had completed high school when her 2007 joint tax return was filed. H&r block tax cut Line 10. H&r block tax cut   She checks the “No” box because she was not a victim of spousal abuse or domestic violence. H&r block tax cut Line 11. H&r block tax cut   She checks the “No” box because neither she nor Joe incurred any large expenses during the year for which she wants relief. H&r block tax cut Line 12. H&r block tax cut   She checks the “Yes” box because she signed the 2007 joint tax return. H&r block tax cut Line 13. H&r block tax cut   She checks the “No” box because she did not have a mental or physical condition when the return was filed and does not have one now. H&r block tax cut Part IV Line 14. H&r block tax cut   Because she was not involved in preparing the return, she checks the box, “You were not involved in preparing the returns. H&r block tax cut ” Line 15. H&r block tax cut   She checks the box, “You did not know anything was incorrect or missing” because she did not know that Joe had received a $5,000 award. H&r block tax cut She explains this in the space provided. H&r block tax cut Line 16. H&r block tax cut   She checks the box, “You knew that person had income” because she knew Joe had income from wages. H&r block tax cut She also lists Joe's income. H&r block tax cut Under “Type of Income” she enters “wages. H&r block tax cut ” Under “Who paid it to that person,” she enters the name of Joe's employer, “Allied. H&r block tax cut ” Under “Tax Year 1” she enters the amount of Joe's wages, “$40,000. H&r block tax cut ” Because she is only requesting relief for one tax year, she leaves the entry spaces for “Tax Year 2” and “Tax Year 3” blank. H&r block tax cut Line 17. H&r block tax cut   She checks the “No” box because she did not know any amount was owed to the IRS when the 2007 return was signed. H&r block tax cut Line 18. H&r block tax cut   She checks the “No” box because, when the return was signed, she was not having financial problems. H&r block tax cut Line 19. H&r block tax cut   She checks the box, “You were not involved in handling money for the household” because Joe handled all the money for the household. H&r block tax cut She provides additional information in the space provided. H&r block tax cut Line 20. H&r block tax cut   She checks the “No” box because Joe has never transferred money or property to her. H&r block tax cut Part V Line 21. H&r block tax cut   She enters the number “1” on both the line for “Adults” and the line for “Children” because her current household consists of herself and her son. H&r block tax cut Line 22. H&r block tax cut   She enters her average monthly income for her entire household. H&r block tax cut Line 23. H&r block tax cut   She lists her assets, which are $500 for the fair market value of a car, $450 in her checking account, and $100 in her savings account. H&r block tax cut Signing and mailing Form 8857. H&r block tax cut    Janie signs and dates the form. H&r block tax cut She attaches the copy of her divorce decree (not illustrated) required by line 8. H&r block tax cut Finally, she sends the form to the IRS address or fax number shown in the instructions for Form 8857. H&r block tax cut This image is too large to be displayed in the current screen. H&r block tax cut Please click the link to view the image. H&r block tax cut Boulder's filled-in Form 8857 page 1 This image is too large to be displayed in the current screen. H&r block tax cut Please click the link to view the image. H&r block tax cut Boulder's filled-in Form 8857 page 2 This image is too large to be displayed in the current screen. H&r block tax cut Please click the link to view the image. H&r block tax cut Boulder's filled-in Form 8857 page 3 This image is too large to be displayed in the current screen. H&r block tax cut Please click the link to view the image. H&r block tax cut Boulder's filled-in Form 8857 page 4 Flowcharts The following flowcharts provide a quick way for determining whether you may qualify for relief. H&r block tax cut But do not rely on these flowcharts alone. H&r block tax cut Also read the earlier discussions. H&r block tax cut Figure A. H&r block tax cut Do You Qualify for Innocent Spouse Relief? Please click here for the text description of the image. H&r block tax cut "Do You Qualify for Innocent Spouse Relief?" Figure B. H&r block tax cut Do You Qualify for Separation of Liability Relief? Please click here for the text description of the image. H&r block tax cut "Do You Qualify for Separation of Liability Relief?" Figure C. H&r block tax cut Do You Qualify for Equitable Relief? This image is too large to be displayed in the current screen. H&r block tax cut Please click the link to view the image. H&r block tax cut "Do You Qualify for Equitable Relief?" Prev  Up  Next   Home   More Online Publications
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Citizens' Stamp Advisory Committee

The Citizens' Stamp Advisory Committee evaluates all stamp proposals. The Committee's primary goal is to select subjects of broad national interest for recommendation to the Postmaster General that are both interesting and educational.

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The H&r Block Tax Cut

H&r block tax cut Publication 541 - Introductory Material Table of Contents Reminder IntroductionTax questions. H&r block tax cut Ordering forms and publications. H&r block tax cut Useful Items - You may want to see: Reminder Photographs of missing children. H&r block tax cut  The Internal Revenue Service is a proud partner with the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children. H&r block tax cut Photographs of missing children selected by the Center may appear in this publication on pages that would otherwise be blank. H&r block tax cut You can help bring these children home by looking at the photographs and calling 1-800-THE-LOST (1-800-843-5678) if you recognize a child. H&r block tax cut Introduction This publication provides supplemental federal income tax information for partnerships and partners. H&r block tax cut It supplements the information provided in the Instructions for Form 1065, U. H&r block tax cut S. H&r block tax cut Return of Partnership Income, and the Partner's Instructions for Schedule K-1 (Form 1065). H&r block tax cut Generally, a partnership does not pay tax on its income but “passes through” any profits or losses to its partners. H&r block tax cut Partners must include partnership items on their tax returns. H&r block tax cut For a discussion of business expenses a partnership can deduct, see Publication 535, Business Expenses. H&r block tax cut Members of oil and gas partnerships should read about the deduction for depletion in chapter 9 of that publication. H&r block tax cut Certain partnerships must have a tax matters partner (TMP) who is also a general partner. H&r block tax cut For information on the rules for designating a TMP, see Designation of Tax Matters Partner (TMP) in the Form 1065 instructions and section 301. H&r block tax cut 6231(a)(7)-1 of the regulations. H&r block tax cut Many rules in this publication do not apply to partnerships that file Form 1065-B, U. H&r block tax cut S. H&r block tax cut Return of Income for Electing Large Partnerships. H&r block tax cut For the rules that apply to these partnerships, see the instructions for Form 1065-B. H&r block tax cut However, the partners of electing large partnerships can use the rules in this publication except as otherwise noted. H&r block tax cut Withholding on foreign partner or firm. H&r block tax cut   If a partnership acquires a U. H&r block tax cut S. H&r block tax cut real property interest from a foreign person or firm, the partnership may have to withhold tax on the amount it pays for the property (including cash, the fair market value of other property, and any assumed liability). H&r block tax cut If a partnership has income effectively connected with a trade or business in the United States, it must withhold on the income allocable to its foreign partners. H&r block tax cut A partnership may have to withhold tax on a foreign partner's distributive share of fixed or determinable income not effectively connected with a U. H&r block tax cut S. H&r block tax cut trade or business. H&r block tax cut A partnership that fails to withhold may be held liable for the tax, applicable penalties, and interest. H&r block tax cut   For more information, see Publication 515, Withholding of Tax on Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Entities. H&r block tax cut Comments and suggestions. H&r block tax cut   We welcome your comments about this publication and your suggestions for future editions. H&r block tax cut   You can write to: Internal Revenue Service Tax Forms and Publications  SE:W:CAR:MP:TFP 1111 Constitution Ave. H&r block tax cut NW, IR-6526 Washington, DC 20224   We respond to many letters by telephone. H&r block tax cut Therefore, it would be helpful if you would include your daytime phone number, including the area code, in your correspondence. H&r block tax cut    You can send us comments from www. H&r block tax cut irs. H&r block tax cut gov/formspubs. H&r block tax cut Click on “More Information” and then on “Comment on Tax Forms and Publications. H&r block tax cut ”   Although we cannot respond individually to each comment received, we do appreciate your feedback and will consider your comments as we revise our tax products. H&r block tax cut Tax questions. H&r block tax cut   If you have a tax question, check the information available at IRS. H&r block tax cut gov or call 1-800-829-4933. H&r block tax cut We cannot answer tax questions at the address listed above. H&r block tax cut Ordering forms and publications. H&r block tax cut    Visit www. H&r block tax cut irs. H&r block tax cut gov/formspubs to download forms and publications, call 1-800-829-3676, or write to one of the addresses shown under How To Get Tax Help in the back of this publication. H&r block tax cut Useful Items - You may want to see: Publication 334 Tax Guide for Small Business 505 Tax Withholding and Estimated Tax 535 Business Expenses 537 Installment Sales 538 Accounting Periods and Methods 544 Sales and Other Dispositions of Assets 551 Basis of Assets 925 Passive Activity and At-Risk Rules 946 How To Depreciate Property See How To Get Tax Help near the end of this publication for information about getting publications and forms. H&r block tax cut Prev  Up  Next   Home   More Online Publications